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MED 08

Globalisation and Environment

IGNOU MED 08 Solved Free Assignment

MED 08 Solved Free Assignment July 2023 & January 2024

Q. 1. Briefly discus the Greenhouse effect on the earth. Explain how globalization is responsible for large scale disruption of ecosystems.

Ans. The greenhouse effect on Earth is a natural process that plays a vital role in maintaining a habitable climate. When solar radiation reaches the Earth, some of it is absorbed by the surface and warms the planet.

As the Earth emits heat back into space, greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, such as carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapor, trap some of this outgoing heat.

This trapped heat keeps the Earth’s surface warm enough to support life, creating a stable temperature suitable for living organisms.

However, human activities, such as burning fossil fuels and deforestation, have increased the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, intensifying the greenhouse effect. IGNOU MED 08 Solved Free Assignment

This enhanced effect is leading to global warming, causing climate change, sea-level rise, extreme weather events, and other environmental challenges, emphasizing the need for sustainable practices and measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

Several key factors illustrate how globalization has played a role in disrupting ecosystems: Globalization has spurred a surge in consumerism, driving a higher demand for natural resources like timber, minerals, and fossil fuels.

This demand has led to unsustainable extraction practices, deforestation, and habitat destruction, affecting biodiversity and ecosystem integrity.

To meet global food demands, industrial agriculture has intensified, relying on heavy chemical inputs, monoculture farming, and excessive water consumption.

This approach has led to soil degradation, water pollution, and loss of biodiversity, impacting ecosystems and reducing resilience to environmental changes.

As economies globalize, there is increased pressure to convert natural landscapes into urban areas or agricultural fields.

This conversion alters habitats, disrupts ecological balances, and threatens the survival of numerous plant and animal species, a biggest challenge for ecosystem.

Globalization has led to the growth of industries and transportation systems, resulting in increased pollution of air, water, and soil.

Pollution adversely affects ecosystems and wildlife, contributing to habitat degradation and loss. Addressing the disruption of ecosystems caused by globalization requires collective action.

Policymakers, businesses, and individuals must adopt sustainable practices, invest in renewable energy, promote responsible consumption and production, and implement conservation measures.

International cooperation is essential to address global environmental challenges effectively. IGNOU MED 08 Solved Free Assignment

Q. 2. Distinguish between:

(i) Floods and droughts.

Ans. Floods are almost an annual feature of the region and cause heavy losses. Floods are caused by high rainfall or more snow melt on the higher altitude of mountains.

This raises the level of rivers than its normal level leading to floods. Deforestation of the catchment areas and sedimentation in the river beds due to soil erosion can increase the severity of adverse effects.

In floods, the most deaths are caused because of drowning in fast flowing or turbulent waters. IGNOU MED 08 Solved Free Assignment

Reducing loss of life by floods is possible by preventing or minimizing the extent of water flow or keeping people out of the track of potential water flow.

A major difference between drought and other type of disasters is that droughts do not have a sudden onset such as in case of floods or earthquakes.

Drought severity depends on rainfall deficiency, duration of drought, extend of soil moisture, loss and ultimately loss of soil cover and area affected.

Drought can be classified into four categories i.e., Meteorological drought, hydrological drought, agricultural drought and famine drought.

The drought has produced direct and indirect impact on life. The drought depends upon degree of moisture deficiency, duration of dry spells, extent of irrigation facilities; and size of the affected area.

Further the drought could have create and impact on economic structure like loss of crop, dairy, livestock, fishery products etc.

Secondly, it can also affect the social structure like food shortage, damage to health, conflicts between water users etc. In short, drought bring economic, environmental and social looses to the economy.IGNOU MED 08 Solved Free Assignment

(ii) Sudden and Insidious disasters.

Ans. Sudden disasters are those in which human factors are responsible, rather than natural factors. Sudden disasters that are considered ‘natural’ may often be caused by preceding human activities.

Mining catastrophes, earthquakes, sudden floods, and landslides may be the result of indiscriminate deforestation or of construction of dams or by seemingly unrelated human activity.

Insidious and continuing disasters include global warming or the green house effect caused by heat trapping gases in the atmosphere released by burning of fossil fuels, use of chlorofluorohydrocarbons in aerolised perfumes, acid precipitation etc. leakage of radio active materials also come under the disasters under this category.

Q. 3. What is meant by North-South divide? Discuss the role of MNCs, TNCs and IFIs in economic globalisation.

Ans. The North-South divide is a simple geo-political distinction to describe the spill of the global power politics since the Second World War.

The rich nations which have attained a certain level of a comfortable industrial development are led by the Group of the Eight or G-8, whereas the less developed nations of the South have consolidated into Group of 77 nations or G-77.

The globalization is supposed to bridge the gap between domestic trade and international trade between nations so that every country can benefit from the free flow of goods and services across the globe.

For these nations of the South it was walking on the razor’s edge to obtain funding from the North but also to prevent any imposition of eco-imperialism which comes as a condition to aid. IGNOU MED 08 Solved Free Assignment

The richest 70 per cent biodiversity was concentrated in the identified 12 ‘megadiversity’ countries (Mexico, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil, Zaire, Madagascar, China, India, Malaysia, Indonesia and Australia).

But many of these countries lack the infrastructure to take advantage of the potential market openings.

The large population, education and health care was the second barrier. The increasing gap between North and South has a parallel process of widening of the gap between the rich and the poor within these countries.

The major actors in triggering this, process are the powerful TNCs and MNCs. TNCs thus have become the major beneficiaries of the current process of globalization.

Globalization has been increasing the interest of companies to become global. Globalization, particularly the dismantling of trade barriers, has allowed companies to spread widely in search of cost efficiency and to implement integrated production strategies across regions and even continents.

The transnational corporation is said to be a borderless companies. A transnational corporation is a kind of multinational companies which operates worldwide without being identified with a national home base.

Transnationals are made possible by improved international communi-cations which provide rapid containerized trans-shipment and foreign travel, easy communication of information, and international mobility of capital.

Whereas, multinational companies are the companies which operate in more than one country and represent the country’s origin. The multinational companies have a powerful impact on global business.

The transnational corporation companies command enormous financial resources possess vast technical resources and have extensive global reach and termed as profit-seeking organizations.IGNOU MED 08 Solved Free Assignment

TNCs are probably the major force affecting world-wide shifts in economic activity, since the largest have a turnover greater than the GNP of many less developed nations.

The growth in the number and size of transnational corporations since the 1950s has generated controversy because of their economic and political power and the mobility and complexity of their operations.

The number of transnational corporations in the world has jumped from 7,000 in 1970 to 40,000 in 1995.

Given their dominance of politics, economics and technology, it is not surprising to find the big transnationals deeply involved in most of the world’s serious environ-mental crises.

On the one hand, it was recognized that the transnational corporations played a positive role as effective instruments of development in both developed as well as the developing countries and that this dimension needed to be strengthened.

On the other hand, there was the realization that given their all-pervasive nature of operations, the transnational corporations needed to be controlled by setting effective guidelines for their conduct.

The result was an effort to establish a balanced code that prescribed standards of corporate conduct and principles for the treatment of transnational corporations.

The transnational corporations, developed countries also saw merit in adopting a multilateral approach for formalizing the norms and standards for the behaviour of the corporations.IGNOU MED 08 Solved Free Assignment

Role of the IFIS

The contribution of International Financial Institutions in world trade and globalization is very large.

The International Financial Institutions (IFI) are a kind of financial institution that have been established by more than one country, and hence are subjects of international law.

Two fundamental transformations have taken place in the role of the international financial institutions. First, globalization implies that foreign trade and private capital now play a far greater role in economic development than ever before.

As a result of these transformations, the private sector and private international finance have become prime agents of economic development.

The roles of international financial institutions in the international community help them to make contribution to the enforcement and implementation of the international humanitarian laws.

The most prominent IFIs are creations of multiple nations, although some bilateral financial institutions (created by two countries) exist and are technically IFIS. Many of these are multilateral development banks.

The roles of international financial institutions in the international community help them to make contribution to the enforcement and implementation of the international humanitarian laws. IGNOU MED 08 Solved Free Assignment

The International Financial Institutions (IFIs) Programme works to support local communities concerned about projects financed mainly by the World Bank Group and Export Credit Agencies.

The World Bank and regional IFIs have played a major role in the establishment of macro- economic stability, in the assistance with tax, legal and sectoral reform and in the creation of a social safety net through policy-based lending.

The optimistic offers given by world trade organizations have also been argued for harnessing opportunities. They have emphasis on the need for the developing countries to master the art of negotiation in the world trade organizations.

Q. 4. Write short notes on the following:

(i) Rio + 5 and Rio + 10

Ans. Rio+5 was developed after the Rio Earth Summit and it pointed to the growing problems of poverty. Rio+5 was focused on identifying key strategies for sustainable development at global level, national level and local level as well.

On the other hand, Rio+10 was the outcome of World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) held at Johannesburg in 2002.

The key issues and concerns discussed at Johannesburg were the controversial and crosscutting issues of finance, technology transfer, capacity building, trade and governance etc. IGNOU MED 08 Solved Free Assignment

But, it was ended with a disappointment because no conclusion were drawn and ended as weak and non-binding agreement to promote sustainable development.

(ii) Biodiversity Convention

Ans. Biodiversity relates to all biological life on the planet and there is an urgent need for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of components of genetic resources.

Improper and unthoughtful practice mainly from habitat destruction, over-harvesting, pollution and the inappropriate introduction of foreign plants and animals, now pose a threat to the biodiversity.

But the South refused because it wanted to retain the sovereign supremacy over the biodiversity.

The objective of convention is sustainable use of the components of biodiversity, fair and equitable sharing of the benefits of using biodiversity and conservation of biodiversity.IGNOU MED 08 Solved Free Assignment

(iii) UNEP

Ans. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP): These agencies are those which were set up after the Stockholm Conference in 1972, is the principal body of the United Nations in the field of environmental protection.

The United Nations Environment Programme was created as a result of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment convened in Stockholm in 1972.

UNEP actively promotes environmentally sound development, i.e. development which maintains and improves economic progress without damaging the environment and natural resource based upon which the future development depends.

The United Nations Environment Programme assesses the state of the global environment, facilitates development of international environmental law and coordinates the activities of the United Nations.

It also hosts an annual Global Ministerial Environment Forum, wherein environment ministers from around the world meet to discuss the issues of contemporary interest.IGNOU MED 08 Solved Free Assignment

Q. 5. Mention any five multilaternal agreements related to transnational air pollution. Discuss the world Bank’s environmental agenda.

Ans. The five multilateral agreements related to transnational air pollution are:

  1. Convention on Long-range Trans-boundary Air Pollution (CLTAP)
  2. Protocol to CLTAP on European Programme of Cooperative Financing of Monitoring (EMEP)
  3. Kyoto protocol
  4. International Convention on prevention of pollution from ships
  5. Protocol to CLTAP on Sulphur Emissions by at least 30 percent

The Role of the World Bank

The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides financial and technical assistance to developing countries for development programmes (e.g. bridges, roads, schools, etc.) with the stated goal of reducing poverty.

World Bank is focusing on secure long-term funding, create the right policy and institutional framework, give advisory services and address weaknesses in the social, structural, and sectoral policies.

The main objective of World Bank is to provide assistance to developing and transition countries, Promote the economic development of the world’s poorer countries and provide finance to the poorest developing countries whose per capita GNP is less than $865 a year special financial assistance through the International Development Association (IDA).

The World Bank has also been assisting in the protection of the global environment and to promote environmental sustainable development.

Q. 6. Discuss briefly the environmental concerns of South Asia with special reference to Nepal.

Ans. The environmental concerns are the significant problem in South Asian countries. This has been associated with rapid urbanization, poor sanitation infrastructure, unregulated industrialization, deforestation, etc.

For example, the construction of large dams, hydropower schemes, diversion canals, and vast irrigation systems has caused ecological disturbances in the river eco-systems of these countries.IGNOU MED 08 Solved Free Assignment

Industrial effluents and agricultural runoffs poison these systems. In India, many rivers and water bodies are already dead, massive deforestation has caused severe soil erosion problems and reduction in bio-diversity.

Pollution from industries and the transport sector is at unacceptable levels, especially in the metropolitan cities.

The challenges for these countries are to manage and protect their land, water, forest and air resources, provide a reasonable quality of life and other environmental services to those who are now without them and at the same time accelerate the pace of development to meet the aspirations of their peoples.

The concern about environment change results from the negative effect of excessive concentrations of green house gases in the atmosphere.

The another very crucial aspect of energy-environment interface, namely, the disparities among the developing and developed nations in terms of energy use and production, and the consequent divide in the North-South perceptions of these issues.IGNOU MED 08 Solved Free Assignment

Nepal: The Government of Nepal had initiated the Ministry of Population and Environmental (MOPE) which is respon- sible to control population and formulate various laws and acts to protect environment.

Other ministries includes;

(a) Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation.
(b) Ministry of Science and Technology.
(c) Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation.

Non-governmental organizations include:

(a) King Mahendra Trust for Nature Conservation.
(b) Environment and Public Health Organization.
(c) Alternative Energy Promotion Centre.
(d) Centre for Environmental Education, Nepal.
(e) Clean Energy, Nepal.
(f) Lotus Energy.
(g) Society of Population and Environment Journalist, Nepal.
(h) Forum for Environmental Management and Research.

Q. 7. Define NGOs. Explain its origin and briefly discuss the different perspectives of NGOs.

Ans. In the initial stage, the structure of non-profit organization has been divided on the basis of its functional indicators. Further, it was divided on the basis of idea that the State represents the authority sector and markets a profit sector.

Later on, NGOs have become professional, managerial bodies with structures and organizations that do not concern themselves with power, politics, and State but with ‘delivery systems’ for structural adjustment.

An NGO or a non-governmental organization is a private institution and as its name suggests it is independent of the government.

NGOs essentially are non-profit-making and purely service-oriented organizations committed to the development and welfare of the community.

Understanding the Origin of NGOs

The Second World War generated awareness among the European powers of the problems of state’s co-existence and the recognition of the need for peaceful means to regulate relationships. IGNOU MED 08 Solved Free Assignment

Historically, the origin of NGO is traced from various social movements of United State and Western European countries after World War II.

After World War II, the non-governmental organizations or NGOs started playing an important role in the developmental processes. Many social groups have been formed and run successful which deals with the welfare of mankind, environment, etc.

Groups as diverse as Osho spiritual health organization, aurovialle, green peace, and the World Bank expressed different views and perspectives. With the processes of globalization since 1990s, the NGOs are seen as important actors in the implementation of structural adjustment programmes of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund.

Privatization policies and the withdrawal of the State from important sectors of the economy have made the state dependent on the NGOs for implementing developmental programmes. IGNOU MED 08 Solved Free Assignment

Structure of NGOS

In the initial stage, the structure of non-profit organization has been divided on the basis of its functional indicators. Further, it was divided on the basis of idea that the state represents the authority sector and markets a profit sector.

Later on, NGOs have become professional, managerial bodies with structures and organizations that do not concern themselves with power, politics and state but with ‘delivery systems’ for structural adjustment.

Perspectives of NGOs

A first distinction that is made is between charitable and other organizations from the point of view of their activities and historical perspective. Basically the NGOs has been divided as development perspective and advocacy perspective.

The Development Perspective: The development of NGOs has already been stated since 1960s, but it was more reformed in mid-80s. The rises of the NGOs are the result of the failure of state government and dislocation of resources.

The Advocacy Perspective: The NGOs who work on advocacy or campaigning on issues or causes do not normally directly implement programmes.

Such NGOs will speak out on issues of concern and may even conduct an intensive campaign to change laws or policies. They are a group of experts in their areas along with legal and communication skills.

Q. 8. Write short notes on the following:

(i) Chilka Bachao Andolan and Appiko Movement.

Ans. The Appiko Movement is quite old in view to save Western Ghats. These Western Ghats has been spreading its roots all over southern India.

Based on environmental conservation in India, it was a revolutionary movement. The movement’s objectives can be classified into three major areas:

(i) This movement is struggling to save the remaining tropical forests in the Western Ghats.
(ii) It is making a modest attempt to restore the greenery to denuded areas.
(iii) It is striving to propagate the idea of rational utilization in order to reduce the pressure on forest resources. The thrust of the Appiko Movement in carrying out its work reveals the constructive phase of the people’s movement.

It was held in Uttarakhand in the Himalayas inspired the villagers of the Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka province in Southern India to launch a similar movement to save their forests.

The Appiko Movement uses various techniques to raise awareness: foot marches in the interior forests, slide shows, folk dances, street plays and so on. The villagers have initiated a process of regeneration in barren common land.

The whole village has united to protect this land from grazing, lopping and fire and the initiative had taken by youth club.

They had taken the responsibility for the project and. The State Government has banned felling of green trees in some forest areas, when the movement has achieved a fair amount of success. IGNOU MED 08 Solved Free Assignment

Finally only dead, dying and dry trees are felled to meet the local requirements.

Chilika Bachao Andolan was a movement by the people, mostly fishermen, who posed a successful resistance in the early 90’s to the Integrated Shrimp Farm Project-a joint venture agreed upon by the Tata Iron and Steel Company and Government of Orissa for intensive prawn cultivation and export.

The project was a direct threat to the livelihood of fishing communities living around the Lake Chipko activists stand for people’s rights in forests and have service gone on to organic women’s groups for a forestation.

Chipko essentially meaning-HUG the TREES-to prevent felling of trees, the most favoured environmental movement in India.

It was launched by Sunderlal Bahuguna and Chandi Prasad. Over several years this experience laid inspired another movement called “Appiko” in Karnataka again to hug trees to prevent felling around the Western Ghats.

(ii) Seed suicides in India.

Ans. Seed suicide is a term which has been reflects the problems and challenges facing by Indian farmers. Hundred of poor farmers have been fighting against the international seed companies which force them to invest in agriculture.

Over the past decades, we have seen that many poor farmers had committed suicide because of agricultural loans. IGNOU MED 08 Solved Free Assignment

According to Indian environmentalist Vandana Shiva, the Indian farmers of rural areas are worst affected by the trade liberalization of Indian agriculture.

The privatization of seed distribution had put the farmers on stake, under the policy of trade liberalization.

In the past experience, it has been seen that farmers had committed suicide or taken extreme step to avoid risk of crop failure.

On the word of globalization the multinational companies had been using chemicals and other fertilizers to get quick agriculture and sell them in market at higher price.

Whereas, the poor farmers do not get the market exposure and sell their agriculture on very low prices.IGNOU MED 08 Solved Free Assignment

Thus World Trade Organization (WTO) and international lending institutions such as World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Asian Development Bank and others has emerged a view that global trade and capital movement benefit only multinational companies and not the farmers alone.

Therefore, the World Trade Organization, had recommended reducing subsidiaries to farmers, increase government involvements, privatization of public sector units etc.

It has the implication that in order to use high yielding patented varieties of seeds, fertilizers and pesticides, the users have to pay a fee to the respective agriculture holders.

(iii) Indicators of sustainability of food security.

Ans. There have been seventeen indicators which show sustainability of food security. These indicators has been divided into three headings and further distributed in other different categories.

The main three headings include availability index, access index and absorption index. The other categories includes:

(a) Weighted Net Sown Area: This indicator shows the base of agricultural land and amount of food production.

(b) Percentage change in net sown area over 8 years: This indicators shows the anticipated extended areas for agriculture.

(c) Production foodgain Per Capita: This indicates per capita the foodgrain production.IGNOU MED 08 Solved Free Assignment

(d) Per Capita Forest Cover: This indicator shows the watershed substance of per capita forest cover.

(e) Unexploited Surface Water available for Future Use: This indicator represents the unexploited surface water available which can be saved future purpose.

[f] Percentage of Area Degraded to Total Geographical Area: This indicator shows the total degraded area on geographical map and its total percentage.

(g) Percentage of Leguminous Crops in the Gross Cropped Area: This indicator shows the sustainability of leguminous crops in the gross cropped area.

(h) Unexploited Ground-water available for Future Use: This represented the unexploited water which can be available from ground for future use.

(iv) Environmentally Sound Technologies.

Ans. Environmentally Sound Technologies (ESTS) encompass technologies that have the potential for significantly improved environmental performance relative to other technologies.

In the complex relation-ship between development and the environment, technology provides a link between human action and the natural resource base.

An environmentally sound technology helps to protect the environment, they are less polluting, recycle reduce wastes. IGNOU MED 08 Solved Free Assignment

It is also very useful resources in a sustainable development. It handles all residual wastes in a more environmentally acceptable way than the technologies for which they are substitutes.

The main feature of environmental sound technologies is that it protects the environments which are less polluting.

Agenda-21 defined EST as total systems that include know-how, procedures, goods and services, and equipments, as well as organizational and managerial procedures for promoting environmental sustainability.

Besides other characteristics, EST helps to use resources in a sustainable manner than the technologies for which they are substitutes. ESTs are not just individual technologies.

In international market, it has been proven that the toughest environmental standard of country stands more successful than other. It also elaborates the term appropriate technology.

But the definition of “Appropriate Technology” changes with each situation. Appropriate technology works from the bottom up.

The idea of appropriate technology is that local people, struggling on a daily basis with their needs. It is being mindful of what we’re doing and aware of the consequences. IGNOU MED 08 Solved Free Assignment

Appropriate technology understand those needs better than anyone and can therefore suggest or in fact, invent the technological innovations necessary to meet those needs.

(v) Environmental Ethics.

Ans. Ethics of relationship to men to environment in which the general welfare supersedes self-gains and conservation is preferred to abuse.

Environmental ethics became a subject of sustained academic philosophic reflection in the 1970s.

Environmental ethics is the part of environmental philosophy which considers extending the traditional boundaries of ethics from solely including humans to including the non-human world.

It exerts influence on a large range of disciplines including law, sociology, theology, economics, ecology and geography.

Environmental ethics believes in the ethical relationship between human beings and the natural environment. Human beings are a part of the society and so are the other living beings. IGNOU MED 08 Solved Free Assignment

When we talk about the philosophical principle that guides our life, we often ignore the fact that even plants and animals are a part of our lives.

The ethical issue of misusing proprietary information has become much more prominent in the last decade as new ‘information technologies’ have increasingly turned information into a valuable asset to which employees have regular access.

As information technologies continue to develop, this issue will continue to grow in importance.

Insider trading is also unethical – not merely because it is illegal but because it is claimed, the person who trades or insider information in effect ‘steals’ this information and thereby gains as unjust or unfair advantage over the member of the general public.

The issues that business ethics covers encompass a wide variety of topics.

However, business ethics briefly investigates three kinds of issues – systemic, corporate and individual.

Environmental laws are the laws which can ensure that domestic companies operate in responsible manner that a country deems right for its people, may not be effective constraints on a corporation that can simply move or threaten to move to a country without such laws.

(vi) Role of judiciary in curbing air pollution.

Ans. The role of Indian judiciary to protect the environment has been appreciable because, they have contributed a huge role to improve the quality of environment, restrict areas of industrial operations.

In Article 21 the legislation has clearly stated “the right to life” of the constitution. Besides, the view” right to life” has given recognisaiton to various other laws also, which are as follows: IGNOU MED 08 Solved Free Assignment

Delhi Vehicular Pollution Case, 1994: Considering the rising pollution in national capital, Delhi, the Supreme Court had released the order to the Union government as well as state government to control and measure the pollution in the capital.

In this regard, the court had ordered to use compressed natural gas in all public transports.

Taj Mahal Case, 1997: In case of Taj Mahal, the Supreme Court had given the orders to save one of the oldest heritage of India. Taj Mahal is one of the most viewed tourist spot in India.

The court had order the state and Union Government to provide all time power supply, remove encroachment and develop green belt around the Taj Mahal.

Tarun Bhagat Singh vs. Union of India: The Supreme Court had observed that the Rajasthan state had failed to protect environment in their state.

Therefore, the court had order to stop all mining work within forest area in order to protect environment.

Environmental Awareness Case, 1992: In 1992, the Supreme Court had order the government to state the awareness campaign on environment. It will also be a part of school education.

People at all level and ages should be aware of environment. They also ensure that programmes on environment should be circulated on television and radio.

Stone Crushers Case, 1992: In 1992, the Supreme Court had given the order to Haryana government to stop all stone cursing project and declared the state as “No Crushing Zone”. IGNOU MED 08 Solved Free Assignment

The decision was taken in order to protect the air quality and reduce pollution in the air and water.

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