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MED 02

Sustainable Development: Issues and Challenges

IGNOU MED 02 Solved Free Assignment

MED 02 Solved Free Assignment July 2023 & January 2024

Q. 1. Critically analyse the strengths and waknesses of various approaches to sustainable development. Elucidate your answer with suitable example. Gramsci’s concept of civil society.

Ans. Indicators have been used for a long time as a tool with which more information can be obtained about issues as varied as people’s health, weather and economic welfare.

Compared to indicators of economic and social aspects, environmental and sustainable development indicators are a relatively new phenomenon.

The Rio Conference on Environment and Development in 1992, and other similar environmental milestone activities and happenings, recognized the need for better and more knowledge and information about environmental conditions, trends and impacts.

To achieve this, it was not only necessary to collect new and better data; new thinking and research with regard to indicator frameworks, methodologies and actual indicators were also needed.

For a long time, the issue of economic development was an exclusive domain of the sphere of positivist ideology within the field of economics.

In fact, economic development and economic growth were treated as synonymous, which usually meant an increase in some measure of national income and/or concomitant increase in the standard of living.

The subsequent development of the so-called Basic Needs Approach to economic development represented a significant advance in positivist thinking: for it shifted the emphasis from income growth to the delivery of goods and services to specified groups of people in society. MED 02 Solved Free Assignment 2023-24

Thus, for the first time, people became relevant to this paradigm. After this advance, there were numerous attempts to construct composite indices that sought to improve the concept and meaning of economic development.

Even with this shifting emphasis, the positivist approach to development remained entirely economic. For the most part, the pursuit of self-interest was relied upon not only for the achievement of individual well-being but also of social well-being.

Adam Smith’s invisible hand was there to see to that. Broader ecological questions were either downplayed or treated as peripheral.

As the less-than-perfect record of mainstream economics in this regard has been a topic of much discourse, there is no need to go into details.

Development is above all a question of values. It involves human attitudes and preferences, self-defined goals, and criteria for determining what ate tolerable costs to be borne in the course of change.

These are far more important than better resource allocation, upgraded skills, or the rationalization of administrative procedures.

Second, it is being recognized that development is a multifaceted concept. Goulet expresses it the best when he says: This total concept of development can perhaps best be expressed as the “human ascent” – the ascent of all men in their
integral humanity, including the economic, biological, psychological, social, cultural, ideological, spiritual, mystical and transcendental dimensions.

That normative approach to development has many more dimensions than just the economic is abundantly clear from Goulet’s observations.

For the sake of brevity, however, we will limit our discussion to three main dimensions: economic, social and ecological. Of course, the core requirement for any development has to be an improvement in the economic conditions of individuals in a given society. MED 02 Solved Free Assignment 2023-24

In this sense, the positivist approach to development forms an integral part of the normative approach.

But a broader dimension is that of social justice. Since we all prefer to live in a society, our sense of well-being is influenced by the way others live in that same society.

Similarly, other people’s well-being is influenced by our own way of life. This interdependence of our wellbeing is a type of externality that cannot be ignored if a society is to achieve meaningful development.

While the interdependence in welfare has been widely recognized its analysis has been largely outside the purview of the positivist approach.

Finally, our actions both as consumers and producers have ecological implications. The over-arching emphasis on attaining efficiency in resource allocation within the positivist framework has led to unprecedented levels of pollution and ecological disaster. MED 02 Solved Free Assignment 2023-24

Such externalities are usually treated as peripheral in mainstream economics. And yet our well-being, even our existence, is inextricably embedded in the quality of the ecological conditions within which we live.

The second law of thermodynamics, commonly known as the law of entropy, presents a compelling argument for the need to include ecological considerations in any meaningful development.

The Ecosystem Approach is considered one of the most important principles of sustainable environmental management.

The Fifth Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity defined the Eco-system Approach in Decision V/6, Annex A, Section 1 as “Strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way”.

Essentially it requires the taking into consideration of the effects of actions on every element of an ecosystem, based on the recognition that all elements of an ecosystem are linked.MED 02 Solved Free Assignment 2023-24

The ecosystems approach is intended to tackle not just climate change mitigation and adaptation, but also poverty alleviation, disaster risk reduction, biodiversity loss and many other environmental issues.

The Eco-system Approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way.

The Eco-system Approach places human needs at the centre of biodiversity management.

It aims to manage the ecosystem, based on the multiple functions that ecosystems perform and the multiple uses that are made of these functions.

The ecosystem approach does not aim for short-term economic gains, but aims to optimize the use of an ecosystem without damaging it.

It was endorsed at the fifth Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CoP 5 in Nairobi, Kenya; May 2000/Decision V/6) as the primary framework for action under the Convention. It comprises 12 Principles.

Decision VII/11 of the 7th Conference of the Parties to the CBD supports the application and implementation of the Ecosystem Approach and welcomes additional guidelines to this effect.MED 02 Solved Free Assignment 2023-24

CEM promotes the application of the Eco-system Approach throughout the work of the Union, including its members and partners.

Q. 2. “We discharge our roles following a particular lifestyle that may not be compatible with sustainable development.” Justify the statement with suitable examples from our daily life.

Ans. In the pursuit of discharging our roles, it is crucial to recognize the potential conflicts between our lifestyle choices and the principles of sustainable development.

Sustainable development seeks to balance economic, social, and environmental needs to ensure the well-being of current and future generations.

However, certain lifestyles may inadvertently undermine these goals, leading to long-term consequences for the planet and society. One notable example lies in the excessive consumption of natural resources.

Most of the the manufacturing and technology sectors, require substantial energy consumption and raw material extraction.

The rapid growth of consumerism contributes to resource depletion, deforestation, and pollution, exacerbating climate change and biodiversity loss.

For instance, the demand for electronic gadgets and the constant pursuit of the latest models lead to the generation of e-waste, which poses significant environmental hazards.

Furthermore, modern urban lifestyles often promote reliance on fossil fuels for transportation. MED 02 Solved Free Assignment 2023-24

Long commutes in individual vehicles contribute to greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution, negatively impacting air quality and exacerbating respiratory diseases.

Despite the availability of public transportation and the potential for remote work, many people continue to prefer private vehicles, perpetuating unsustainable transportation practices.

Moreover, our desire for convenience and instant gratification can result in excessive waste generation. Single-use plastics, non-recyclable packaging, and disposable products contribute to overflowing landfills and marine pollution.

These practices not only degrade ecosystems but also affect the livelihoods of communities reliant on natural resources.

Another area of concern is the food industry, where unsustainable practices such as overfishing, deforestation for agriculture, and intensive livestock farming have detrimental effects on ecosystems.

Promoting sustainable development requires a collective effort to rethink our lifestyles and prioritize practices that reduce our ecological footprint.

This may involve embracing renewable energy sources, adopting sustainable transportation alternatives, reducing waste generation, supporting circular economy models, and adopting plant-based diets.

Q. 3. Describe how traditional knowledge and modern scientific knowledge can be integrated to achieve sustainable development.

Ans. Advances in bio-technology have increased interest in bio-prospecting for genetic resources and traditional knowledge of indigenous and local communities.

The Bonn Guidelines call upon Parties to the Convention on Bio-diversity (CBD) to respect the customs, traditions, values and customary practices of indigenous and local communities, as well as to secure customary use of genetic resources and related knowledge.MED 02 Solved Free Assignment 2023-24

Integration of Traditional Knowledge and Customary Law Concerns into science policy, analyses the linkages between modern science, traditional knowledge and customary law, with a particular focus on promoting synergies between implementation of the CBD’s provisions and its provisions guaranteeing protection of traditional knowledge, innovations and practices related to the conservation and sustainable use of bio-diversity.

Present work in this area includes:

  • A preparation of a comparative analysis of the role of registries and databases in the protection and maintainance of traditional knowledge. The review is being undertaken to provide input for the work of the World Intellectual Property Organisation’s (WIPO) Inter-governmental Committee on Intellectual Property and Genetic Resources, Traditional Knowledge and Folklore.

A case study on “Protection of Traditional Knowledge in Peru”. This project is providing support to indigenous organisatrions in Peru in their promotion of a national consultative process to identify the importance of TK, why it is being lost and how it may best be protected.

As Peru was the first developing country to adopt a comprehensive legal and policy for protection of TK in other countries it is hoped this study will provide a precedent for development of law

A project on “The Role of Customary Law and Practice in Regulating Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit Sharing” is being conducted in 2004 in the Pacific Region. MED 02 Solved Free Assignment 2023-24

One of the most biologically and culturally diverse areas on the planet are the island nations of the Pacific Region, which are spread across a vast area comprising almost 38.5 million square kilometres, of which only 2 per cent is land.

Within this region, communal ownership and traditional systems of management account for 80 per cent of the land, and a large area of marine tenure.

Many countries in the region give legal recognition to the rights of indigenous and local communities over their traditional territories and natural resources, as well as to the primacy of customary law and practice.

The primary objective of the project is to help identify best practices for developing and maintaining a functional interface between national legislation and customary law and practice in order to secure the most culturally appropriate mechanisms for regulating access to genetic resources and traditional knowledge and the equitable sharing of benefits derived from their use.

Q. 4. How can sustainable use of natural resources help achieve sustainable development?

Ans. Natural resources (economically referred to as land or raw materials) occur naturally within environments that exist relatively undisturbed by mankind, in a natural form. MED 02 Solved Free Assignment 2023-24

A natural resource is often characterized by amounts of biodiversity existent in various ecosystems. Natural resources are derived from the environment.

This is currently restricted to the environment of Earth yet the theoretical possibility remains of extracting them from outside the planet, such as the asteroid belt.

Many of them are essential for our survival while others are used for satisfying our wants. Natural resources may be further classified in different ways.

Natural resource management is a discipline in the management of natural resources such as land, water, soil, plants and animals, with a particular focus on how management affects the quality of life for both present and future generations.

Natural resource management is interrelated with the concept of sustainable development, a principle that forms a basis for land management and environmental governance throughout the world.

In contrast to the policy emphases of urban planning and the broader concept of environmental management, Natural resource management specifically focuses on a scientific and technical understanding of resources and ecology and the life-supporting capacity of those resources.

In recent years, the depletion of natural resources and attempts to move to sustainable development have been a major focus of development agencies.

This is a particular concern in rainforest regions, which hold most of the Earth’s natural biodiversity- irreplaceable genetic natural capital.

Conservation of natural resources is the major focus of natural capitalism, environmentalism, the ecology movement and green politics.

Some view this depletion as a major source of social unrest and conflicts in developing nations.MED 02 Solved Free Assignment 2023-24

Mining, petroleum extraction, fishing, hunting, and forestry are generally considered natural-resource industries.

Agriculture is considered a man-made resource. Theodore Roosevelt, a well-known conservationist and former United States president, was opposed to unregulated natural resource extraction.

The term is defined by the United States Geological Survey as “The Nation’s natural resources include its minerals, energy, land and water.

Sustainable management of natural resources is vital as agricultural development with positive growth and long term sustainability cannot thrive on a deteriorating natural resource base.

We are today, confronted with widespread land degradation, ground water imbalances, impaired soil health and contamination of food and environmental pollution etc. MED 02 Solved Free Assignment 2023-24

The situation is getting further compounded with the recent climate change impacts on agriculture.

To have a holistic solution to these emerging problems, we have to set future priority research on abiotic stress management (droughts, cold waves, floods, salinity, alkalinity, acidity and nutritional disorders etc ), climate resilient agriculture, conservation agriculture including organic farming, bioremediation of contaminated soils and water, bio-fortification, bio-fuels, bio-industrial watersheds and development of decision support systems for micro level land use planning etc.

Another research priority domain is applications of nanotechnology to enhance nutrient and water use development of bio-censors for soil quality assessment etc.

Q. 5. Analyse the roadblocks to global initiatives in protecting the global environment.

Ans. There are a number of challenges before the international initiatives for environmental protection. First of all, the legal system must respond quickly and effectively in the face of the increasing number of the environmental problems.

Therefore, International Environmental Law (IEL) must work within time to prevent problems like ozone depletion and bio-diversity loss.

But, most of the time it is not possible to find quick solutions at the international level due to divergent views of nations.

Further, arriving at common solutions at the international level becomes even more difficult in the face of the North-South divide.

Although many of the principles of IEL are broadly acceptable in theory but they are very difficult to implement. Even the design of technological production systems are obstacles. MED 02 Solved Free Assignment 2023-24

Most of all it is the objectives of the environmental protection which have to be agreed upon.

The challenge for this emerging international environmental law is not simply to respond with an increase in the numbers of environmental instruments, but also to enhance their impact and effectiveness.

Numerous difficulties can be observed in the way of international initiatives for environmental protectio. For example, problems like ozone depletion and bio diversity loss must be addressed before they become uncontrollable.

However, it is often not possible to forge quick solutions at the international level. The member countries are at diverse levels of development and with diverse value systems and priorities often results in ‘lowest common denominator’ solutions.

The North-South divide makes it very difficult to reach at common solutions. The principles of IEL are very difficult to implement in practice. Moreover, the design of technological production systems is themselves roadblocks.

Also, there is problem of monitoring and regulation of the global commons since nobody’s property may act as a disincentive for protection.

Above all, the reconciliation of environmental and development objectives is the most challenging problem.MED 02 Solved Free Assignment 2023-24

Q. 6. Describe various state and local development initiatives to address inequality. Substantiate your answer with suitable examples.

Ans. Sustainable development in India now encompasses a variety of development schemes in social, clean-ech (clean energy, clean water and sustainable agriculture) and human resources segments, having caught the attention of both the Central and State governments and also public and private sectors.

In fact, India is expected to begin the greening of its national income accounting, making depletion in natural resources wealth a key component in its measurement of Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

As per a report by UN Environment Programme (UNEP), ‘Global Trends in Sustainable Energy Investment 2010’, released on July 2010, India was ranked eighth in the world in terms of investment in sustainable energy.

The report further stated that India invested around US$ 2.7 billion in sustainable energy in 2009.MED 02 Solved Free Assignment 2023-24

Wind energy attracted 59 per cent of financial investment in clean energy in India. India was placed fifth in the world for installed wind power during the year.

Biomass and waste was the second largest sector recipient of investment, generating US$ 0.6 billion of new financial investment or 22 per cent of the total.

Economic Reforms: In the 1990s there have been many attempts to evaluate the impact of economic growth on environment quality.

There was little agreement as to whether economic growth led to environmental degradation or to increasing environ- mental quality.

At the one extreme there are some who argue that economic growth results in ever increasing use of energy and materials and hence, more environmental degradation.

At the other extreme are some others who claim that the faster road to environ-ment improvement is more economic growth.

Environment Policy: Need for Environmental Planning in India is well recognised.

.EP Act authorises Central Government “To take all such measures as it deems necessary for the purpose of protecting and improving the quality of environment and preventing, controlling and abating environmental pollution”.

Measures under this clause include: immunity ring and execution of nationwide programme for the prevention, control and abatement of Environmental Pollution”.

Community Led Initiatives
The paradigm of people’s participation in development as an alternative to the top down centralized development approach emerged in development theory and practice when it was realized that the participation of people in the decision-making process results in positive outcomes for the targeted beneficiaries and help in realizing the full potential of development interventions.

Since 1970s, there has been a gradual acceptance of the new development paradigm which acknowledges the importance and criticality of people’s participation for the success of development interventions.

In India, development planners realized in the very early stage of implementation of the development projects like the Community Development Programme (launched in 1952) of the necessity of involving the community at the grassroots for achieving real progress in rural development.MED 02 Solved Free Assignment 2023-24

Panchayati Raj Institutions or Panchayats: Panchayats have been the backbone of the Indian villages since the beginning of recorded history.

Gandhiji, the father of the nation, in 1946 had aptly remarked that the Indian Independence must begin at the bottom and every village ought to be a Republic or Panchayat having powers.

Gandhiji’s dream has been translated into reality with the introduction of the three-tier Panchayati Raj system to ensure peoples participation in rural reconstruction.

The passage of the Constitution (73rd Amendment) Act, 1992 marks a new era in the federal democratic set up of the country and provides constitutional status to the Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs).

According to the constitution, Panchayats should be given powers and authority to function as institutions of self-government.

It, thus, requires all state governments to revitalise local representative institutions. The following powers and responsibility were delegated to the Panchayats:

.to prepare plans and schemes for economic development.
.to promote schemes that will enhance social justice.
.to levy, collect and appropriate taxes, duties, tolls and fees.

help in the devolution of governmental responsibilities, especially that of finances to local authorities.MED 02 Solved Free Assignment 2023-24

Social welfare responsibilities of the Panchayats include the maintenance of burning and burial grounds, recording statistics of births and deaths, establishment of child welfare and maternity centres, control of cattle pounds, propagation of family planning and promotion of agricultural activities.

The development activities include the construction of roads, public buildings, wells, tanks and schools.

They also promote small cottage industries and take care of minor irrigation works. Many government schemes like the Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) and Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS) are monitored by members of the panchayat.

Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs): Community owned and community management have been successful only in those regions that have either aprior a well knit community structure or external agencies (NGOs) invested in social capital formation to build community structures (as part of the project activities) in tribal and rural settings.

Again experience shows that community structures are not only difficult to build and time consuming but there are limited possibilities of replication of success even in a similarly placed socio-economic, political and geographical settings.

The role of non-governmental organisations and voluntary agencies in India has been very important. In situations of widespread poverty and deprivation, exploitation and discrimination, the State has not been in a position to ameliorate everything. MED 02 Solved Free Assignment 2023-24

The Non- Governmental Organisations (NGOS) have stepped in to provide basic health and child care services, running home for the destitute and distressed and providing education and training opportunities.

At the same time, these NGOs have also been working towards building a more humane society free from exploitation and want. The partnership between NGOs and the government has been of mutual benefit.

Q. 7. Explain the following in about 250 words each:

(a) Concept of carrying capacity.

Ans. The term “Carrying Capacity” originates from ecology, where it is used to define the maximum stable population of a species that can be supported within an area in the long-term.

An increase in the population exceeding the carrying capacity of an area typically leads to environmental deterioration as a result of increased demands on habitat and resource, causing the population to eventually fall.

The concept, when applied to human populations, is used to denote, the maximum population, given a certain amount of resource consumption and waste generation that can be supported within a given area, without any adverse environmental effects or without compromising the quality of life of the people living there.

This basic definition also relates to the concept of sustainable development, or ‘Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs’.

If the population of an area consumes resources faster than they can be replenished, the environmental degradation that occurs will reduce the availability of resources in the future. MED 02 Solved Free Assignment 2023-24

Such resource scarcity is associated with increasing costs due to rising demand, which can lead to a fall in living standards as people have less disposable income.

In particular, it means that poor people can suffer disproportionately if carrying capacity is exceeded, because they are less capable of adjusting to price rises in basic commodities.

Carrying capacity relates therefore, to the ability of an area to support the population living there.

In practice this encompasses the resources available there or those that can be realistically imported from elsewhere, the infrastructure that exists to enable a basic standard of living for the population; and the environmental condition of the area which may deteriorate due to resource exploitation or the generation of waste and pollution.

Aspects that must be considered in an investigation into the carrying capacity of a region therefore include water supply, sanitation, housing provision, energy provision and environmental quality.

Analysis of such issues helps identify and prioritise future planning and policy goals required to ensure that the needs of the population can be met.

(b) Initiatives of the South Asian countries towards the betterment of the environment.

Ans. Being increasingly aware of global warming, climate change and environmental challenges facing the region, which mainly include sea-level rise, deforestation, soil erosion, siltation, droughts, storms, cyclones, floods, glacier melt and resultant glacial lake outburst floods and urban pollution, the Heads of State or Government reiterated the need to intensify cooperation within an expanded regional environmental protection framework, to deal in particular with climate change issues.

They are of the view that SAARC should contribute to restoring harmony with nature, drawing on the ancient South Asian cultural values and traditions of environmental responsibility and sustainability.

SAARC Action Plan and Dhaka Declaration on Climate Change has been adapted by the SAARC Environment Ministers at the SAARC Ministerial Meeting on Climate Change held at Dhaka on 3 July 2008.

In this context they stressed the need for close cooperation for capacity building, development of CDM projects and promotion of programs for advocacy and mass awareness raising on climate change.

They also expressed satisfaction at the adoption of a SAARC Declaration on Climate Change for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) by the Twenty-ninth Session of the Council of Ministers.

The SAARC has shown deep concern over global climate change and its impact on the lives and livelihoods in the region.

It has resolved to work together to prevent and address the threats to the livelihoods of the peoples and to provide access to remedies when these rights are violated and also to find an equitable distribution of responsibilities and rights among the Member States. MED 02 Solved Free Assignment 2023-24

SAARC has affirmed that every citizen of this planet must have an equal share of the planetary atmospheric space.

The human loss suffered through natural disasters in the region and stressed the need for the timely provision of relief in humanitarian emergencies has been recognised.

A Natural Disaster Rapid Response Mechanism is to be created to adopt a coordinated and planned approach to meet such emergencies under the aegis of the SAARC Disaster Management Centre.

(c) Sustainable Agriculture Practices.

Ans. A growing movement has emerged during the past two decades to question the role of the agricultural establishment in promoting practices that contribute to these social problems.

Today, this movement for sustainable agriculture is garnering increasing support and acceptance within main-stream agriculture.

Not only does sustainable agriculture address many environmental and social concerns, but it offers innovative and economically viable opportunities for growers, laborers, consumers, policy-makers and many others in the entire food system.

Modern agriculture is a term used to describe the wide majority of production practices employed by America’s farmers.

The term depicts the push for innovation, stewardship and advancements continually made by growers to sustainably produce higher- quality products with a reduced environmental impact.

Intensive scientific research and robust investment in modern agriculture during the past 50 years has helped farmers double food production while essentially freezing the footprint of total cultivated farmland.

The agriculture industry works with government agencies and other organisations to ensure that farmers have access to the technologies required to support modern agriculture practices. MED 02 Solved Free Assignment 2023-24

Farmers are supported by education and certification programs that ensure they apply agricultural with care and only when required.

Technological advancements help provide farmers with tools and resources to help reduce their environmental footprint and to make farming more sustainable.

New technologies have given rise to innovations like conservation tillage, a farming process which helps prevent land loss to erosion, water pollution and enhances carbon sequestration.

Biotechnology and production technology advances are resulting in new genetic commodities and methods of production. This trend is also impacting new production and processing technologies.

In many circumstances, farmers cannot afford to be left behind by not adopting the new technologies. At the same time, however, they cannot afford to make the investments to adopt new technology.

Farmers bear the risk of uncertainty about Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) and a possible negative public reaction in case of a real, or imagined, danger to the food supply.MED 02 Solved Free Assignment 2023-24

(d) Innovative practices in Sustainable Development of Water and Energy Resources.

Ans. Rainwater Harvesting
Different methods of rainwater harvesting are being tried by various agencies in India. However, the role of ASTRA (Application of Science and Technology in Rural Areas) in peninsular India is stands out.

Rainwater is collected in ponds and cleaned by a simple sand filter system. Now the cleaned water is stored in underground porous rock aquifers which can be pumped out and used when needed.

Indigenous Systems of Tapping Water
Water scarcity was handled by some indigenous methods by our ancestors. In the sandier tracts, the villagers of the Thar Desert evolved an ingenious system of rainwater harvesting known as kunds or kundis.

Kund, the local name given to a covered underground tank, was developed primarily for tackling drinking water problems.

Usually, constructed with local materials or cement, kunds were more prevalent in the western arid regions of Rajasthan and in areas where the limited groundwater available is moderate to highly saline.

Kunds provided convenient, clean and sweet water for drinking. Kunds were owned by communities or privately, with the rich having one or more kunds of their own.

Community kunds were built through village cooperation or by a rich man for the entire community.MED 02 Solved Free Assignment 2023-24

The Spiti area of Himachal Pradesh (a province in India) is a cold desert but surprisingly, agriculture is its mainstay.

Spiti’s lunar-like terrain was transformed into an agrarian success story by an ingenious system, devised centuries ago to tap distant glaciers for water.

Spiti’s unique contribution to farming is kul irrigation, which utilizes kuls (diversion channels) to carry water from glacier to village.

Alternative Sources of Energy
Essentially there are three fossil fuel sources available to the world but each of them are dwindling. The most abundant is coal; coal is widely used and inexpensively extracted.

As such, we have come to rely exceptionally heavily on coal and while there is still quite a large amount of coal left it is estimated that America’s remaining coal will sustain the country for the next 200 to 300 years but it is by no means a perfectly clean form of power. MED 02 Solved Free Assignment 2023-24

The first of all the alternative sources of energy that usually comes to mind is solar energy, which is any of several different procedures used to harness energy that comes from the sun.

The primary method used to convert sunlight into electricity is through the use of photo-voltaic cells, which are arranged on solar panels in such a way that a maximum amount of sunlight is absorbed and turned into electricity.

Currently, the biggest issue with solar power is the cost, since the solar cells and panels can be very expensive.

Another alternative energy source is wind energy, which uses large wind turbines to transform wind into power.

Many of these turbines can be placed where wind is abundant, and these wind farms can be connected to a power grid to which they contribute electricity.

A windmill can also be used to harness wind energy, but rather than turning the wind into electricity, a windmill converts the wind directly into mechanical motion to do work.MED 02 Solved Free Assignment 2023-24

Some alternative sources of energy receive power from earthly sources, as in geothermal power, tidal power and biomass.

Geo-thermal power is derived from heat sources within the earth, such as natural geysers, and converts this heat into electricity.

The harnessing of power from waves in the ocean and other bodies of water on the planet is known as tidal power.

Q. 8. Explain the following in about 250 words each:

(a) Cooperatives and Sustainable Development.

Ans. Since cooperative societies connect the people at the grassroots level to the highest level of the government, therefore, they can play a major role in the process of sustainable development by creating awareness educating people about the environment. These cooperatives can play an important role in the following ways:

(a) Creating awareness among people on:

  1. Population explosion.
  2. The wasteful use of water, indiscriminate mining and digging up soil for brick kilns and indiscriminate felling of trees.
    (b) Educating and informing people on:
  3. How to manage insecticides and pesticides and chemical fertilisers.
  4. Alternative sources of energy.
  5. Proper disposal of garbage and recycling of waste products.

(c) Encourage people to:

  1. Prepare social forestry programmes as well as management and reclamation of wasteland in particular areas.
  2. Attend community development programmes such as cleaning of schools and village premises, installation and repair of water taps, rural sanitation, and so on.
  3. Developing family welfare and education programmes along with health and hygiene.MED 02 Solved Free Assignment 2023-24

(b) Sustained Livelihood.

Ans. The sustainable livelihoods approach provides a framework to help understand the main factors that affect poor people’s livelihoods and the relationships between these factors, and this in turn facilitates the planning and implementation of more effective development interventions.

By centering our thinking around people rather than the technical inputs development might deliver to them the chances of achieving sustainable impacts on poverty reduction are significantly improved.

The Sustainable Livelihood (SL) approach:
Identifies existing assets and strategies available to poor women and men and uses these as a starting point;

Helps keep the focus on poor people and their varied livelihood assets, strategies and outcomes (rather than resources and activities);

Recognises differences based on sex, gender, age, ethnicity, power and poverty status;MED 02 Solved Free Assignment 2023-24
Builds on strengths as a means to addressing needs and constraints;
Makes explicit the links between policy and institutional issues, and micro level realities; and Helps in understanding how individual, possibly sector-specific, development programmes1 and projects fit into the wider livelihoods agenda and objectives.

SL Analysis (the application of the SL approach) is likely to identify a number of different options for supporting livelihoods but development programmes and projects should not attempt to tackle all aspects of livelihoods.

The emphasis should be on identifying and negotiating, together with partners and primary stakeholders, the ‘best bet’ entry points that will have a significant impact on the livelihoods of the poor.

The SL approach helps to identify key “pressure points”, but other more specific methods are required to determine which to tackle first, and how.

(c) Concept of Harness Technology in Sustainable Development.

Ans. Rio Earth Summit’s Agenda 21 explains that population; consumption and technology are the primary driving forces of environmental change.

It offers policies and programmes to achieve a sustainable balance between consumption, population and the earth’s life-supporting capacity.

It describes some of technologies and techniques that need to be developed to provide for human needs while carefully managing natural resources.

In 1995, during the World Summit for Social Development in Copenhagen the issue of relevance of science and technology in social development was recognized for the first time.MED 02 Solved Free Assignment 2023-24

Similarly, the World Conference on ‘Science for the 21st Century’ organised by UNESCO in 1999 declared that modern scientific knowledge and traditional knowledge should be brought closer together in interdisciplinary projects dealing with the links between culture, environment and development.

Moreover, the importance of traditional systems of knowledge was emphasised. The World Summit on Sustainable Development in August 2002 also called for a rethink on the relationship between technology and sustainable development.

In Asia, Bio-technology, Information Technology and Material Sciences have dominated the development process.

For instance, in the 1960s, the problem of Asian food security was resolved with improved varieties of rice and wheat.

The Green Revolution in countries such India, China, Japan, and Bangladesh has helped in attaining self-sufficiency in food grain production.

Moreover, the “Information Revolution” in countries such as India, China, Pakistan and Japan has resulted in growing software industry.

Information technology and telecommunications have brought the common people in contact with the experts and mainstream policy makers.

The flow of information has increased general awareness resulting in greater public participation for sustainable development in future.

(d) Sustainable and non-sustainable activities.

Ans. Sustainability is one of the most important topics for our environment – but it goes even beyond that. MED 02 Solved Free Assignment 2023-24

The idea has been around a while, but it has gained global attention in the late 20th and the 21st centuries as we have begun to pay closer attention to the impact that we have on our surrounding environment.

So we had to ask: What’s the difference between sustainable and unsustainable?

In short, something is sustainable if it can be maintained indefinitely and something is unsustainable if it cannot be maintained indefinitely.

But beyond that, sustainability is defined within the three pillars of our environment, society, and economy – and here, the differences are more nuanced.

As we strive to be a sustainable society, the first thought that comes into most peoples’ minds is to protect the environment.

But is the environment the sole factor that determines if we are sustainable? Below we will explore what it means to be sustainable in terms of environment, economics, and society and how that differs from being unsustainable. We will also discuss a prominent example of sustainable vs. unsustainable.

How Are Sustainability and Unsustainability Defined”To showcase the differences between sustainable and unsustainable, let’ start with the first step and define the two. MED 02 Solved Free Assignment 2023-24

There are simple definitions for both sustainable and unsustainable as well as three pillars of sustainability that go deeper into examining what it means to be truly sustainable in terms of our environment, society, and economy.

Sustainability is the ability to meet our current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. “The ability to be maintained at a certain rate or level | Avoidance of the depletion of natural resources in order to maintain an ecological balance” The general goal of sustainability is to maintain homeostasis between people and their environment, but unsustainable practices thwart this goal.

“Unsustainable: Something that is unsustainable cannot continue at the same rate | Causing damage to the environment by using more of something than can be replaced naturally” If something is unsustainable, it cannot be continued at the same pace, level, rate, etc. In other words, it is anything that cannot be prolonged or continued.

Sustainability is a broad topic that includes more than just taking care of our environment. It also relies on economic and social factors that, when working together, can contribute to complete sustainability.

Sustainable activities are: MED 02 Solved Free Assignment 2023-24

Use materials in continuous cycles.
Use reliable sources of energy continuously.
Use the positive and just side of human personality. Want growth to last longer without being slower.

Activities are unsustainable when they:

Overuse natural resources in a wasteful manner. Consumption is faster than renewal.
Overkill life forms leading to the extinction of species. Cause cumulative degradation of the environment.

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