IGNOU BPAC 132 Solved Free Assignment
BPAC 132 Solved Free Assignment July 2023 & January 2024
Q. 1. Discuss Gandhi’s views on Trusteeship.
Ans. Another contribution to political philosophy by Gandhiji is his theory of ‘trusteeship’. This was an economic extension of his political philosophy.
The focus was on treating resources as a public trust, man being the trustee, so that nature and society’s wealth is used equitably.
Another purpose for articulating this theory was to combine the merits of both capitalism and communalism.
As all resources and material property were like a social trust, the owner should ideally take only that he actually required in leading a moderately comfortable life.
The owner and the rest of the people were to regard themselves as being trustees of that property.
The concept of trusteeship by Gandhiji comprised of the following:
. Trusteeship is provision of means of transforming the current capitalist society into one based on the principle of equality. It has no space for capitalism. However, the prevailing owning class is given a chance of reforming itself.
. No recognition to the right of private ownership of property with the exception of what a society allows for its own welfare.
. It includes legislative regulation of ownership and use of wealth.
. Just like a proposed decent minimum wage, there should be a limit on the maximum income that can be earned by any person in the society. The general idea for this was to reduce the difference and variations between these incomes for ultimate equitability.
. The Gandhian economic concept would focus on the nature of production determined by the needs of the society at large and not by personal greed.
The theory of trusteeship applies equally to both tangible and intangible property, “such as the muscular energy of the labourers and the talents of a Helen Keller”.
According to Gandhi, all property belongs to God and in his concept of trusteeship the trustees have no right to destroy that property deliberately and wantonly.
Besides, trusteeship aims at raising the morale of the people by giving them a sense of security in the hands of the trustees.
The trustees, in their turn, are beholden to creating an urge among the masses for a higher standard of life.
As man advances from a narrow sphere of personal satisfaction to the nobler concept of the welfare of all, he marches closer towards self-realization.
The whole idea of possessing wealth only to guard it from being misused and to distribute it equitably aims at protecting human dignity.
If it is possessed for any other objective, it is objectionable on moral grounds. Gandhi enjoins this moral obligation on the part of the trustees as he is fully aware of the ills of capitalism which widen the gap between the rich and the poor.
The Gandhian theory of trusteeship departs significantly from Marxian economic philosophy too.
If Marxism is the child of the Industrial Revolution, Gandhian theory can be understood only in the context of certain basic spiritual values of the Indian tradition.
Marxian socialism aims at the destruction of the class called capitalists, whereas the Gandhian approach is not to destroy the institution, but to reform it.
Gandhian socialism, being ethical, is different from Marxian socialism. Man, to him, is an ethical being first and a social being later.
According to Gandhi, trusteeship is the only ground on which he can work out an ideal combination of economics and morals.
Q. 2. Describe the theoretical underpinnings of Chris Argyris’ theories.
Ans. Argyris as a great psychologist and an organisational theorist, studies organisation from the psychological view point. He studies about the human psychology and human relation.
He stress upon the individuals relationship to the organisation. He has treated the conflict between the individual social and psychological needs and the exigencies of the organisation.
For developing his concept of organisational behaviour, Argyris’ has applied research findings in the field of psychology, social psychology and human relation.
His influence on the disciplines of management and public administration is widespread. His theory of human relation is based on the characteristics of the individual, the work group and the formal organisation.
Argyris research show that how personal development of the individual is affected by the situation in which he works.
As a consultant and pioneer in the application of the T-group technique, his influence on performs of organisational structure and managerial practices of orgainsational structure and managerial practices is striking.
According to his opinion, organisation as an open system. He has studied the interaction between the organisation and the environment, also between the individual and the organisation.
Argyris in his socio-psychological approach emphasised upon the development of individual psychology which forms the basis of human behaviour.
To him every organisation provide an environment in which individual can develop his personality. He was against the principle of formal organisation as it does not provide any opportunity personality.
He said that principles of formal organisation is coupled with managerial control. In the formal organisation, there is lack of employee’s participation in the decision-making and use of control system such as work study and cost accounting.
The formal organisation also restricts the initiative and creativity of the individual. To him, individual in the formal organisation is:
(a) not a forward looking;
(b) he is passive, not creative, and
(c) his concern are restricted to his own work difficulties.
In such situation, executives are liable to become yet more autocrate and linerative. Their execessive control over management restrict employees participation in the decision-making process.
It also effect the working life of the individual and rise feeling of mutual distruct. Employee and even lower managers feel that management control is just like an instrument of punishment.
Argyris formulates certain proposition about the impact of formal organisation on the individual.
Major hypotheses in this regard are as follows:
(a) Sometime management reaction produce a sense of psychological failure, as a result there is loss of interest in work, loss of self-confidence, tendency of blaming others, lower work standards, giving up easily and lastly a fear of still more failure.
(b) Another impact of the rigidities of formal organisation is the development of frustration among the participant in the organisation. Their desire for a healthy existence and self-actualisation may not be satisfied.
The resultant frustration on the part of the participants is likely to lead to a less matured behaviour, aggression and hospitality.
(c) There is lack of disagreement between the need of individual and the initial demands of the formal organisation.
This lead to a conflicing situation because the individuals feels that he cannot fulfil his personal needs and at the same time meet the demands of the organisation.
This create negative reaction on the part of the individual. Individual starts thinking for leaving the job, taking leave without information, ignoring the requirement of the organisation.
Individual also shows indifference and lack of interest in the organisation in the organisation, which may create conflict and tension in the organisation or lead to some major organisational problems.
The consequences of the aforesaid situations is that the workers either demanded more money to compensate the situation their own needs evidence of work.
Argyris also argues that the needs of the individuals will be incongruent with the maximum expression of the demand of the formal organisation.
Thus, the informal organisation is born to avoid the conflict between the two. The informal organisation serves the following purposes:
(a) It reduces the individual employee’s feelings of dependence, submissiveness, sub-ordination and passivity towards management.
(b) The informal organisation enables him to express his pent-up feelings ranging from out right aggression and hospitality to passive inter-nationalisation of tensions that are caused by the formal organisation, directive leader-ship, management controls and pseudo-human relations programmes.
(c) The informal organisation helps the individual employee to create own informal world with its own culture and values in which he finds psychological shelter and a firm anchor to maintain stability while in the process of adjusting and developing to the formal organisation.
Argyris says that “By creating the informal world individual can take an active role in influencing formal organisation.” He also observes that if the informal organisation did not exist the employee become full of pent-up tension.
Argyris suggests certain solutions through which disagreement between the formal organisation and the individual could be removed. These suggested solutions are given below:
The first suggestion given by Argyris is to encourage participative management and leadership.
For this he suggests that only mature individuals should be selected for managerial and leadership positions as the immature individual are unable to face the situation.
Another important solution to reduce the disagreement between the management and the individual is to enlarge the jobs instead of cutting them. Jobs should be enlarged in content and increased in variety.
This will create an interest in the employee and also generate a feeling of responsibility. It also remove the conditions which create conflict, frustration and feeling of failure.
Lastly, Argyris favours the development of reality leadership where the leader needs a great deal of understanding rather than just depending upon hunches of guess work for decision-making.
Top managers must not be afraid to show their real feeling to those above and below them. They must try to speak constructively about one another in a way, which is honest and helpful.
On the whole, Argyris was a management thinker. He has tried to establish an integration between the organisation and the individual.
His views of “Integration the Individual and the Organisation” seeks to provide an alternative organisational framework, which fully takes into account the energies and competencies inherent in human beings.
The organisation, which integrates the individual and the organisation would not be pyramedical, to would behave like a flat organisation would be more sensitivised to its basic values.
Assignment – II
Q. 3. Briefly discuss Kautilya’s perspective on financial administration.
Ans. Kautilya also emphasized the significance of saving and investment. He believed that surplus revenue should be wisely invested in infrastructure development, irrigation projects, and defense, which would contribute to the overall progress and
security of the kingdom.
Recognizing the importance of trade and commerce in generating wealth, Kautilya advised the state to promote busienss activities and create a favourable environment for economic growth.
During times of economic crisis, Kautilya recommended implementing relief measures to stimulate the economy.
These measures included reducing taxes, providing loans, and supporting industries. Such actions aimed to stabilize the economy and safeguard the well-being of the people.
In conclusion, Kautilya’s views on financial administration underline the importance of revenue generation, resource management, financial discipline, transparency, and economic development.
His ideas have nt only stood the test of time but have also influenced subsequent theories and practices in financial administration and governance.
Q. 4. Examine the changing perspectives of Weber’s bureaucracy.
Ans. In spite of criticism from the several scholars, the ideas of Weber on bureaucracy relevant in the present administrative system.
His ideas or selection of officials based on qualifications, utility of written documents in administration, hierarchy, etc., can be seen in any administration of the present day.
The monocratic bureaucracy proposed by Weber is superior to all other forms of organisations achieving the prescribed objectives. Whether, it is capitalist society or a socialist society, we find the bureaucracy playing a very important role.
Even in the present context of liberalisation and privatisation, the necessity of bureaucracy to perform some of the functions of the state.
It cannot be possible to implementation of all the welfare and developmental programmes without the help of bureaucracy.
In the modern state, people look to the bureaucracy for their day-to-day requirements. Hence, Wiberian model of bureaucracy of relevance even today.
Weber identify the various factors and the condition and that have contributed to the growth of bureaucracy in modern times.
Firstly, the development of modern large scale organisation and corporations.
Secondly, the development of modern technology.
Thirdly, the capitalist system has a major role in the development of modern bureaucracy.
The bureaucratic theory of organisation has served a useful purpose in history by helping to develop professionalism in administration. It helped to evolve a modernist administrative culture from the earlier feudal system.
Max Weber as one of the eminent thinkers of the 20th century who contributed to the theory of bureaucracy, Weber wanted to construct an “ideal type” or a “pure” model of bureaucracy which obviously cannot be approximated to reality.
He was a champion of the bureaucratic order. He had merely stated that the bureaucracy was more capable of operating with greater efficiency and rationality.
Today, we can see it in practice in all the societies of the world. Weber said that societies once governed by the bureaucracy can never get rid of it.
His ideas on authority, rationality of bureaucracy continues to be relevant for the present day society. Bureaucracy might need certain reforms to make it more relevant to the society.
Q. 5. Briefly explain Elton Mayo’s Hawthorne experiments.
Ans. Contribution of Elton Mayo to Management Thought: George Elton Mayo (1880-1949) was a professor at the Harvard Business School.
He published the books-Human Problems of an Industrial Civilisation (1933), ‘Social Problems of an Industrial Civilisation’ (1945), ‘Training for Human Relations (1949), etc.
He conducted the famous ‘Hawthorne Experiments’ at the Hawthorne plant of the Western Electric Company in the USA during 1927-32 with his associates. These experiments are described below:
Illumination Experiments: From these experiments, it was revealed that productivity could be increased not only by improving the working environment, but also through informal social relations among the members of the working group.
Relay Assembly Test Room Experiment: In this experiment a small homogeneous working group was constituted.
Several new elements were introduced in the work environment such as-shorter working hours, proper rest periods, improved physical conditions, friendly supervision, free social interaction among the group members, and so on.
During the period of the experiment, productivity and morale increased. Productivity and morale were maintained even if the improvements in the working conditions were withdrawn.
The researchers concluded that socio-psychological factors such as
the feelings of being important, recognition, participation, informal work group, non-directive supervision, etc. held the key for higher productivity.
Mass Interviewing Programme: A large number of workers were interviewed to know their perceptions and orientation on the working life.
The results again confirmed the importance of informal relation, social and psychological needs and their impact on the behaviour of the workers.
Bank Wiring Observation Room Experiment: A group of 14 workers was observed with regard to their work behaviour. The observation revealed the informal production norms set by the workers and the existence of informal relations in the group.
Elton Mayo is known as the ‘Father of Human Relations Movement’. The Hawthorne Experiments provided a landmark in the evolution of management thought. Many organisations initiated the measures to improve relations with the workers.
The managers were sup-posed to assume a new role and to develop new concepts of authority, motivation and leadership. However, the Hawthorne Experiments were criticised for lack of scientific analysis and research.
It was alleged that the researchers had certain pre-conceived perceptions and orientations. The experiments were too narrow and small to provide generalisation.
Q. 6. What is Shop floor management?
Ans. In industry, the shop floor refers to the production area/production site as the place where value is created.
Shop floor management comprises processes, methods, and systems to ensure the most efficient production possible.
Shop floor management (SFM) focuses on what happens at the base. Shop floor management is understood as the optimization of management and leadership tasks in a production facility.
According to this, it is an effective procedure with the goal of continuous process improvement, which is the result of cooperation between employees and management.
Shop floor management enables the continuous improvement of all processes towards the common corporate goal of daily fulfilment of customer requirements.
Q. 7. What is a gang plank?
Ans. The term ‘gang plank, is used in connection with scalar chain in business management. The chain forms a line of authority based on ranking of each post.
According to Fayol’s theory, every organization or business management should have a chain connecting all the authorities that runs from top position to the bottom position.
This chain or line should be strictly followed by all the subordinates and managers making the communication reaching to every superior in the order of their hierarchy.
Sometimes a shorter line of contact between two colleagues can be made but this is not allowed as this can affect the whole system.
Gang plank or direct contact is a technique suggested by Henry Fayol in his principles of management for preventing the delay of action.
This helps in making direct contact with superior and subordinate facilitating quick decision making. This idea of Fayol shows that his principles are flexible and can be modified as per the situation.
Q. 8. Write a short note on Follett’s views on leadership.
Ans. Follet discusses at the length the process of leadership. She believes that the old ideas of leadership are changing because of the changes in the concept of human relations and development in management.
According to her, a leader is not the president of the organisation or head of the department, but one “who can see all around a situation, who sees it as related to certain purposes and policies, who sees it evolving into the next situation, who understand how to pass from one situation to another”.
Hence, she opines, leader is “The man who energise his group, who knows how to encourage initiative, how to draw from all what each has to give”.
She postulates three types of leadership:
- Leadership of position
- Leadership of personality
- Leadership of function
According to her, the last one is more important. She conceptualised leadership as the ability “To create functional unity in the organisation through proper correlation of controls instead of personal power to command based on position”. In contemporary
organisation, persons who posses expert knowledge lead others. Leader who posses the expert knowledge are found not just at the apex but throughout the organisation. Expert can give orders even to those of higher rank.
For example, the dispatch clerk can give orders to the superintendent and the stores clerk can tell the man in charge of purchasing when to act.
Thus, Follet called attention to emergence modern life of leadership by functions, along before the term “Situational Approaches” came into use.
According to Follet, leaders perform three important functions: coordination, definition of purpose, anticipation. A leader has also to organise experience of the group and transform it into power.
In the above discussion, Follet’s ideas of critical management and administrative themes like conflict, power, authority and responsibility, leadership, control, role of individual in group and participation convince everyone about the validity and the justification of the multi-dimensional focus of her universalistic approach.
She accorded high importance to the problems of conflict in organisation that should constructive and also overcome through efficient leadership.
Hence, this is only reason, she gives special attention to the usage of power, authority and control.
So, she laid the foundations for the application of democratic concepts and practices to organisations.
Better understanding of the present trends in administrative thought and practices requires a study of Follet’s ideas and work.
Q. 9. What do you mean by Consultative Management?
Ans. Consultative management allows leaders to be comfortable with their own incomplete knowledge of a situation and to learn and grow along with their employees through the process of consulting.
It also pushes them to build trust with their subordinates. Consultative leadership is where team leaders can influence people rather than impose their thoughts on subordinates.
It targets team building style and uses subordinates’ skills to create plans and decisions.
It involves those who need help finding ideas for a solution in decision-making. A leader includes their team while deciding to know their subordinate’s point of view. It helps them to make effective decisions and decisions.
For example, suppose a company wants to make any production decisions. In that case, the manager needs to consult with the engineering department so that they can provide quality input as they were involved with the production process.
Q. 10. Comment on the concept of modern management.
Ans. Modern Management is the method of managing devices, OS, and applications, in a unified, secure way natively from the cloud.
Modern management can be considered an evolution of unified endpoint management (UEM), and provides improved security, management, and situational awareness to IT departments for users and applications across the enterprise.
The goals of embracing modern management processes also include providing an improved user experience regardless of how users are connected – whether on-premises, remotely, or through the use of SaaS applications.
This delivers a consistent experience for all users anywhere, at any time, from any device.