PERSPECTIVES ON PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
IGNOU BPAC 131 Solved Free Assignment
BPAC 131 Solved Free Assignment July 2023 & January 2024
Q. 1. Discuss the various models of decision-making.
Ans. In contrast to the unrealistic concept of economic man, Simon presented a more realistic view of an administrative man. The behaviour of the administrative man, according to Simon is that:
(a) In choosing between alternatives, he look for the one which is satisfactory or good enough.
(b) As administrative man satisfies, rather than maximizes, he can make his choices without examining all possible alternatives.
(c) He recognises that the world he perceives is a drastically simplified model of the real world and is content with this simplification.
(d) As he treats the world as rather empty, he is able to make decisions with relatively simple rules of the trade or from force of habit.
This model of administrative man is based on reality because he does not work on the basis of perfect knowledge. He is rational and satisfying rather than maximizing. The difference between maximizing and satisfying is relative.
Under certain conditions, satisfying approaches may be maximizing whereas in other condition satisfying and maximizing are for apart.
Decision-Making in the Administrative Process
Administrative activity is one type of group activity which require efforts of many people to accomplish the task. If a man can plan and execute his own work there is no need for developing any process.
But if task is more, it need the efforts of several persons to accomplish its task in this case, there is necessity of developing any process. This process is called administrative process. IGNOU BPAC 131 Solved Free Assignment
To Simon, the administrative process have three important steps. They are:
(i) Segregate certain elements in the decisions of members of the organisation.
(ii) Establish regular organisational procedures to select and determine these elements.
(iii) Communicate those elements to the members of the organisation.
The following are some of the practices that emerge from the structuring of behavioural choice:
(1) Coordination: Coordination among the employees is essential for an organisation to achieve their goal.
For example a group of people decide to build a boat if each has his own plan and they do not communicate their plan, their goal to build a boat is failure.
If they adopt a design and execute it cooperatively, they would achieve better results. Coordination may be procedural or substantive in nature.
Procedural coordination establishes the lines of authority and outlines the sphere of activity of each organisation member, while substantive coordination specifies the content of his work. IGNOU BPAC 131 Solved Free Assignment
In an automobile factory, an organisation chart is an aspect of procedural coordination; blue prints for the engine block of the car being manufactured are an aspect of substantive coordination.
(2) Responsibility: The primary function of administrative organisation to enforce conformity of the individual to names laid down by the group.
The power given to the subordinate is restricted by the top executive. Thus autonomy in the decision-making is restricted.
(3) Specialisation: Specialisation is a character- istic of organisation. Specialisation are of two types, horizontal or vertical. Simon emphases vertical specialization. He gives three reasons for vertical specialisation in organisation:
Firstly, to achieve coordination among the operative employees vertical specialisation is essential not the horizontal. IGNOU BPAC 131 Solved Free Assignment
Secondly, vertical specialisation permits greater expertise in making decision.
Thirdly, in vertical specialization operative personnel are accountable for their decision.
(4) Expertise: The work in the organisation must be sub-divided so that person who have possess to skill, can perform the task. Thus, at the operative level, specialised skills are needed.
Q. 2. Write a note on concept, features and characteristics of good governance.
Ans. The term governance implies “The process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented”.
It can be used in various contexts such as corporate governance, international and national governance and local governance. In simple terms, good governance means welfare and development of all, in all aspects.
Now-a-days, the term governance has increasingly gained importance and has replaced the concept of traditional administration by covering a wider perspective than traditional public administration. IGNOU BPAC 131 Solved Free Assignment
Its main objective is to promote good government. Governance is related with efficient and effective administration that includes formulating and implementing decisions.
It also means managing country’s various national and international affairs by using political, economic and administrative powers.
A government is considered to be good and effective only if it fulfils all basic needs and commitments with full effectiveness, efficiency and economy.
The basic objective of governance is to establish and maintain qualitative relationship between good government and citizens with a citizen-friendly outlook.
In the present context, governance is an effort to widen the purview of public administration by going beyond formal government.
It not only includes integral and managerial aspects but also involves private sector and non- governmental mechanisms (collaborative partnership) which implies participatory decision-making approach.
The concept of ‘good governance’ is increasingly gaining importance in today’s welfare state by performing all governmental activities in a more efficient and effective way with more accountability, openness and responsiveness towards public needs. IGNOU BPAC 131 Solved Free Assignment
It focuses on providing various benefits and avenues to citizens so that their living standards can improve and thus leads to an improvement in the overall quality of life of its people.
There are eight main characteristics of good governance, indicated below:
Accountability: It means to establish a basis to measure the performance of public officials. It is the basic requirement of good governance.
Besides government institutions, private sector and civil society organisations must be accountable to the public and to their institutional stakeholders.
Transparency: It means that decisions taken by the government and their enforcement are in accordance with rules and regulations. It reduces uncertainty and also helps to curb corruption amongst public officials.
Responsive: It implies that institutions and processes should try to serve all stakeholders within a specific and reasonable time limit.
Government should be responsive for their actions and activities that are going to affect the citizens directly or indirectly.
Participation: It refers to the participation of the citizens in development process. Participation of all citizens whether men or women is the basic need of good governance. IGNOU BPAC 131 Solved Free Assignment
Affected groups from the projects of the government should participate so that government can make relevant changes according to their needs and requirements.
Effectiveness and efficiency: Good governance means that government should work for the fulfilment of objectives i.e. to meet the needs of the society while making the best use of available resources.
Efficiency means the sustainable use of natural resources and protection of the environment.
Rule of law: It implies legitimate use of authority to maintain order along with the protection of human rights of its citizens, especially of its minorities and unprivileged class.
Consensus-oriented: Society consists of different sections with varied viewpoints. Good governance means to consider all different views in the society and then arrive at a consensus that is in the best interest of the community and how it can be achieved.IGNOU BPAC 131 Solved Free Assignment
Equity and Inclusiveness: Society’s well-being is possible when all its members feel their involvement and participation in it and they do not feel excluded from the society.
It includes involvement of all groups, especially the most vulnerable sections of the society.
Q. 3. Examine the relationship between Public and Private Administration.
Ans. The term “administration” as the activities of groups cooperating to accomplish common goals. The dictionary defines administration as “management of affairs”.
However, administration is a collective activity towards the attainment of a specific goal. According to Waldo, “Public Administration is the art and science of management as applied to the affairs of state.”
Basically, Public Administration is concerned with the “what” and the “how” of government. It is a specialised academic field. It concerned with the three branches of governmental activities-Legislative, Executive and Judiciary.
But private administration differs from the public administration in different fields. When the term refers to the activities of a factory, it is called Private Administration, and when it refers to those of the activities of local, state, and central government, it is called Public Administration.IGNOU BPAC 131 Solved Free Assignment
Is Public Administration similar, or different from private administration? There is one school of thought which gives opinion that, there is no difference between the public and private administration, because administrative activities and technologies are similar in all organisations, whether they are public or private.
The other school of thought believes that, there are some important points of difference between the public and private administration.
Public Administration and Private Administration: Similarities
Some of the important thinkers of Public Administration like Henry Fayol, Mary Parker Follet and Urwick given the opinion that both Public and private administration have common and fundamental characteristics.
Henry Fayol treated good adminis- tration as a process which included a certain number of principles common to all the organisations.
Again, he say that, there is only one administrative science, which is basically applied equally in the both fields like public and also private sectors.
The following similarities between the public and private administration may be noted:IGNOU BPAC 131 Solved Free Assignment
- Both public and private administration deals in common skills, techniques and procedures.
- Both administration serves the people and also to maintain close contact with people to inform about their services.
- In the recent period, the principle of profit motive is not so much based on private administration, because the objective of private sector is welfare to the people.
- In public and private sectors, there are similar types of hierarchy and management systems. Both have superior-subordinate pattern of relationship in the organisation.
- In personnel management, the private organisation have been influenced greatly by the practices of public organisations.
- Both are trying to improve their internal working and also for efficient delivery of services to people or customers. Henry Fayol remarked, “The meaning which I have given to the word administration and which has been generally adopted broadens consideration the field of administrative science. It embraces not only the public service but enterprises of every size and description, of every form and every purpose. All the administration must deal with the planning, organisation, command, coordination and control. Public and private administration are basically similar in skills, research and improvement; and public relations and so on.
Q. 4. Briefly discuss the nature of Policy Sciences approach.
Ans. According to V. Subramaniam’s policy science is ‘The practical application of all relevant knowledge in the social physical and natural sciences, to specific policy, problems identified well ahead of time.
‘ Dror’s writings on policy analysis have three main features:
.Technical experts who are sensitive to the ethical implications of decisions.
.Close cooperation between researchers in government, and
.An informed citizenry to fend off the anti-democratic spectra of an expert ruling class.IGNOU BPAC 131 Solved Free Assignment
A large number of teachings of policy studies and training of policy analyst have happened over the years and the emphasis in training has been on the principles of optimization of decision theory (according to Nagel).
According to Y. Dror and other writer’s policy sciences is an interdisciplinary approach which is concerned with improving the policy process through the use of systematic knowledge, structural rationality and organized activity.
Also he says that policy science ‘Is not directly concerned with the substantive contents of discrete policy problems but rather with improved methods of knowledge and systems for better policy-making.
Policy Science as Social Science: According to some scholars policy science is a social science and according to some it is simply a model.
Like Dror says that policy science “Constitute a breach in the solid wall separating contemporary sciences from the ethics and philosophy of values and should build up an operational theory of values as part of policy science”.
Bur policy science is not an exact science as it has nothing to do with prediction. It is more of an approach which works towards improving the methods of knowledge and systems for better policy-making.IGNOU BPAC 131 Solved Free Assignment
It helps a decision-maker to take the decisions with improved methods of knowledge and therefore work with the real world to attain specific goals.
In all we can say that policy science influences the political agenda by using policy-makers and the mass of people. Different scholars have different scholars have different views in this regard:
. According to Nagel, policy analysis provides ‘new insights’ and enables policy-makers to make better informed choices and by implication of better policy.
. According to Stokey and Zeckauser, ‘no sensible policy choice can be made without careful analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of each course of action.”
. Dror says that institutionalized policy science results in improved policy options.
Struggle for Expanding Scope: Scholars have been working hard and struggling for expanding the scope of policy science. They have also realized the limitations of opportunities for the knowledge and skill in this field.
They have used all possible strategies like evaluation, utilization, implementation and termination in this field.IGNOU BPAC 131 Solved Free Assignment
The field has its limitation as it goes hand in hand with the political and social events happening in the world. Such events directly or indirectly produce effects on the policy sciences.
The scholars have had lots of hindrances and difficulties in formulation good policies and after criticism, they have had mixed results in their analysis.
But inspite of all this, policy science has remained as an intellectually viable and academically popular subject amongst the scholars.
Q. 5. Discuss the conceptual framework of New Public Management.
Ans. Public administration as detailed and systematic application of law. It emphasised on the state and given importance to bureaucracy as an instrument of state of the implementation of policies and programmes.
Public administration has always based on public interest and assuring equity, responsiveness and representativeness to the citizens.
The impact of globalisation on public administration has been significant change in management system. From the early 1980s serious challenges have been posed to administration on bureaucracy. IGNOU BPAC 131 Solved Free Assignment
New public management perspective prescribes a set of reform. Beginning 1980s, there has been a widespread attack on public sector and bureaucracy.
Bureaucracy was considered to be too unwieldy, unresponsive, inefficient, ineffective and unable to withstand the competition.
There are several factors which has given too rise to new public management perspective. These include:
(1) Increase in Government Expenditure: Government expenditure has been increased during 1970s and 1980s, in many countries due to mis-management, corruption and inefficiencies in governmental operation.
The rise in government expenditure along with poor economic performance. Hence, government organisation has shift towards privatisation and quasi-privatisation of certain activities.
(2) Influence of Neo-liberalism: Neo-liberalism ideology has been influenced during the 1980s and 1990s. Neo-liberalism favoured dominant on market forces, its basic concepts such as efficiency, markets, competition, consumer choice, etc.
It favoured cutting back of welfare state, maximising individual liberty and freedom, and encouraging market mechanisms leading to equitable outcomes. The state promote the efficient functioning of markets.
(3) Impact of New Right Philosophy: In the year of 1970s, the new Philosophy Propagated in UK as well as U.S.A. it favoured markets as more efficient for allocation of resources. IGNOU BPAC 131 Solved Free Assignment
This perspective had a global impact in generating a consensus about the efficiency of market forces. Thus, markets were considered to play a key role in the creation of economic wealth and employment.
(4) Pubic Choice Approach: The public choice approach had a major impact on the evaluation of the new public management perspective. All human behaviour is dominated by self-interest.
The human being is considered to be a utility maximiser, who intends to increase net benefits from the action or decision.
According to the public choice theorists such behaviours and attitudes lead to an increase in size and costs of government and inflated departmental budgets.
Bureaucracy is responsible for the declining quality of public services. This thinking led to the new paradigm of government sensitive to market forces.
(5) Washington Consensus: During the 1980s and 1990s, the state playing a significant role in economic development and poverty is the common phenomena especially in the developing countries.
The need for bringing about adjustments in the economy on various fronts such as financial and banking sectors and reduced role for the state in economic development have been considered indispensable.
This led to the emergence of Washington consensus. It basically comprises the reform measures promoted by International Monetary Fund and World Bank institutions.IGNOU BPAC 131 Solved Free Assignment
Q. 6. Briefly describe the contribution of Lyndal Urwick.
Ans. Urwick completed his education from Oxford University. He was born in Japan, and served in the First World War as Lt. Col. of the British Army.
Urwick was also associated with several International Management Institutes and published several books like-Management of Tomorrow, The Making of Scientific Management, Leadership in Twentieth Century Organisations, The Patterns of Management etc.
He have eiht principles on the basis of which the organization works on:
The Objective of the Organisation. Authority and Responsibility. Span of Control.
Coordination; and Delegation among other principles.
In the scheme of though of Urwick, an organisation is mainly a designing process.
In his view, identification of activities or tasks and their classification or grouping formed the first part of that process, while the workers or personnel occupied the latter part. IGNOU BPAC 131 Solved Free Assignment
The principles identified by Urwick are based on his theory of organisation design. Scalar Chain or Hierarchy, he observed, formed a necessary element in the organisation structure as the lack of hierarchy would lead to “breakdown of authority”.
This will in turn impact the ability to get work done or receive compliance of orders by the subordinates.
In other words, the clear lines of authority running through an organisation would improve the efficiency and performance.
Q. 7. Describe the significance of Hawthorne studies.
Ans. Hawthorne Studies/Experiment: Principal Conclusions
(a) From the Hawthorne experiments, it is found out that the social and psychological factors at work place are the major determinants of workers’ satisfaction and organisational output. It also discovered the informal organisation.
(b) Human relations schools or movement of later years was constructed by the discoveries of Mayo’s team. This experiment also help supervisors to effectively bridge the gap between the informal and formal organisation.
Different scholars have identified the following things which is based on the Hawthorne experiment:IGNOU BPAC 131 Solved Free Assignment
(i) The Group: In an organisation, groups are essential to increase its production. It influence the behaviour of individuals.
In the groups, workers do not act as individuals, but they do as members of the group. It acts as a restraint on executive power. It also provides shield against executive reprisals.
(ii) Democratic Administration: Democratic administration means workers have some power to manage the administration.
Workers achieve the highest level of effectiveness when they are allowed to manage their own affairs without any interference from the formal supervisors.
(iii) Social Norms: It is the social norms by which organisational effectiveness is determined.
Principles of administration such as division of work or the physiological capability of the worker are not critical factors in productivity.
(iv) Rewards and Sanctions: Rewards and sanctions play a significant role in the organisation. It guide the behaviour of the workers. Those workers perform good work in the industry get rewards and due to its bad work he is punished.
Instead of economic incentives, non-economic rewards such as social rewards and group sanction are also important.IGNOU BPAC 131 Solved Free Assignment
(v) Supervision: Supervision is most effective when the supervisors linked with the group or its group leaders. It make consultation with the group leader in order to get their acceptance of organisational objectives.
According to Human Relations scholars effective communication and workers’ participation in the decision-making process is the key to effective supervision.
Q. 8. Write a short on Bank Wiring Observation Room.
Ans. This was the last experiment conducted by Elton Mayo and his team in Western Electric Company. In this experiment three groups of workmen whose work was inter-related were chosen for observation.
It was known as “The Bank Wiring Experiment”. Here wages were paid on the basis of group incentive plan and each member got his share on the basis of the total output of the group.IGNOU BPAC 131 Solved Free Assignment
The research team found that the workers developed their own norm of standard output, which was lower than the management target.
According to its standard plan, the group not allow its members to increase or decrease the output. They have followed some code of conduct for their solidarity.
(a) One should not maintain social distance. If one is an inspector, he should not act like one.
(b) One should not turn out too much work, if one does he is a ‘rate buster’.
(c) One should not turn out little work. If one does he is a ‘chesler’.
(d) One should not tell a supervisor, anything negative about an associate.
After the study Mayo and his team identified the following views of the workers:
(a) The workers viewed, interference of efficiency men and technologists in the workplace as disturbance.
(b) They thought that the experts follow the logic of efficiency with a constraint on their group activity.
(c) The logic of efficiency did not go well with the logic of sentiments which is a corner stone of social system.
(d) The workers felt that research team had nothing to do with the management on general economic condition of the plant.IGNOU BPAC 131 Solved Free Assignment
(e) To discipline the worker, the supervisors represented authority.
Q. 9. Comment on the concept of ecology.
Ans. Various scholars and administrators have often referred to the need to relate public administration to the environment in which it functions.
Ecology’ refers to “The mutual relations collectively, between organism and their environment” factors such as people, situation, scientific technology, social technology, wishes and ideas catastrophe an personality relates Governments functions to the environmental organisations, structures, procedures, goals are largely created and changed as a result of the interaction between an organisation and its environment.
Thus, if an organisation is to survive it must adopt itself to the changing needs and conditions of its external environment which is continuously changing.
Fred Riggs is one of the foremost exponent of the ecological approach in Public Administration. IGNOU BPAC 131 Solved Free Assignment
Q. 10. Discuss Anthony Downs’ views on Public Choice Approach.
Ans. Anthony Downs’ contribution to PCA is related to the study of bureaucratic behaviour.
Downs’ model shows how bureaucratic growth takes place as a result of laws and how the motivations of officials and bureaucracy in the way in which they set about maximising their interests.
Downs in his Book Inside Bureaucracy, assumes that decision-making in bureaucracies is informed by the pursuit of self-interest.
Downs argues that the motivations of individual officials are diverse such as power, money, income, prestige, personality, loyalty and security. He categorises bureaucrats into five types: IGNOU BPAC 131 Solved Free Assignment
(i) Climbers: Are concerned with power and prestige. Such bureaucrats just want to move ahead in the political or bureaucratic ladder and they are not concerned with ethics, people or anything.
(ii) Conservers: Are concerned with minimising change. They keep things as it is and retain the traditional mode of working.
(iii) Zealots: Are highly motivated committed to push for a policy or programme and are filled with enthusiasm.
(iv) Advocates: Are concerned with maximising the resources of their bureau, be it personnel resources or financial resourcs; and
(v) Statesmen: Has a sense of public interest, which may be advanced by increasing their power so as to realise their goals.