MPS 01 Solved Free Assignment 2023
MPS 01 Solved Free Assignment January 2023
Answer Any 5 Question
Q 1. Examine political science as a science.
Ans. experiments, and then refining or rejecting those hypotheses based on the results. Political science employs a similar approach, albeit with some unique challenges due to the complexity and variability of political phenomena.
Political scientists use a variety of methods to study politics, including quantitative analysis, case studies, and comparative analysis.
These methods allow them to test hypotheses and make predictions about political phenomena, much like scientists in other fields.
One of the hallmarks of scientific inquiry is the use of theory to guide research. Theories in political science are explanations of how and why political phenomena occur.
They are based on empirical evidence and are subject to testing and refinement through research. MPS 01 Solved Free Assignment 2023
For example, the theory of rational choice suggests that individuals make decisions based on their self-interest and the expected costs and benefits of their actions.
This theory has been tested in numerous studies and has been found to have predictive power in explaining political behavior.
Another important aspect of political science as a science is its focus on causality. Political scientists are interested in understanding the factors that lead to political outcomes.
They use a variety of techniques to identify causal relationships, including statistical analysis, controlled experiments, and comparative analysis.
By identifying causal relationships, political scientists can make predictions about political outcomes and develop policies that are likely to achieve specific goals.
However, political science also faces some unique challenges as a scientific discipline. One of the primary challenges is the complexity of political phenomena.
Unlike physical or biological systems, political systems are composed of multiple actors, each with their own goals, motivations, and beliefs.
This makes it difficult to isolate the effects of specific variables on political outcomes. Additionally, political systems are dynamic and subject to change, making it difficult to make accurate predictions about future events.
Another challenge is the issue of values and ideology. Political scientists often study topics that are politically controversial and can be influenced by personal values and beliefs. MPS 01 Solved Free Assignment 2023
For example, a political scientist studying abortion policy may hold strong personal views on the subject that could bias their research.
To address this challenge, political scientists strive to maintain objectivity in their research, using rigorous methods and avoiding personal biases as much as possible.
Finally, political science faces the challenge of the ethical implications of research. Political scientists studying sensitive topics such as terrorism, war, and human rights violations must be mindful of the potential harm their research could cause.
They must also consider issues of privacy and confidentiality when conducting research involving human subjects.
Political science as a science is also characterized by its interdisciplinary nature. Political scientists draw upon a range of other disciplines, including economics, sociology, psychology, and history, to understand political phenomena.
This interdisciplinary approach allows political scientists to examine politics from multiple perspectives, enriching their understanding of political systems and behavior.
Moreover, political science is not only concerned with studying the past and present but also with predicting the future. Political scientists use their knowledge and research findings to develop policies and strategies that can shape the course of events.
For example, political scientists can advise policymakers on the potential consequences of a particular policy, helping them to make informed decisions that will benefit society. MPS 01 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Lastly, political science as a science has a significant impact on society. Political scientists play an important role in informing public discourse and policy decisions.
Their research findings can help to shape public opinion, influence political campaigns, and inform government policies.
By providing insights into political systems and behavior, political science can help to improve the functioning of democracies and promote more effective governance.
As such, political science is an important discipline that has the potential to make a positive impact on society.
political science is different from natural sciences such as physics or chemistry because it deals with social phenomena that are often complex, subjective, and contextual.
Human behavior and political institutions are shaped by culture, history, and power relationships, which are difficult to measure and quantify.
Moreover, political science is often influenced by normative values and ethical considerations.
Political scientists may have different perspectives and ideologies, which can affect their research questions, methods, and interpretations of data.
Despite these challenges, political science remains an important and valuable field of study. It provides insights into the workings of political systems, helps us understand the causes and consequences of political events, and informs policy decisions.
As such, political science is a science in its own right, but it is also a discipline that is intimately connected to politics and society.
In conclusion, political science is a science in that it employs scientific methods, theories, and approaches to understand and explain political phenomena.
Political scientists use empirical evidence to test hypotheses and develop theories that have predictive power. MPS 01 Solved Free Assignment 2023
However, political science also faces unique challenges due to the complexity of political systems, the influence of values and ideology, and the ethical implications of research.
Despite these challenges, political science remains a vital and important discipline, providing insights and knowledge that are essential to understanding and addressing some of the most pressing issues facing society today.
Q 2. Trace the genesis of democracy
Ans. Democracy is a political system in which power is held by the people, either directly or through elected representatives. The origins of democracy can be traced back to ancient civilizations, particularly in Greece and Rome.
However, the concept of democracy has evolved over time, influenced by historical events and cultural factors. In this essay, we will trace the genesis of democracy, exploring its development and evolution from ancient Greece to modern times.
The ancient Greeks are often credited with inventing democracy. In Athens, a city-state in ancient Greece, democracy emerged in the 5th century BCE.
Athenian democracy was direct, meaning that citizens participated directly in decision-making through a system of mass meetings and assemblies. However, Athenian democracy was not open to all citizens.
Women, slaves, and foreigners were excluded from participation, and only adult male citizens who had completed military service were eligible to participate in the political process.
Despite these limitations, Athenian democracy represented a significant advancement in political organization. It allowed citizens to participate in decision-making, promoting a sense of civic responsibility and engagement.
Athenian democracy also had a profound influence on Western political thought, inspiring later thinkers such as Jean-Jacques Rousseau and John Stuart Mill.
After the fall of the Roman Empire, democracy largely disappeared from Europe for several centuries. However, the concept of democracy remained alive in some parts of the world, particularly in Islamic societies.
The Islamic concept of shura, or consultation, was similar to Athenian democracy in that it involved participation by citizens in the political process.
However, unlike Athenian democracy, shura was open to all citizens, regardless of gender or social status. MPS 01 Solved Free Assignment 2023
In Europe, democracy began to re-emerge during the Renaissance and Enlightenment periods. These movements emphasized the importance of individual rights, reason, and humanism.
As a result, thinkers such as Montesquieu, Voltaire, and Rousseau began to promote the idea of democracy as a means of protecting individual rights and promoting the public good.
Democracy was not widely practiced in other parts of the world until much later in history. The Magna Carta, signed in 1215 in England, established the principle that the king was subject to the law and paved the way for representative government.
The English Civil War in the 17th century and the American Revolution in the 18th century were significant events in the development of modern democracy.
The ideas of individual rights, popular sovereignty, and constitutional government were advanced during these periods and influenced the development of democratic principles and institutions.
The French Revolution in the late 18th century also played a significant role in the spread of democracy.
The revolutionary slogan of “Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité” (Liberty, Equality, Fraternity) reflected a desire for political and social equality and inspired movements for democracy and political reform around the world.
The French Revolution of 1789 marked a major turning point in the history of democracy. The revolutionaries in France sought to overthrow the monarchy and establish a republic based on the principles of liberty, equality, and fraternity.
This led to the adoption of a new constitution, which established a representative government and guaranteed individual rights.
However, the French Revolution also had its share of challenges and setbacks, including political instability, social unrest, and the rise of authoritarianism.
The 19th century saw the growth of democracy throughout Europe and the Americas. In the United States, democracy was enshrined in the Constitution and Bill of Rights, which guaranteed individual rights and established a system of checks and balances to prevent the abuse of power. MPS 01 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Q 6. (a) Classical Liberalism
(b) Liberal democratic welfare state
Ans. Classical liberalism is a political and economic philosophy that emphasizes individual freedom, limited government, and free markets. It originated in the 18th and 19th centuries, and was a response to the feudal and mercantilist systems that dominated Europe at the time.
Classical liberals believe that individuals should be free to pursue their own interests and make their own choices without interference from the government or other individuals.
They also believe in the importance of limited government, which should only exist to protect individual rights and maintain social order.
Classical liberals also promote free markets, which they believe are the most efficient way to allocate resources and promote economic growth.
Some key figures associated with classical liberalism include John Locke, Adam Smith, and John Stuart Mill.
Classical liberalism has had a significant influence on the development of Western political and economic systems, including the creation of modern democracies and the rise of capitalism. MPS 01 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Classical liberalism emerged during a time of great social and political change in Europe. It was a response to the feudal and mercantilist systems that had dominated European society for centuries.
Feudalism was a system in which individuals were tied to the land and subject to the authority of lords and kings.
Mercantilism was a system in which the state controlled trade and economic activity in order to increase its wealth and power. Classical liberals rejected both of these systems, arguing that they were outdated and inefficient.
Instead, classical liberals championed individual liberty as the foundation of a free and prosperous society. They believed that individuals should be free to pursue their own interests, so long as they did not harm others in the process.
This meant that individuals should be free to own property, engage in commerce, and express their beliefs and opinions without fear of persecution.
Classical liberalism also placed a strong emphasis on limited government. Liberals believed that the state should only exist to protect individual rights and maintain social order.
They argued that an overreaching government could become a threat to individual liberty, and that political power should be diffused across different branches and levels of government to prevent tyranny.
In addition to individual liberty and limited government, classical liberalism also promoted free markets as the most efficient way to allocate resources and promote economic growth. MPS 01 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Classical liberals believed that a free market system, in which prices and production were determined by supply and demand rather than by government intervention, would lead to greater prosperity for all.
They argued that free markets would promote competition, innovation, and efficiency, leading to lower prices, higher quality goods and services, and greater economic growth.
Today, classical liberalism continues to influence political and economic thought around the world.
While classical liberals may differ on specific policies or issues, they share a commitment to individual liberty, limited government, and free markets as the key to a prosperous and free society.
Ans (b) The liberal democratic welfare state is a political and economic system that combines liberal principles of individual freedom with a commitment to social welfare and economic security for all citizens.
It is characterized by a strong welfare state, which provides universal access to education, healthcare, and other social services, as well as a market-based economy that is regulated to ensure fairness and prevent monopolies.
The origins of the liberal democratic welfare state can be traced back to the 19th century, when liberal thinkers began to recognize the need for social safety nets to protect individuals from the risks and uncertainties of modern capitalism.
In the 20th century, this vision was realized in many countries through the creation of welfare states that provided a range of social services and benefits, including healthcare, education, and social security.
The liberal democratic welfare state is based on the idea that individuals should be free to pursue their own interests and make their own choices, but that government has a role to play in ensuring that all citizens have access to the resources and opportunities necessary to live fulfilling lives.
This means that the state must take an active role in ensuring that everyone has access to education, healthcare, and other basic services, regardless of their income or social status. MPS 01 Solved Free Assignment 2023
One of the key features of the liberal democratic welfare state is its emphasis on social justice and equality.
This means that the state has a responsibility to ensure that everyone has access to the same opportunities and resources, regardless of their race, gender, or other personal characteristics.
It also means that the state must work to reduce inequality and poverty, through policies such as progressive taxation and income redistribution.
Another important aspect of the liberal democratic welfare state is its commitment to economic growth and innovation. While the state provides a safety net for citizens, it also recognizes the importance of a vibrant and dynamic economy.
This means that the state must create an environment that is conducive to business growth and investment, while also regulating the economy to ensure fairness and prevent monopolies.
In recent years, the liberal democratic welfare state has come under criticism from some quarters, who argue that it is too expensive and inefficient.
However, defenders of the system argue that it is necessary to ensure social justice and economic security, and that it has contributed to the prosperity and well-being of millions of people around the world.
Ultimately, the future of the liberal democratic welfare state will depend on how well it adapts to changing social and economic conditions, while remaining true to its core principles of individual freedom, social justice, and economic growth.
Q 7.(a) Libertarianism
(b) Party as vanguard of the proletariat (V. I. Lenin)
Ans. Libertarianism is a political and economic philosophy that emphasizes individual freedom, personal responsibility, and limited government. Libertarians believe that individuals should be free to make their own choices about their lives, as long as they do not harm others or interfere with their rights.
They also believe that government should be limited to its most essential functions, such as protecting individual rights and maintaining social order.
One of the key principles of libertarianism is the non-aggression principle, which states that individuals should not use force or coercion against others, except in self-defense. MPS 01 Solved Free Assignment 2023
This means that libertarians are opposed to government policies that infringe on individual rights, such as taxation or regulation of personal behavior.
Libertarians also believe in the importance of free markets, which they see as the most efficient and fair way to allocate resources and promote economic growth.
They argue that government intervention in the economy, such as subsidies or price controls, can distort the market and lead to inefficiencies and economic stagnation.
Another important aspect of libertarianism is its emphasis on personal responsibility. Libertarians believe that individuals should take responsibility for their own actions and decisions, and that they should not rely on government or other institutions to solve their problems.
This means that libertarians are generally opposed to welfare programs and other forms of government assistance.
Libertarianism has been associated with a range of political and social movements, including classical liberalism, anarchism, and the Tea Party movement.
While there is no one set of beliefs that defines libertarianism, it is generally characterized by a commitment to individual freedom, limited government, and free markets.
Critics of libertarianism argue that its emphasis on individualism and personal responsibility can lead to a lack of concern for social justice and the welfare of vulnerable populations. MPS 01 Solved Free Assignment 2023
They also point out that in practice, libertarians often support policies that benefit the wealthy and powerful at the expense of the poor and marginalized.
Despite these criticisms, libertarianism continues to be a popular and influential political philosophy, particularly in the United States.
Its emphasis on individual freedom and limited government resonates with many people who are skeptical of government power and wary of excessive regulation and intervention in their lives.
Ans (b) The idea of the party as the vanguard of the proletariat was developed by Vladimir Lenin, one of the key leaders of the Bolshevik Party in the early 20th century.
According to Lenin, the party should serve as the political leadership of the working class, guiding them towards revolution and the establishment of a socialist state.
Lenin believed that the working class was capable of overthrowing the ruling class and taking control of the means of production.
However, he also believed that the working class was not capable of developing a revolutionary consciousness on their own. Instead, he argued that a vanguard party was necessary to lead the working class towards revolution.
The vanguard party, according to Lenin, should be made up of the most politically advanced and committed members of the working class.
They should be dedicated to the cause of revolution and willing to take action to achieve it. The party should have a clear program and strategy for achieving revolution, and should work to build a broad coalition of working-class support.
Lenin saw the vanguard party as essential to the success of the socialist revolution. He believed that without a dedicated and organized leadership, the working class would be unable to overcome the obstacles posed by the ruling class and the state apparatus.
Critics of Lenin’s theory of the vanguard party argue that it can lead to authoritarianism and the concentration of power in the hands of a small group of leaders. MPS 01 Solved Free Assignment 2023
They also argue that it can lead to the suppression of dissent and the exclusion of other perspectives and voices.
Despite these criticisms, the idea of the party as the vanguard of the proletariat has remained an influential concept in socialist and communist movements around the world.
Q 9. (a) Conservatism
Ans. Conservatism is a political ideology that emphasizes preserving traditional values and institutions. It is generally opposed to rapid social change and seeks to maintain stability and order in society.
Conservative political thought can be traced back to the 18th century, when philosophers such as Edmund Burke and Joseph de Maistre criticized the French Revolution and advocated for the preservation of established institutions and customs.
Conservative thinkers believe that societies are complex and that attempts to radically reshape them can lead to unintended consequences.
They value the wisdom and accumulated experience of previous generations and believe that traditions and customs have evolved over time for good reason.
Conservatives view society as a collection of individuals who are connected through a network of social institutions, such as the family, the church, and the state.
They believe that these institutions play an important role in maintaining order and promoting social cohesion. MPS 01 Solved Free Assignment 2023
One of the key tenets of conservatism is individualism, which emphasizes personal responsibility, self-reliance, and limited government intervention in people’s lives.
Conservatives believe that individuals should be free to pursue their own interests and that the government should only intervene when necessary to protect individual rights or maintain public order.
They often support free market capitalism as a means of promoting economic growth and individual freedom.
Conservatives are often associated with social and cultural conservatism, which emphasizes traditional values and morality.
They tend to be skeptical of social and cultural changes that challenge traditional norms and beliefs.
For example, many conservatives oppose same-sex marriage and abortion on the grounds that they undermine traditional family structures and values.
They also tend to be more supportive of religious institutions and believe that they play an important role in promoting moral values.
In recent years, conservatism has become increasingly associated with nationalism and populism. Many conservatives believe that the nation-state is the most important political unit and that national identity and cultural heritage should be preserved.
They tend to be skeptical of international organizations and agreements, such as the United Nations and the European Union, and believe that national sovereignty should be prioritized.
Populist conservatives often focus on issues such as immigration, trade, and national security, and believe that the interests of the working class should be prioritized over those of the elite. MPS 01 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Ans (b) Fundamentalism is a religious movement that emerged in the early 20th century as a reaction against modernism and secularism. It is characterized by a literal interpretation of religious texts and a belief in their inerrancy.
Fundamentalists believe that their religion contains absolute truths that are applicable to all aspects of life and that these truths must be defended against the perceived threats of secularism and liberalism.
Fundamentalism is found in many different religions, including Christianity, Islam, Judaism, and Hinduism.
In each case, fundamentalists are often characterized by a strong sense of identity and a belief in the superiority of their religious tradition over others.
They often see themselves as part of a battle between good and evil and believe that they have a duty to promote their religion and defend it against external threats.
One of the key features of fundamentalism is its rejection of modernism and secularism. Fundamentalists believe that these movements have led to a decline in moral values and a loss of religious faith.
They reject scientific theories that contradict their religious beliefs and often view the scientific method as a threat to their religious worldview.
Instead, they emphasize the importance of religious traditions and practices and seek to promote them in all aspects of life.
Fundamentalists often have a strict code of behavior and morality that is based on their religious texts. They may be opposed to practices such as premarital sex, alcohol consumption, and gambling, and may see these as sinful behaviors that lead to moral decay.
They may also be opposed to certain political and social movements, such as feminism and LGBT rights, that they perceive as promoting values that are contrary to their religious beliefs.