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MPA 013 Solved Free Assignment 2023

MPA 013 Solved Free Assignment January 2023

Answer any five questions selecting at least two from each Section

Section – I

Q 1) Examine the nature and scope of public systems management.

Ans. Public systems management is a multifaceted field that plays a crucial role in the functioning of governments and public organizations.

It involves the planning, organization, coordination, and control of resources and activities to achieve specific public policy goals and deliver services to citizens.

Nature of Public Systems Management:

Goal-Oriented: Public systems management is fundamentally goal-oriented. It revolves around defining clear objectives and aligning resources and activities to achieve those objectives. MPA 013 Solved Free Assignment 2023

These goals are often rooted in the public interest, such as improving healthcare access, enhancing education, or reducing poverty.

Complexity: Public systems management operates in complex environments. Government agencies and public organizations deal with a wide range of issues, from infrastructure development to social welfare programs.

Managing these diverse activities necessitates a comprehensive understanding of the intricacies involved.

Multi-disciplinary: It draws from various disciplines, including public administration, economics, political science, and management.

Public systems managers need to integrate knowledge from these areas to make informed decisions and policies.MPA 013 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Interconnectedness: Public systems are interconnected. Actions in one area can have ripple effects across others.

For example, changes in healthcare policy can impact the economy and social well-being. This interconnectedness requires a holistic approach to management.

Scope of Public Systems Management:

Resource Allocation: One of the central aspects of public systems management is the allocation of resources.

This involves budgeting, prioritizing, and distributing funds to different programs and projects to ensure they align with government priorities.

Policy Development and Implementation: Public systems managers are responsible for developing policies that address societal issues and implementing them effectively. MPA 013 Solved Free Assignment 2023

This involves research, stakeholder engagement, and monitoring to ensure policies achieve their intended outcomes.

Performance Measurement: Evaluating the performance of public programs and services is vital.

Public systems managers employ various performance indicators and evaluation methods to assess the impact and effectiveness of government initiatives.

Stakeholder Engagement: Effective public systems management requires engagement with diverse stakeholders, including citizens, interest groups, and other government agencies. MPA 013 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Building consensus and garnering support for policies is crucial for success.

Crisis Management: Public systems managers must be prepared to respond to crises and emergencies, such as natural disasters or public health crises.

This includes disaster preparedness, response planning, and coordination efforts.

Challenges in Public Systems Management:

Political Influence: Public systems management is often subject to political influence. Elected officials may push for policies that align with their agendas rather than what is in the best interest of the public. This can hinder effective management.

Budget Constraints: Limited budgets can pose significant challenges. Public systems managers must make difficult choices regarding resource allocation, often leading to trade-offs between competing priorities.MPA 013 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Bureaucratic Red Tape: Bureaucratic processes and regulations can slow down decision-making and hinder innovation. Navigating through red tape can be a significant challenge for public systems managers.

Public Accountability: Public systems managers must be transparent and accountable for their decisions and actions.

Ensuring transparency and maintaining public trust can be challenging, especially when faced with controversies or scandals.

Rapid Technological Advancements: Technology is constantly evolving, and public systems must adapt to these changes. Keeping pace with technological advancements and ensuring data security can be a complex task.

Importance of Public Systems Management:

Effective Service Delivery: Public systems management is crucial for delivering essential services to citizens, such as healthcare, education, and infrastructure development. MPA 013 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Effective management ensures that these services meet the needs of the population.

Policy Innovation: Public systems managers play a key role in policy innovation. They can identify emerging issues and develop innovative solutions to address them, leading to better governance.

Resource Efficiency: Efficient allocation of resources through effective public systems management helps governments make the most of limited budgets, maximizing the impact of public spending.MPA 013 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Accountability and Transparency: It promotes accountability and transparency in government operations, which are essential for maintaining public trust and confidence in government institutions.

Crisis Response: Public systems management is critical during crises. Well-managed responses to emergencies can save lives and mitigate damage to communities.

Q 3) Describe the various forms of governance.

Ans. Governance is a broad concept that encompasses the structures, processes, and systems through which a society or organization makes decisions, enforces policies, and manages its affairs. MPA 013 Solved Free Assignment 2023

There are various forms of governance, each with its unique characteristics and implications for the distribution of power and authority.

Democratic Governance:


1. Democratic governance is characterized by the rule of the people, where citizens have the right to participate in decision-making processes.

2. Regular, free, and fair elections are a hallmark of democratic systems, allowing citizens to choose their representatives.

3. Fundamental rights and freedoms, such as freedom of speech, assembly, and press, are protected and upheld.MPA 013 Solved Free Assignment 2023

4. Transparency and accountability are emphasized, and institutions are designed to prevent the concentration of power.


1. Democratic governance promotes political participation and inclusivity, giving citizens a voice in shaping policies and laws.

2. It often leads to greater respect for human rights and the rule of law.

3. Political stability is more likely to be maintained as power transitions occur peacefully through elections.MPA 013 Solved Free Assignment 2023


1. Democratic systems can be slow and cumbersome, making it challenging to respond quickly to emergencies.

2. They may be susceptible to populism and demagoguery, where leaders appeal to emotions rather than rational decision-making.

3. There can be issues with gridlock and inefficiency due to the need for consensus-building and compromise.

Authoritarian Governance:MPA 013 Solved Free Assignment 2023


Authoritarian governance is characterized by a concentration of power in the hands of a single leader or a small group of elites.

Citizens have limited political participation, and elections are often controlled or manipulated.

Freedom of speech and the press may be restricted, and opposition is often suppressed.

The government has significant control over the economy and resources.

Advantages: MPA 013 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Authoritarian systems can bring stability and order to a society, which may be seen as an advantage in times of crisis or rapid development.

Decisions can be made swiftly, without the need for lengthy deliberation or consensus-building.

Economic development can be prioritized and executed efficiently.


Authoritarian regimes often violate human rights and suppress dissent, leading to social and political unrest.MPA 013 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Corruption and nepotism are common in such systems, eroding public trust.

Lack of political participation can lead to poor policy decisions and a disconnect between the government and the governed.

Theocratic Governance:


Theocratic governance is characterized by the rule of religious leaders or institutions.

Religious laws and principles are the foundation of the legal system.

Political authority is often intertwined with religious authority, with religious leaders holding significant power.MPA 013 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Citizens’ rights and freedoms are typically subject to religious doctrine.


Theocratic systems can provide a strong moral and ethical framework for society.

They may foster a sense of community and shared values.

Decisions are often made with a focus on religious principles, which can lead to a sense of purpose and morality.MPA 013 Solved Free Assignment 2023


Theocratic governance can lead to discrimination against religious minorities and those with differing beliefs.

It may stifle intellectual and social progress by enforcing rigid religious doctrines.

Conflict can arise between religious authorities and secular interests.

Tribal Governance:MPA 013 Solved Free Assignment 2023


Tribal governance is often found in indigenous communities and is characterized by communal decision-making.

Authority is vested in tribal leaders or councils, and decisions are made collectively.

Customary laws and traditions guide governance, and outsiders have limited influence.

Advantages: MPA 013 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Tribal governance often promotes a strong sense of community and cultural preservation

Decision-making is localized, allowing for adaptation to specific needs and circumstances.

It can provide a sense of identity and belonging to members of the tribe.

Disadvantages: MPA 013 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Tribal governance can be exclusionary, leading to the marginalization of non-tribal members or those with differing beliefs.

It may struggle to address complex issues that require a broader perspective or access to resources outside the tribe.

Disputes between tribes can escalate into violence or conflicts.

Corporate Governance:

Characteristics: MPA 013 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Corporate governance refers to the systems and structures that govern businesses and organizations.

It is characterized by a hierarchical structure, with power concentrated at the top.

Decisions are made by executives and boards of directors, with shareholders having some influence through voting rights.MPA 013 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Profit maximization is often the primary objective.


Corporate governance can lead to efficient decision-making and resource allocation within organizations.

It provides a framework for accountability to shareholders and stakeholders.

It is adaptable and can incorporate best practices from various industries.

Disadvantages: MPA 013 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Corporate governance may prioritize profits over social and environmental concerns, leading to ethical dilemmas.

It can result in income inequality, with executives earning significantly more than employees.

Short-term profit goals may lead to unsustainable practices and long-term risks.

Q 5) Write a note on important approaches to budgeting.

Ans. Budgeting is a critical financial tool used by individuals, businesses, and governments to manage their finances effectively.

It involves planning and allocating resources to achieve specific goals and objectives within a defined period. MPA 013 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Several approaches to budgeting have evolved over time to suit various needs and circumstances.

In this note, we will explore some of the most important budgeting approaches, including traditional, zero-based, incremental, activity-based, and rolling budgets.

Traditional Budgeting

Traditional budgeting, also known as incremental budgeting, is one of the oldest and most widely used budgeting approaches. MPA 013 Solved Free Assignment 2023

In this method, the current year’s budget serves as a base, and adjustments are made for the upcoming period by considering factors like inflation, historical data, and expected changes.

While traditional budgeting is straightforward and easy to implement, it has its drawbacks.

It often perpetuates inefficiencies by assuming that the previous year’s budget was optimal and does not encourage a thorough review of expenses.

Zero-Based Budgeting (ZBB) MPA 013 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Zero-based budgeting is an approach that differs significantly from traditional budgeting.

In ZBB, each budget item starts from zero, and managers must justify every expense, regardless of whether it existed in the previous budget cycle.

This approach encourages a more critical evaluation of each line item and can lead to cost savings and increased efficiency.

However, ZBB can be time-consuming and may not be suitable for all organizations, especially those with limited resources.MPA 013 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Incremental Budgeting

Incremental budgeting, as mentioned earlier, is closely related to traditional budgeting. It involves making small adjustments to the previous year’s budget to account for changes in circumstances.

This approach is often used when there is a stable environment, and past performance is a reliable indicator of future performance.

While incremental budgeting is relatively simple to implement, it may not be suitable for organizations facing rapid changes or uncertainty.

Activity-Based Budgeting (ABB) MPA 013 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Activity-based budgeting is a more detailed and modern approach to budgeting. It involves identifying and analyzing various activities within an organization and allocating resources based on the cost drivers associated with each activity.

ABB aims to link budgeting directly to the organization’s strategic goals by focusing on the activities that contribute the most value.

This approach can improve cost control and resource allocation but requires a thorough understanding of an organization’s processes and cost drivers.

Rolling Budgets

Rolling budgets, also known as continuous or perpetual budgets, are dynamic in nature. MPA 013 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Instead of creating an annual budget, organizations maintain a rolling budget that covers a fixed period, such as 12 months.

As each month passes, a new month is added to the end of the budget period, and the oldest month is dropped.

This approach allows organizations to adapt quickly to changing circumstances and provides a more accurate reflection of the current financial situation.

Rolling budgets are particularly useful in industries with volatile markets or when an organization is undergoing significant changes.

Beyond Budgeting

Beyond Budgeting is a more recent approach to budgeting that challenges the traditional budgeting process. MPA 013 Solved Free Assignment 2023

It argues that rigid annual budgets can stifle innovation, lead to gaming and unethical behavior, and fail to adapt to rapidly changing business environments.

Beyond Budgeting principles emphasize decentralization, transparency, and a focus on performance management rather than fixed budgets.

Instead of relying on a static budget, organizations following this approach use rolling forecasts and flexible resource allocation to remain agile and responsive.

Performance-Based Budgeting

Performance-based budgeting, also known as program-based budgeting, ties budget allocations to specific performance outcomes or objectives.

It focuses on achieving measurable results and holds departments or programs accountable for achieving their goals within allocated resources.

This approach is often used in the public sector to ensure that taxpayer funds are spent efficiently and effectively. MPA 013 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Performance-based budgeting can promote transparency, accountability, and the prioritization of activities that deliver the most value.

Capital Budgeting

Capital budgeting is a specialized form of budgeting used for long-term investments in assets such as buildings, machinery, and infrastructure.

This approach involves evaluating potential investments based on their expected cash flows, payback periods, and return on investment.

Capital budgeting helps organizations make informed decisions about whether to undertake large capital projects and how to finance them.

Section – II

Q 6) Describe the important schools of thought in strategic management.

Ans. Strategic management is a complex field that encompasses various schools of thought and approaches to formulate, implement, and evaluate organizational strategies. MPA 013 Solved Free Assignment 2023

These schools of thought provide different perspectives on how organizations should approach strategic planning and decision-making.

Here are some of the important schools of thought in strategic management:

Classical School:

Overview: The classical school of thought in strategic management is rooted in principles of rationality, efficiency, and a top-down approach. It emphasizes the role of senior management in making strategic decisions.

Key Ideas: Classical thinkers advocate for careful analysis, planning, and execution of strategies based on a comprehensive understanding of the external environment. They emphasize a structured approach to strategy formulation and implementation.

Environmental School:

Overview: The environmental school focuses on the external factors that influence an organization’s strategy. It emphasizes adapting to the external environment rather than trying to control it. MPA 013 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Key Ideas: Proponents of this school argue that organizations should continuously scan their external environment for opportunities and threats. Strategies should be flexible and responsive to changes in the business environment.

Resource-Based School:

Overview: The resource-based school of thought contends that an organization’s unique resources and capabilities should drive its strategy. It emphasizes leveraging internal strengths to gain a competitive advantage.

Key Ideas: This school emphasizes the importance of identifying and developing distinctive competencies and resources that are difficult for competitors to replicate. The focus is on sustainable competitive advantage through resource allocation.

Positioning School: MPA 013 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Overview: The positioning school focuses on finding a unique and defensible position in the market. It emphasizes the importance of market segmentation and differentiation.

Key Ideas: Strategists following this school believe that organizations should identify a specific market niche or segment and tailor their strategies to dominate that segment. The goal is to establish a strong competitive position.

Cognitive School: MPA 013 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Overview: The cognitive school of thought explores how cognitive processes and mental models influence strategic decision-making. It examines the role of intuition, experience, and judgment in strategy formation.

Key Ideas: This school argues that decision-makers’ mental frameworks and biases impact their strategic choices. It emphasizes the importance of understanding how cognitive processes affect strategy development.

Learning School:

Overview: The learning school focuses on the adaptive nature of strategy. It argues that strategies should be viewed as hypotheses that need testing and adjustment over time. MPA 013 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Key Ideas: Learning theorists stress the importance of experimentation, feedback, and continuous improvement in strategy development. Organizations should be open to change and willing to adapt as they learn from experience.

Mintzberg’s Emergent Strategy School:

Overview: Mintzberg’s emergent strategy school challenges the idea of a deliberate, planned strategy. It suggests that strategies often emerge over time through a combination of intended and unplanned actions.

Key Ideas: Mintzberg argues that strategies evolve in response to changing circumstances and that organizations should be flexible and responsive rather than strictly adhering to a predetermined plan.

Political School: MPA 013 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Overview: The political school highlights the role of power, influence, and political dynamics within organizations in shaping strategy. It recognizes that strategic decisions are often the result of negotiations and power struggles.

Key Ideas: This school suggests that strategists should be skilled in navigating organizational politics and forming alliances to advance their strategies. It emphasizes that strategy is not solely a rational process.

These schools of thought offer diverse perspectives on how organizations should approach strategic management. MPA 013 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Depending on an organization’s unique context and goals, it may draw upon principles from multiple schools to develop a holistic and effective strategic management approach.

Q 9) Examine the changing perspectives of accountability.

Ans. The concept of accountability has evolved significantly over time, reflecting changing societal norms, political dynamics, and technological advancements.

Examining these changing perspectives of accountability provides valuable insights into how we understand and implement this crucial aspect of governance and responsibility.

Historical Perspectives: MPA 013 Solved Free Assignment 2023

In ancient civilizations, such as Mesopotamia, there were early forms of accountability through legal codes and rulers’ decrees. Accountability was often enforced through physical punishment or restitution.

During the Enlightenment era, philosophers like John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau introduced the idea of a social contract, where governments were accountable to their citizens for protection of rights and the common good.

Democratic Accountability:

In modern democratic societies, accountability is a central tenet. Elected officials are accountable to their constituents through regular elections. The focus is on political and institutional accountability.MPA 013 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Government transparency and access to information have become key aspects of democratic accountability, allowing citizens to scrutinize the actions of their leaders.

Corporate Accountability:

In the business world, corporate accountability has gained prominence. Shareholders hold corporate leaders accountable for financial performance and ethical behavior.

Social responsibility and sustainability have become integral to corporate accountability, with companies expected to consider their impact on the environment and society.MPA 013 Solved Free Assignment 2023

Global Accountability:

As the world has become more interconnected, the concept of accountability has expanded to the global stage.

International organizations like the United Nations hold nations accountable for human rights violations and international agreements.

Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) play a significant role in holding governments and corporations accountable for their actions on a global scale.

Technological Perspectives:

The digital age has transformed accountability by providing new tools for transparency and accountability. Social media and whistleblowing platforms enable individuals to expose wrongdoing.MPA 013 Solved Free Assignment 2023

However, the proliferation of misinformation and the challenge of regulating online spaces have raised questions about accountability in the digital realm.

Crisis and Accountability:

Crises, such as financial meltdowns and public health emergencies like the COVID-19 pandemic, have highlighted the need for accountability in times of uncertainty.

Citizens demand transparency and accountability from their leaders during such crises.

Intersectionality and Inclusivity:

Contemporary perspectives on accountability emphasize the importance of inclusivity and intersectionality. MPA 013 Solved Free Assignment 2023

It’s not just about holding individuals accountable but addressing systemic issues related to race, gender, and other identities.

Restorative Justice:

Some perspectives on accountability have shifted towards restorative justice, which focuses on repairing harm and rehabilitating offenders rather than punitive measures.

Future Trends:

Emerging technologies like blockchain and AI are expected to play a role in enhancing accountability by improving data integrity and traceability.

Climate change accountability is becoming increasingly important, with calls for nations and corporations to be held accountable for their contributions to environmental degradation.MPA 013 Solved Free Assignment 2023

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