MFN 001 Solved Free Assignment 2023
MFN 001 Solved Free Assignment January 2023
Section A -DescriptiveQuestions
There are eight questions in this part. Answer all questions.
Q 1. a) What is a cell? Briefly explain the eukaryotic cell and its organization.
Ans. A cell is the basic unit of life, which is responsible for carrying out all the functions necessary for the survival of an organism. Cells are classified into two major types: prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells.
Eukaryotic cells are more complex than prokaryotic cells and are found in animals, plants, fungi, and protists.
They are characterized by having a distinct nucleus enclosed by a double membrane, which contains the genetic material in the form of DNA.
Eukaryotic cells also have membrane-bound organelles, such as mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and peroxisomes, which carry out specific functions within the cell.
The cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell is divided into different compartments by a complex network of membranes. MFN 001 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The endoplasmic reticulum, for example, is responsible for the synthesis and transport of proteins, while the Golgi apparatus modifies and packages proteins for secretion or transport to other parts of the cell.
Mitochondria are responsible for energy production, while lysosomes and peroxisomes are involved in the breakdown of cellular waste and detoxification, respectively.
Overall, the organization of a eukaryotic cell is highly compartmentalized, with each organelle playing a specific role in the overall function of the cell.
b) Define Ageing. Elaborate different theories of ageing.
Ans. Ageing, also known as senescence, is the natural process of the human body becoming less efficient over time, leading to a decline in physical and cognitive abilities. This process is inevitable and affects all living organisms, including humans.
There are several theories of ageing, which aim to explain the underlying mechanisms that cause the ageing process.
These theories can be broadly classified into two categories: programmed and damage or error theories.MFN 001 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Programmed theories: These theories suggest that ageing is an intrinsic part of an organism’s genetic programming, and the ageing process is pre-programmed into our DNA.
The most prominent programmed theory is the Telomere Shortening Theory, which suggests that the loss of telomeres (the protective caps on the ends of chromosomes) is the primary cause of ageing.
As telomeres shorten with each cell division, eventually, they become too short to protect the chromosomes, which leads to cellular senescence and ageing.
Damage or error theories: These theories propose that ageing is caused by damage or errors that accumulate over time, leading to a decline in bodily functions. These theories can be further divided into several subcategories:
Free Radical Theory: This theory suggests that ageing is caused by the accumulation of free radicals, which are highly reactive molecules that damage cellular components, including DNA, proteins, and lipids.
Wear and Tear Theory: This theory proposes that ageing is caused by the cumulative effects of wear and tear on the body, including physical stress, environmental toxins, and metabolic waste products.MFN 001 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Cross-Linking Theory: This theory suggests that ageing is caused by the accumulation of cross-linked proteins, which can impair cellular function and lead to tissue damage.
DNA Damage Theory: This theory proposes that ageing is caused by the accumulation of DNA damage, which can lead to mutations and impair cellular function.
Hormonal Theory: This theory suggests that ageing is caused by a decline in hormone production, which can lead to a range of age-related symptoms, including decreased muscle mass, increased body fat, and decreased bone density.
In conclusion, ageing is a complex process that is influenced by a range of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. MFN 001 Solved Free Assignment 2023
While the exact mechanisms that cause ageing are still not fully understood, the different theories of ageing provide valuable insights into the ageing process and help guide research efforts aimed at developing strategies to delay or mitigate the effects of ageing.
Q 2. a) What are salivary glands? Briefly explain composition and functions of saliva.
Ans. Salivary glands are a group of exocrine glands in the mouth that produce saliva, which is a clear, watery fluid that helps to moisten and lubricate food, aids in digestion, and protects the mouth and teeth from infection.
Composition of Saliva:MFN 001 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Saliva is composed of water, electrolytes (such as sodium, potassium, and bicarbonate), mucus, enzymes (such as amylase and lipase), and antibacterial substances (such as immunoglobulins and lysozyme).
The exact composition of saliva can vary depending on factors such as diet, hydration, and health status.
Functions of Saliva:
Moistening and Lubrication: Saliva helps to moisten and lubricate food, making it easier to chew and swallow.
Digestion: Saliva contains enzymes such as amylase, which helps to break down carbohydrates, and lipase, which helps to break down fats.
Protection: Saliva contains antibacterial substances such as immunoglobulins and lysozyme, which help to protect the mouth and teeth from infection and decay.
pH Balance: Saliva contains bicarbonate, which helps to neutralize acids in the mouth and maintain a healthy pH balance.MFN 001 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Taste: Saliva helps to dissolve and spread taste molecules, allowing us to experience different flavors.
b) What are neural mechanisms which control respiration? Elaborate them briefly.
Ans. Respiration is the process of breathing, which involves the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the body and the environment.
The neural mechanisms that control respiration are complex and involve several regions of the brainstem and higher brain centers.
Here are the brief explanations of the neural mechanisms that control respiration:
Medulla Oblongata: The medulla oblongata is located in the brainstem and contains several respiratory centers, including the dorsal respiratory group (DRG) and the ventral respiratory group (VRG). MFN 001 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The DRG is responsible for generating the basic rhythm of breathing, while the VRG is responsible for coordinating the inspiratory and expiratory muscles.
Pons: The pons is also located in the brainstem and contains the pneumotaxic center and the apneustic center.
The pneumotaxic center regulates the duration and rate of breathing, while the apneustic center stimulates the DRG to increase the duration of inspiration.
Chemoreceptors: Chemoreceptors are specialized cells that detect changes in the levels of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid.
There are two types of chemoreceptors involved in respiration: peripheral chemoreceptors, which are located in the carotid and aortic bodies and respond to changes in arterial blood gases, and central chemoreceptors, which are located in the medulla oblongata and respond to changes in cerebrospinal fluid pH.
Stretch Receptors: Stretch receptors in the lungs and airways detect changes in lung volume and send signals to the brainstem to adjust the rate and depth of breathing.
Higher Brain Centers: Higher brain centers, including the cortex and limbic system, can also influence respiration through emotions, such as anxiety or excitement, and voluntary control, such as holding one’s breath.
Q 3. a) Briefly explain phases of cardiac cycle.
Ans. The cardiac cycle is a series of events that occur in the heart during each heartbeat, which includes systole (contraction) and diastole (relaxation) phases of both the atria and ventricles. Here are the phases of the cardiac cycle:
Atrial Systole: During atrial systole, the atria contract and push blood into the ventricles, causing the atrioventricular valves (AV valves) to open and the semilunar valves (SL valves) to close.MFN 001 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Isovolumic Contraction: Once the ventricles are filled with blood, they begin to contract, causing an increase in pressure that closes the AV valves and prevents blood from flowing back into the atria.
This phase is called isovolumic contraction because the volume of blood in the ventricles remains constant.
Ventricular Ejection: As the pressure in the ventricles exceeds the pressure in the arteries, the SL valves open and blood is ejected from the heart into the pulmonary and systemic circulation.MFN 001 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Isovolumic Relaxation: After ventricular ejection, the ventricles begin to relax, causing a decrease in pressure that closes the SL valves and prevents blood from flowing back into the ventricles.
This phase is called isovolumic relaxation because the volume of blood in the ventricles remains constant.
Atrial Diastole: During atrial diastole, the atria fill with blood from the veins, and the cycle starts over again
b) What do you understand by WBCs? Write about their different types in brief.
Ans. White blood cells (WBCs) are a type of blood cell that plays an important role in the immune system’s defense against infections and diseases.
There are five main types of WBCs, each with unique functions and characteristics:
Neutrophils: Neutrophils are the most abundant type of WBCs and are the first line of defense against bacterial infections. They are capable of phagocytosis (engulfing and digesting) of bacteria and other pathogens.
Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes are responsible for producing antibodies and other proteins that help the body fight off infections. There are three types of lymphocytes: T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells.MFN 001 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Monocytes: Monocytes are the largest type of WBCs and can differentiate into macrophages, which are specialized cells that can engulf and destroy bacteria, viruses, and other foreign substances.
Eosinophils: Eosinophils are involved in the body’s response to allergies and parasitic infections. They release chemicals that help to destroy parasites and also play a role in regulating inflammation.
Basophils: Basophils are involved in the body’s response to allergies and parasitic infections. They release histamine, which is involved in allergic reactions, and heparin, which prevents blood clotting.
Overall, the different types of WBCs play important roles in the body’s immune response, helping to identify and destroy pathogens and other foreign substances that could harm the body.MFN 001 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Q 4 a) Explain how external defence mechanism protects our body from different types of infections.
Ans. Our body has various external defense mechanisms that protect us from different types of infections caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, and other pathogens.
These external defense mechanisms include physical and chemical barriers, as well as various cells and molecules of the immune system. Here’s how each of these mechanisms work:
Physical barriers: The skin and mucous membranes are physical barriers that prevent pathogens from entering the body. MFN 001 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The skin acts as a barrier that blocks the entry of pathogens, while the mucous membranes lining the respiratory, digestive, and urogenital tracts trap and expel pathogens through the action of cilia and mucus.
Chemical barriers: Chemical barriers, such as saliva, sweat, tears, and stomach acid, contain substances that can kill or neutralize pathogens.
For example, stomach acid kills many ingested bacteria, while lysozyme in tears and saliva can break down bacterial cell walls.
Normal flora: Normal flora refers to the microbes that normally live on and inside the body, especially in the digestive and urogenital tracts.
These microbes can outcompete and inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria, thus preventing infections.MFN 001 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Innate immune cells: Innate immune cells, such as macrophages, neutrophils, and natural killer cells, can recognize and destroy pathogens without prior exposure.
Macrophages and neutrophils engulf and digest pathogens through a process called phagocytosis, while natural killer cells can recognize and kill virus-infected cells.
Complement system: The complement system is a group of proteins that can coat pathogens and attract immune cells to destroy them.
Together, these external defense mechanisms help to protect our body from a wide range of infections by preventing pathogens from entering the body, neutralizing or killing pathogens that do enter, and recruiting immune cells to destroy pathogens that evade these defenses.MFN 001 Solved Free Assignment 2023
b) Write about composition and functions of Gastric Juice and intestinal juice.
Ans. Gastric juice and intestinal juice are two important digestive secretions that play a key role in breaking down food and extracting nutrients from it. Here’s a brief overview of their composition and functions:
Gastric juice: Gastric juice is secreted by the gastric glands located in the lining of the stomach. It contains a mixture of hydrochloric acid, pepsinogen, and mucus.
Hydrochloric acid: Hydrochloric acid is the primary component of gastric juice, and it helps to break down food by lowering the pH of the stomach.
This acidic environment also helps to kill bacteria and other pathogens that may be present in the food.MFN 001 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Pepsinogen: Pepsinogen is an inactive enzyme precursor that is activated by the acidic environment of the stomach. Once activated, it breaks down proteins into smaller peptides and amino acids.
Mucus: Mucus is secreted by the gastric glands to protect the stomach lining from the corrosive effects of hydrochloric acid and other digestive enzymes.
Intestinal juice: Intestinal juice is secreted by the glands in the lining of the small intestine. It contains a mixture of enzymes, mucus, and bicarbonate ions.
Enzymes: Intestinal juice contains several enzymes, including amylase, lipase, and various proteases. These enzymes help to break down carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into their smaller components for absorption.
Mucus: Mucus in intestinal juice helps to protect the intestinal lining from the abrasive effects of digestive enzymes and helps to lubricate the passage of food through the intestine.MFN 001 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Bicarbonate ions: Bicarbonate ions help to neutralize the acidic chyme (partially digested food) that enters the small intestine from the stomach.
This helps to maintain a slightly alkaline environment in the intestine, which is necessary for the activity of many digestive enzymes.
Overall, gastric juice and intestinal juice work together to break down food and extract nutrients from it.
Gastric juice prepares food for further digestion in the small intestine by breaking down proteins, while intestinal juice contains enzymes that further break down carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into their smaller components for absorption.
Mucus in both juices protects the lining of the digestive tract from the corrosive effects of digestive enzymes and helps to lubricate the passage of food.
Q 5. a) Give the functions of following hormones:
Ans. (i) Gastrin: Gastrin is a hormone secreted by G cells in the stomach lining. Its main function is to stimulate the release of gastric acid from parietal cells in the stomach. MFN 001 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Gastrin also stimulates the growth and proliferation of gastric mucosal cells and enhances the motility of the stomach.
Ans. (ii) ADH (Antidiuretic hormone): ADH is a hormone produced by the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary gland.
Its main function is to regulate water balance in the body by reducing urine output. ADH acts on the kidneys to increase water reabsorption, which helps to conserve water and maintain fluid balance.
Ans.(iii) Insulin: Insulin is a hormone produced by beta cells in the pancreas. Its main function is to regulate blood glucose levels by promoting the uptake and storage of glucose in cells. MFN 001 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Insulin stimulates the uptake of glucose by cells in the liver, muscles, and adipose tissue, where it can be stored as glycogen or converted into fat.
Ans. (iv) Parathormone: Parathormone is a hormone produced by the parathyroid glands. Its main function is to regulate calcium and phosphate levels in the blood.
Parathormone increases the release of calcium from bones into the bloodstream and enhances the reabsorption of calcium in the kidneys.
It also stimulates the conversion of vitamin D to its active form, which helps to increase calcium absorption in the intestines.
b) Explain types and functions of cranial nerves.
Ans. The cranial nerves are a set of 12 pairs of nerves that originate from the brain and exit through various openings in the skull.
These nerves are responsible for controlling various functions in the head and neck region, including sensation, movement, and autonomic functions. Here are the different types and functions of the cranial nerves:
Olfactory nerve (CN I): The olfactory nerve is responsible for the sense of smell.
Optic nerve (CN II): The optic nerve is responsible for vision.
Oculomotor nerve (CN III): The oculomotor nerve controls the movements of several eye muscles, including the levator palpebrae, which raises the eyelid.
Trochlear nerve (CN IV): The trochlear nerve controls the movement of the superior oblique muscle, which is involved in eye movements.
Trigeminal nerve (CN V): The trigeminal nerve has three branches (ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular) that are involved in facial sensation and the control of jaw muscles.MFN 001 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Abducens nerve (CN VI): The abducens nerve controls the movement of the lateral rectus muscle, which is involved in eye movements.
Facial nerve (CN VII): The facial nerve controls facial expressions, taste sensation in the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, and the production of saliva and tears.
Vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII): The vestibulocochlear nerve is responsible for hearing and balance.
Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX): The glossopharyngeal nerve controls taste sensation in the posterior one-third of the tongue, and it is also involved in swallowing and the production of saliva.
Vagus nerve (CN X): The vagus nerve is involved in various autonomic functions, including the regulation of heart rate, respiratory rate, and digestion.
Accessory nerve (CN XI): The accessory nerve controls the movement of the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles, which are involved in head and neck movements.MFN 001 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Hypoglossal nerve (CN XII): The hypoglossal nerve controls the movement of the swallowing.
Q 6. a) Briefly explain three sections of the human ear.
Ans. The human ear is divided into three main sections: the outer ear, middle ear, and inner ear. Here is a brief explanation of each section:
Outer ear: The outer ear consists of the pinna (also known as the auricle) and the ear canal. The pinna is the visible part of the ear that collects sound waves and directs them into the ear canal. The ear canal is a tube-like structure that leads to the eardrum.
Middle ear: The middle ear is a small, air-filled cavity located behind the eardrum. It contains three tiny bones called the ossicles (the malleus, incus, and stapes) that transmit sound vibrations from the eardrum to the inner ear.
The middle ear is also connected to the back of the throat by a narrow tube called the Eustachian tube, which helps to equalize pressure in the middle ear.
Inner ear: The inner ear is located deep within the temporal bone of the skull and is composed of two main structures: the cochlea and the vestibular system.
The cochlea is responsible for hearing and contains sensory cells called hair cells that convert sound vibrations into electrical signals that are transmitted to the brain.
The vestibular system is responsible for balance and spatial orientation and contains structures called semicircular canals and otolith organs that detect changes in head position and movement.MFN 001 Solved Free Assignment 2023
the outer ear collects sound waves, the middle ear transmits them, and the inner ear converts them into electrical signals and helps us maintain balance and spatial orientation.
b) Briefly explain physiology of lactation.
Ans. Lactation is the process by which milk is produced and secreted from the mammary glands of female mammals to nourish their offspring. Here is a brief explanation of the physiology of lactation:
Hormonal control: Lactation is primarily controlled by the hormones prolactin and oxytocin.
Prolactin is produced by the pituitary gland in response to the suckling stimulus and stimulates the mammary gland to produce milk.
Oxytocin is also produced by the pituitary gland and is responsible for the ejection of milk from the mammary gland during nursing.
Milk production: Milk is produced in the alveoli of the mammary gland, which are small sacs lined with milk-secreting cells called epithelial cells.
The production of milk is stimulated by prolactin, which binds to receptors on the epithelial cells and promotes the synthesis and secretion of milk components such as lactose, lipids, and proteins.MFN 001 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Milk ejection: When a baby begins to nurse, sensory receptors in the nipple send signals to the brain, which releases oxytocin from the pituitary gland.
Oxytocin then stimulates the myoepithelial cells surrounding the alveoli to contract, squeezing the milk out of the alveoli and into the milk ducts for the baby to suckle.
Feedback control: Lactation is regulated by a feedback mechanism that ensures that milk production meets the demands of the baby.
When the baby nurses, the suckling stimulus stimulates the release of prolactin and oxytocin, which promote milk production and ejection.
As milk is removed from the breast, the feedback mechanism signals the brain to produce more milk to replace what has been removed.
Q 7. a) Explain female reproductive system in detail.
Ans. The female reproductive system is a complex network of organs and tissues that work together to produce and support the development of a new life.
Here is a detailed explanation of the female reproductive system:
Ovaries: The ovaries are two small, almond-shaped glands located on either side of the uterus. They produce and release eggs (ovulation) and secrete hormones such as estrogen and progesterone.MFN 001 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Fallopian tubes: The fallopian tubes are two thin tubes that extend from the ovaries to the uterus.
They provide a pathway for the egg to travel from the ovary to the uterus, and are the site of fertilization if sperm are present.
Uterus: The uterus is a hollow, muscular organ located in the pelvis. It is lined with a thick layer of tissue called the endometrium, which thickens and sheds during the menstrual cycle to support pregnancy.
Cervix: The cervix is the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina. It produces mucus that helps sperm travel to the uterus and also dilates during childbirth.
Vagina: The vagina is a muscular canal that extends from the cervix to the outside of the body. It receives the penis during sexual intercourse and serves as a passage for menstrual blood and childbirth.MFN 001 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Clitoris: The clitoris is a small, highly sensitive organ located at the front of the vulva. It contains many nerve endings and plays a key role in sexual arousal and pleasure.
Labia: The labia are two folds of skin located on either side of the vaginal opening. They protect the vaginal opening and are also highly sensitive to touch and sexual stimulation.
Mammary glands: The mammary glands are located in the breasts and produce milk to nourish a newborn baby.
The female reproductive system is regulated by a complex interplay of hormones, including estrogen, progesterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone.
These hormones control the menstrual cycle, which is the monthly process by which the uterus prepares for pregnancy.
The menstrual cycle is divided into three phases: the follicular phase, ovulation, and the luteal phase.MFN 001 Solved Free Assignment 2023
During the follicular phase, the follicles in the ovary grow and develop under the influence of follicle-stimulating hormone.
One of the follicles will become dominant and release an egg during ovulation. Ovulation is triggered by a surge of luteinizing hormone, which causes the follicle to rupture and release the egg into the fallopian tube.
If the egg is fertilized by sperm, it will implant in the uterus and begin to develop into a fetus. If the egg is not fertilized, the endometrium will shed during the menstrual phase.
b) Describe the following:
Ans.Hemodialysis is a medical treatment that involves removing waste and excess fluid from the blood of a patient whose kidneys are not functioning properly.
It is a type of renal replacement therapy that is used to treat kidney failure or end-stage renal disease.MFN 001 Solved Free Assignment 2023
During hemodialysis, blood is pumped from the patient’s body through a dialysis machine, which filters the blood and removes waste and excess fluid.
The machine consists of a series of tubes and filters, including a semipermeable membrane that allows small molecules, such as waste products, to pass through while retaining larger molecules such as blood cells and proteins.
The patient’s blood is circulated through the dialysis machine, where it is filtered and cleaned before being returned to the patient’s body.
This process typically takes 3-4 hours and is usually performed 3 times per week in a clinical setting.MFN 001 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Hemodialysis is a lifesaving treatment for patients with kidney failure, but it can also have side effects such as low blood pressure, muscle cramps, and nausea.
To minimize these side effects, patients are typically monitored closely during treatment, and their treatment plan may be adjusted as needed.
(ii) Structure of liver
Ans. The liver is a large, reddish-brown organ located in the upper right side of the abdomen, just beneath the diaphragm.
It is the largest gland in the human body and performs a wide range of vital functions, including detoxification, protein synthesis, and the production of bile.
The liver is divided into two main lobes, the right and left lobes, which are further subdivided into smaller lobes called lobules.
The lobules are the functional units of the liver and contain specialized cells called hepatocytes, which are responsible for carrying out many of the liver’s functions.
The liver is supplied with blood from two sources: the hepatic artery, which delivers oxygenated blood from the heart, and the portal vein, which carries nutrient-rich blood from the digestive system. MFN 001 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The blood flows through the liver sinusoids, which are specialized blood vessels that allow for the exchange of substances between the blood and the hepatocytes.
The liver is also rich in bile ducts, which carry bile produced by the hepatocytes to the gallbladder and small intestine. Bile is essential for the digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins.
Q 8. a) Explain the interchange of gases within the lungs.
Ans. a) The interchange of gases within the lungs occurs through a process called pulmonary gas exchange.
In this process, oxygen from the air that we breathe diffuses into the bloodstream, while carbon dioxide, a waste product of cellular respiration, diffuses out of the bloodstream and into the air in the lungs.
This process occurs in the alveoli, which are tiny air sacs located at the ends of the bronchioles in the lungs. MFN 001 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The alveoli are surrounded by a network of capillaries, which allow for the exchange of gases between the air in the lungs and the blood.
When we inhale, oxygen-rich air enters the lungs and moves into the alveoli. Oxygen diffuses across the thin walls of the alveoli and into the capillaries, where it binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells for transport throughout the body.
At the same time, carbon dioxide produced by cells in the body diffuses out of the capillaries and into the alveoli, where it is exhaled.
This process of pulmonary gas exchange is essential for the delivery of oxygen to cells throughout the body and the removal of carbon dioxide waste.
b) Explain the role of heart as a pump by describing circulation of blood in our body.
Ans. The heart is a muscular organ that acts as a pump, delivering oxygen and nutrients to the body’s tissues and removing waste products.
The heart works by contracting and relaxing in a rhythmic pattern, which creates pressure that moves blood through the blood vessels.
Blood circulation in the body is divided into two circuits: the pulmonary circulation and the systemic circulation. MFN 001 Solved Free Assignment 2023
In pulmonary circulation, deoxygenated blood is pumped from the heart’s right ventricle to the lungs, where it picks up oxygen and releases carbon dioxide.
The oxygen-rich blood then returns to the heart’s left atrium and is pumped out to the body through the aorta.
In systemic circulation, oxygen-rich blood is pumped from the heart’s left ventricle to the rest of the body through a network of arteries and arterioles.
As the blood moves through the capillaries in the tissues, oxygen and nutrients diffuse out of the blood and into the cells, while waste products such as carbon dioxide diffuse into the bloodstream.
The deoxygenated blood then returns to the heart’s right atrium through the veins and the process begins again.MFN 001 Solved Free Assignment 2023
The heart’s role as a pump is essential for maintaining blood circulation and delivering oxygen and nutrients to the body’s tissues.
Section B – OTQ (Objective Type Questions)
Q 1. Define the following:
Ans. i) Plasma: Plasma is the yellowish liquid component of blood that makes up about 55% of the total volume of blood.
It consists of water, proteins, electrolytes, hormones, and waste products. Plasma is important for transporting nutrients, hormones, and waste products throughout the body, maintaining blood pressure, and helping to regulate body temperature.
Ans. ii) Antigen: An antigen is a foreign substance that triggers an immune response in the body. Antigens can be proteins, carbohydrates, or other molecules found on the surface of viruses, bacteria, and other microorganisms.
When an antigen enters the body, it stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies, which are proteins that bind to and neutralize the antigen.
Ans iii) Placenta: The placenta is an organ that develops in the uterus during pregnancy. MFN 001 Solved Free Assignment 2023
It is responsible for providing oxygen, nutrients, and other essential substances to the developing fetus, as well as removing waste products.
The placenta is attached to the uterus via the umbilical cord, which connects the fetus to the placenta.
After the baby is born, the placenta is expelled from the uterus during the process of childbirth.MFN 001 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Ans iv) Amniocentesis: Amniocentesis is a medical procedure used to diagnose certain genetic disorders and other medical conditions in a developing fetus.
During the procedure, a small amount of amniotic fluid, which surrounds the fetus in the uterus, is removed using a needle.
The fluid is then analyzed for the presence of certain substances, such as proteins and DNA, that can indicate the presence of a medical condition.
Ans v) Dialysis: Dialysis is a medical treatment used to remove waste products and excess fluid from the blood in people with kidney failure.
It works by using a machine to filter the blood, a process that is normally carried out by healthy kidneys. MFN 001 Solved Free Assignment 2023
Dialysis can be performed in a hospital or in a patient’s home, and is typically required several times a week for people with severe kidney failure.
Q 2. Give the functions/role of the following structure/organs in our body:
x) Thyroid gland
Ans.i) Pancreas: The pancreas is a gland located in the abdomen that plays an important role in digestion and glucose metabolism.
It produces enzymes that help break down carbohydrates, proteins, and fats in the small intestine, and also secretes hormones, such as insulin and glucagon, which regulate blood sugar levels.
Ans. ii) WBC (White blood cells): WBCs are an important component of the immune system and are responsible for fighting infections and foreign substances in the body. MFN 001 Solved Free Assignment 2023
They are produced in the bone marrow and circulate in the blood and lymphatic system.
Different types of WBCs have specific functions in the immune response, such as phagocytosis (engulfing and destroying foreign particles), producing antibodies, and releasing chemicals that attract other immune cells to the site of infection.
Ans. iii) Aorta: The aorta is the largest artery in the body and is responsible for carrying oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the rest of the body.
It originates from the left ventricle of the heart and branches into smaller arteries that supply blood to the various organs and tissues.
Ans. iv) Trachea: The trachea, also known as the windpipe, is a tube-like structure that connects the larynx (voice box) to the lungs.
It is lined with cilia and mucus-secreting cells that help to filter and remove foreign particles and microorganisms from the air we breathe.
Ans. v) Nephrons: Nephrons are the functional units of the kidneys and are responsible for filtering waste products and excess water from the blood.
Each kidney contains millions of nephrons, which consist of a glomerulus (a network of capillaries) and a tubule. MFN 001 Solved Free Assignment 2023
As blood passes through the glomerulus, waste products are filtered out and passed into the tubule, where they are further processed and excreted in the urine.
Ans. vi) Synapse: A synapse is a junction between two nerve cells, where electrical or chemical signals are transmitted from one cell to another.
Synapses play an important role in neural communication and are essential for many functions, such as learning, memory, and muscle movement.
Ans. vii) Retina: The retina is a layer of tissue located at the back of the eye that contains light-sensitive cells called photoreceptors.
These cells convert light into electrical signals that are transmitted to the brain via the optic nerve, where they are interpreted as visual images.
Ans. viii) Stapedius: The stapedius is a small muscle located in the middle ear that plays a role in regulating sound sensitivity.
When the stapedius contracts, it dampens the movement of the stapes bone, which helps to protect the inner ear from loud sounds.
Ans. ix) Papillae: Papillae are small projections on the surface of the tongue that contain taste buds. MFN 001 Solved Free Assignment 2023
They play a crucial role in our sense of taste by detecting different flavors, such as sweet, sour, salty, and bitter.
Ans. x) Thyroid gland: The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped gland located in the neck that produces hormones that regulate metabolism, growth, and development.
These hormones play a vital role in many physiological processes, including the regulation of body temperature, heart rate, and energy expenditure.
Q 3. Match the following:
Ans.I – B
II – A
III – E
IV – C
V – D
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