Download IGNOU MPS 002 Solved Free Assignment 2023-24

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MPS 002


IGNOU MPS 002 Solved Free Assignment

MPS 002 Solved Free Assignment July 2023 & January 2024


Q. 2. Bring out the essence of the key concepts frequently used in the Realist framework. What purpose do they serve?

Ans. Realist Theory is very old. It can be traced back to Greek writers, Thucydides who wrote about Peloponnesian war which took place about 431 B.C. and Chinese writer Sun-Izu, who wrote The Art of War.

According to realist human beings crave for powers. It places emphasis on power politics and the pursuit of national interests.

Types of Realism: As realism is very old so it has been divided into old or Classical Realism and Neo-realism or Contemporary Realism.

Old or Classical Realism: Classical Realism has been written and supported by Thucydides, Chanakya, Machiavelli, E.H. Carr and by Hans J. Morgentheau etc.

They say that International policies are driven by endless struggle for power which is inherent in human nature.

Recently schoalrs such as Reinhold, Niebuhr, Nicholas Spykman and Hans Margenthau (1904-1980) hold that the struggle for power is inherent in human nature, therefore international politics is power politics.

As such they rely more on conventional diplomacy and mechanisms such as balance of power, international morality, world public opinion, and international law etc. for regulating and restraining the inevitable clashes of interest between states, than on the human nature.

Balance of power doctrine is very old. It was constantly followed by England. It opposed France during the time of Louis XIV and Nepoleon and later on against Germany during First World-War and against Hitler’s Germany during Second World- War of 1939-45.

With the establishment of League of Nations and U.N.O., world opinion counts. Imperialist power had to grant independence due to many reasons but world opinion also was one of them.

During Suez Canal crisis of 1956, Britain, France and Israel had to withdraw their forces from attacks as world opinion was against them.

U.S.A. failed in Vietnam as world opinion was against it. Now it is very difficult for any state to defy world opinion sucessfully.

Base of the Realist Approach

National Interest: World is more divided among nation-states. Lord Palmerstone ex-Prime Minister of Britain and Hans Morgenthau believed diplomatic strategy or foreign policy of a country should be motivated by national interest.

But ruling elite class generally cannot follow policies that would necessarily lead to inhancement of national interest but their own class interest.

Egypt, Syria and other Muslim Arab rulers attaked Israel due to their own interest or class interest. Col. Naseer of Egypt allied with others Arab states attacked Israel to become highest authority of Arab states and other Arab states supported him.

India neither was supposed to gain by expelling all Jews living in India to support Yaser Arafat or by establishment of P.L.O. state, but ruling elite class of India supported Yaser Arafat and P.L.O. against Isreael and is supporting P.L.O. war against Israel though war and conflict between P.L.O. and Israel is on religious grounds while India is a socialist secular republic.

If P.L.O. accept Jew ruler or Jew Prime Minister or Jew President neither there was and nor there is need of war.

Similarly, if Israel may declare itself as seuclar republic and may accept Muslim as ruler or President or Prime Minister then there will be no war. As there was no war when ruler Khalifs, the head of Muslims, ruled over Israel.

There would have been no glorious bloodless revolution in Britain if it would have accepted Roman Catholic King.

But it was against the interests of ruling elite class of Britain to accept Roman Catholic King and it is against ruling elite class of Israel to give power to Muslim-Arabs and for Muslim-Arabs to Jews.

So conflict is continuous violent as well as silent.

In India majority of Hindus live but power is in the hands of those who claim themselves socialists or communists or secular elite ruling class, they intervene and are desirous to wipe out Nepal as a Hindu state and are supporting extremists and terrorists through ruling elite class of India claims to be anti-terrorists with top of their voice all over India.

In case of China and Taiwan (Farmosa), U.S.A. people are neutral but ruling elite class of U.S.A. is determined to interfere in China and Taiwan conflict, though it is in the interest of American people that conflict between China and Taiwan may be resolved amicably as huge investment and trade is with China.

As such sometimes national interests are sacrificed by person in power for his or her interest or for class interest of ruling elite class.

Opinions about cases cited may differ and according to some scholars intervention of India in Nepal and of U.S.A in conflict of China and Taiwan may be considered national interest but these examples don’t confirm, as these are very recent.

Elements of National Power: National power now depends on nuclear or atomic power, military force, population, econmic capacity of the states, geography, religious fanatism, international support and propaganda etc. U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. were considered superpowers both possessed greatest nuclear power.

Japan surrendered in Second World-War due to atomic power of U.S.A. Now U.S.A. is considered superpower due to her mightiest and greatest nuclear and atomic power. China and India possess largest and greatest military and para-military force, so these are considered greatest powers on the earth next to U.S.A.

But military power requires capacity to consolidate Arabs possessed far greater milatary force than Israel but they were continuously defeated.

In case of Vietnam, U.S.A. and in case of Afghanistan, Soviet Russia possessed far greater power, but were unsucessful.

Population counts as China and India are most populated countries, so these are considered greatest powers next to U.S.A. Kuwait was no match to Iraq as it has population of few lakhs in comparison to 3 crore population of Iraq.

Economic capacity counts much as inspite of failure in Vietnam war due to her economic capacity. U.S.A. is now sole superpower.

Now religious terrorism has become very important as religious terrorists through their suicide bomb tactics have created terror all over the world.

Requirement of National Security: According to Prof. Henry Kissinger, ex-Secretary of State of U.S.A. “a nation’s survival is its first and ultimate responsibility.

It cannot be compromised or put to risk.” As national security is most important, so nations use all resources of the state to preserve it.

National secruity depends on the will of the people and fighting capacity of the people to preserve it. During Second World-War most of the states surrendered before mighty power of Hitler’s Germany.

France, which was considered one of the greatest power on the earth surrendered before Germany within ten days.

But Great Britain under the leadership of her Prime Minister Churchil stood firm. Churchil said we will fight on land, in sea, over air, but we will never surrender.

This gave British people vision of victory and determination to stand firm against Hitler’s Germany.

According to Churchil at the time of France’s defeat Britain possessed lesser fighting aeroplanes and force than German aeroplanes and fighting force and people had to face German bombing which created havoc and lot of destruction.

At that time Britain was alone and meanwhile Hitler’s Germany possessed mightiest force of earth and Italy and Japan as their allies, but Hitler was unable to conquer Britain and by committing mistake of attacking Soviet Union lost the war and Britain won the war because he was determined to preserve her national security at any cost.

Recently Egypt, Syria, Jordan etc. lost the wars against Israel because he was determined to preserve her national security.

Mighty super power U.S.A. failed in Vietnam because people of Vietnam were determined to preserve her national security.

India suceeded in Bangladesh as Pakistani forces were not willing to sacrifice their lives to preserve national security of Bangaladesh, so they surrendered along with weapons along with their Commander-in-Chief General Niazi.

Similarly Afghanistan and Iraq surrendered as Taliban leaders and Saddam Hussain were unwilling to sacrifice their lives, so Mullah Omar ran away and Saddam Hussain was arrested.

Thus, preservation of national security depends on will, determination and capacity of the people to preserve national security. To preserve national security is the most essential function of the state.

Q. 3. What are the different theoretical approaches to Regionalism? Explain.

Ans. There are lot of theories of regionalism such as:

  1. Functionalist and Neo-functionalist
  2. Realist
  3. Liberal-inter governmentalist
  4. Constructivist and lastly of multi-level governance.

Functionalism and Neo-functionalism: Power of society based on the role of interest groups such as professional associations, labour unions, producer groups and scientific group etc. and push for regional integration by supplying societal base and super- national institutions which provide political organization and capacity to mobilise interests and access to policy- making influence etc.Neo-functionalism contains background conditions. Process conditions and conditions that encourage/discourage expansion

Realiste Outlook: States possess pragmatic outlooks, so Western European powers formed NATO i.e.

North Atlantic Treaty Organization with another superpower U.S.A. to save themselves from U.S.S.R. Later on they developed European Economic Community (EEC) and European Union etc.

Liberal Aspects of Groupings: They place emphasis on economic and social aspects. They keep states also in their dealings. It provides a more accurate picture.

Constructivism: It places emphasis on ideas, thinking and did not know that pragmatic world materialistic view is important. Cooperative Governance: European Union was formed on this basis.

In such groupings neither European Union nor member states enjoyed sovereign powers. It was considered a model but in 2005, France and Holland voted against it, so it has got set back.

Economic Requirement

Economic grouping aims to safeguard economic interests of group of countries, such European Economic Market (EEM)

NAFTA: In January 1994, U.S.A., Canada and Mexico made North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and formed world’s largest free trade area.

This was an agreement between adjoining three countries of North America, so it did not make world wide impact.

Asia Pacific Economic Corporation (APEC): It was founded in 1989. It contains 21 countries and discusses economic issues of Asia Pacific region.

The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE): It contains about 55 countries and comes under political groups as it is active in early waking, conflict prevention, crisis management and post conflict rehabilation etc.

Asean Regional Forum (ARF): It was established in 1994. It has 23 countries of Asia Pacific region.

It contains 10 Asean member states such as Burma, Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam etc. but none of these groups are important.

Q. 5. Briefly explain the motives and the methods adopted by the terrorist to perpetuate violence.

Ans. Motives of Terrorist Groups

Different terrorist groups have different motives. Motive of P.L.O. was to gain Arab Muslim state from Israel. Motive of Tamilians is to gain Tamil state in Sri Lanka.

Motive of terrorist in Kashmir to get it annexed with Pakistan or to form independent states. Chechen militants desire independence.

But international terrorist’s motive is to create horror by attacking most powerful states of U.S.A., U.K. and Russia by creating violent acts in New York, London and Moscow.Some terrorist groups motive is to spread their own faith or own ideology.

Aims of Terrorist differ from country to country and place to place.

Aim of Al Quaida terrorists led by Osama-bin Laden was to challenge supremacy of U.S.A. Therefore, they attacked World Trade Centre of New York by plan bomb.

It caused heavy damage of property, men and money and created terror all over the world but instead of creating fear and horror, they made American people determined to wipe out terrorism from whole world.

U.S.A. and its allies such as United Kingdom became determined to wipe out terrorism.

As Afghanistan was under the control of extremist Jehadi group of Taliban led by Mullah Omar who were ferocious bigot Jehadies and who committed lot of atrocities and did cruel acts and give shelter to terrorists led by Osama-bin Laden, so Afghanistan was attacked and conquered by U.S.A. and allied forces.

Now in Afghanistan democratic government has been established under allied control through the leadership of Hamid Karzai, but Taliban are creating there great trouble.

Moreover, terrorists’s leaders Osama-bin Laden and Mullah Omar are untraceable. U.K. i.e.

Britain used to boasted that sun never sets in British empire, now British empire has disappeared so Britain is now shadow of her glorious past.

Britishers were unable to curb terrorists of Ireland. They formed Irish Republic Army killed Lord Mountbatten ex. Viceroy of India and attacked even Prime Minister Margreat Thatcher but rulers of Britain, instead of curbing Irish terrorists, accepted the demands of Irish Republican Army.

The British Army, Police, Bureaucrats and Politicians, who ruled over greatest empire known to history, became so weak that they were cowed down by Irish Republican Army.

Inspite of all this Britain was considered powerful and safe country. They showed their power by defeating Argentina. They defeated Taliban of Afghanistan and Saddam Hussain of Iraq in alliance with U.S.A. etc.

This annoyed terrorists who bombed underground railways of London and gave a blow to myth that London is a safe place and free from terrorists.

Britain boasts of secular democracy but even Roman Catholic Christian cannot become Head of state, this annoyed terrorists particularly religious fanatics, so they committed terrorists acts in London.

But Britain though vowed to wipe out terrorism is in a mood to give concessions to religious terrorists ingots as it has done for Irish Republican Army by accepting their demands.

Thus, aim of terrorists, was to challenge U.S.A. supremacy while aim of terrorists in Britain is to gain place in ruling elite class and highest posts of Britain.

Aim of P.L.O. i.e. of Muslim Arabs who formed Palestinian Liberation Army under Yasser Arafat was to get back lands from Israel and to establish their own rule and state which they lost due to defeat of Muslim Arab countries combination of Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Iraq and Lebanon etc.

Arab Muslims who had to leave Israel, committed lot of terrorists acts including terrorist acts in games of Munich in Germany created horror all over the world. They were supported by Muslim states of whole world and by India also.

As such they were able to win support of U.S.A., Western European powers and even of U.N.O. and gained land, territory and even Gaza Patti from Israel and established separate state of Palestine.

But author who met Israeli tourists told that now with establishment of Palestine terrorists attacks on people of Israel have increased than before because now P.L.O. terrorists are backed by government of Palestine, Terrorists organizations of Al Quaida and of Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan and Arab countries.

Aim of P.L.O. terrorists is to wipe out Israel and Jews as stated by Col. Nasser of Egypt and leaders of Arab Muslim countries.

To be short, aim of terrorists in Afghanistan and Iraq is to throw out U.S.A. and allied forces and to establish fanatic religious rule.

Aim of Al Quada is to establish their own supremacy by challenging U.S.A., Britain and other Western countries.

Israel is a country of Jews and even U.S.A., Britain and other powers are determined not to make Muslims as head of state or to give top most posts of King or queen or of President and of Vice President, and of Chief Justice of Supreme Court etc. as India has done so terrorism and states who are determined not to give them supreme power is bound to continue because terrorists believe there can be no comprise either we or they.


Q. 6. (a) Impact of Science and technology on military affairs.

Ans. The development of nuclear weapons have widened the disparity and the power relations among the states.

Due to nuclear power, U.S.A. have become sole super power followed by Russia, China, Britain and France, who are permanent members of Security Council with Veto powers and have been accepted as nuclear power states by U.N.O. and whole world.

It goes to credit of nuclear power states they accepted defeat in case of Vietnam and U.S.S.R. in case of Afghanistan but did not use nuclear power.

As none of the nuclear power states used nuclear weapons against non-nuclear power states, so world peace has been preserved.

But now India, Pakistan have acquired nuclear weapons and have refused to sign N.P.T. and C.T.B.T.

Probably Israel, North Korea and Iran etc. are also trying to become nuclear power. Whether the states, who are becoming nuclear power states, will follow same restraint as has been used by five nuclear states is doubtful?

(b) Uneven International Economic System

Ans. There is inequality, the poorest 10% people have only 4.6% of income. U.S.A.’s 10% people have 43% of world’s income.

India and China have made rapid progress but income of an American individual is more than 50 times of India and about 30 times of China and about 100 times more than an individual income of poor African countries.

Thus, U.S.A. enjoys highest income while African states and Afghanistan, Nepal and Bhutan have lowest income.

Inequality not only exist among states but within the state, Premji, Ambani, Tata, Birla etc. have billions while crores of people sleep live in jhuggi and jhopri and sleep in pavements or on road.

Uneven Economic System

International economic system favours rich, industrialized and developed countries. World Bank, I.M.F. and W.TO. etc. favour rich and developed countries as they control these institution.

International Politics and Power Game

As stated above rich and developed countries control World Bank, I.M.F., W.T.O. and Asian Development Bank etc., so they provide facilities and loan etc. to states to toe the line of U.S.A. and developed countries, while they neglect communist countries and those who oppose their policies.

Due to this, poor countries if they try to neglect international financial organizations do not get facilities and loan etc. and due to lack of funds they find themselves in inability of development and remain poor.

Uneven Trend of Labour Flow

Now skilled technician, engineers, scientists and laboures go wherever higher pay and job is available. Indians go to U.S.A., Britain, Dubai, Iraq, Iran and other Muslim countries as they need them.

Indian nurses are in great demand in U.S.A. and Britain, but countries of Africa, Afghanistan, Bhutan and Nepal etc. who do not produce skilled labourers did not make progress.

Non Resident Indians (N.R.I.) have contributed a lot to Indian economy. Luxmi Chand Mittal, steel King has become richest man of Britain and others such as Hinduja, Swaraj Paul etc. have become very rich persons. India and China etc. have become markets of skilled laboures.

Q. 9. (a) Maxist approach to International Relations

Ans. Marx studied national capitalism but he was of the opinion that class loyalities cut across national divisions, so in his Communist Menifesto, he gave slogan “Workers of whole world unite, you have to lose nothing but chains.”

This slogan became very popular but national loyalities were too deep so people remain divide on the basis of national states who claim sovereign states in international relations and in all things.

Liberal and Realist believe that power is organised vertically reflecting the division of world into independent states while Marxists think horizontly organisation based on international class.

As stated above according to Lenin, imperialists expansion reflected domestic capitalism’s quest to maintain profit levels through the export of surplus capital which brought major capitalist powers into conflict with one another, As such in First World-War was imperialist powers i.e., Britain, France and U.S.A. etc. were stood against Germany and her allies for the control of colonies etc.

Marxists think on the basis of mankind as according to their thinking class-conflicts occur without caring for state boundaries. According to their thinking capitalist and worker’s conflict is world wides so their slogan is Workers of whole world unite.

Thus, they think in totality. Marxist believe in Marxist conception of history. They believe that it is economic development of a society which determines the political change.

In capitalist society there is continuous struggle between burgeois that is capitalist and proletariate i.e.worker and poor man i.e. between persons who possess property or posts and means of production and those who are poor and earn their living by hard labour.

(b) Inter-state displacement.

Ans. Inter-state displacement means forced migration of peoples across national boundries. Intra-state displacement means displacement within territorial boundaries of his own state.

For example, migration of Kashmiri Pandit to Delhi comes under Intra-state displacement.

After Second World-War due to division of India millions of Hindu and Sikhs were forced to leave territory of India which came under Pakistan and similarly millions of Muslims went to Pakistan, so they became refugee i.e. Sharnarthi and Muhazir.

In Israel Jews won the war against Arab Muslims, so lakhs of Arab-Muslims had to leave Israel and became refugee.

To solve this problem and convention of 1951 of U.N.O. gave protection to refugees and granted them some rights in countries of asylum.

Due to this, refugees made rapid progress. President of Pakistan i.e. Pervez Musharraf is from Delhi (India) and Sardar Manmohan Singh Prime Minister of India is from Pakistan and B.J.P. President Lal Krishna Advani is also from Pakistan (Sindh). Refugees made progress as they were granted special privileges.

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