IGNOU BSOE 141 Solved Free Assignment
BSOE 141 Solved Free Assignment July 2023 & January 2024
Q. 1. Define the concept of urban and discuss urbanism as described by Louis Wirth.
Ans. The term “urban” simply refers to a heavily inhabited region or place that has characteristics of man-made surroundings. People that live in such a region work in trade, commerce, or provide services.
This community has a high level of industrialisation, which leads to more job prospects. The term “urban settlement” does not refer solely to cities; towns and suburbs (sub-urban areas) are also included.
Urbanism is the state of being in a city, whereas urbanisation is the process of growing a city. It includes all physical and social interactions in cities.
It manifests as social, economic, and political forces and processes in cities. Urbanism provides a comprehensive understanding of urban life.
Researchers in the field of urban sociology utilise a number of perspectives in order to gain a better understanding of the interactions that take place in metropolitan environments. IGNOU BSOE 141 Solved Free Assignment 2023-24
In order to gain an understanding of the major theoretical traditions within an area, you will need to read great works of literature as-well-as surveys of the literature.
It is possible that even if you reside in a metropolitan area, you are aware of poor groups who are particularly vulnerable to discrimination and exclusion.
Discrimination on the basis of caste, ethnicity, gender, or social status is more prevalent in urban areas than in rural areas.
It is important to analyse Nikhil Anand’s inquiry into water supply in Mumbai, which calls attention to the discriminatory practises that occur in the distribution of public services by the city’s water division.
This is an example of a case in point that should be taken into consideration. Muslim villages in the city are therefore forced to negotiate with and exert pressure on the city’s municipal council on a regular basis in order for all people in the city to have access to potable water, much to the displeasure of the city’s upper-class population.
It is depended on the outcome of a settler’s attempts to gain access to water, which in turn is contingent on the outcome of a settler’s efforts to gain access to water, and so on and so forth. IGNOU BSOE 141 Solved Free Assignment
When it comes to obtaining access to water, the success of their efforts will have an impact on the complex matrix of socio-political ties that they create with the Municipal council.
Following the conclusion reached by Louis Wirth, the fact that this instance occurred it demonstrates that the city experience can be discriminatory and difficult for certain groups of people.
The evolution of urban landscapes into sites of function and utility for the many stakeholders identified previously in this article is consistent with classic structuralist theories.
In cities, there are numerous prospects for advancement and wealth accumulation for those who live within their borders.
For a variety of reasons, including furthering one’s education, seeking higher wages, or exploring new professional opportunities, people are drawn to urban locations for these factor. IGNOU BSOE 141 Solved Free Assignment
Q. 2. What do you understand by “New” urban sociology? Explain.
Ans. Urban sociology is a broad and interdisciplinary field of sociology. It combines history, economics, sociology, public administration, and social work.
It frequently mixes elements of geography, political science, economics, and anthropology, with an emphasis on group culture.
To summarise, sociology studies cities and their evolution, including concerns such as urban planning, development, traffic management, public waterworks, social hygiene, and sewerage systems.
It tries to grasp not only the urban set-up and facts, but also give solutions to fix problems that develop due to society’s dynamic nature.
Professionals in education, race relations, housing, urban development, and rehabilitation have interests in common with urbanologists and ecologists (Gist, 1957). IGNOU BSOE 141 Solved Free Assignment
This necessitates clarification and redefinition of key terms such as “community,” “ecology,” “city,” “urbanism,” “urban society,” “urbanisation,” “industrialization,” and “modernization.”
The word “community” has many meanings. It can refer to a shared environment or a collective of all residents of a certain area.
Frequently, the phrase refers to more than one place or one person. For example, Davis emphasises “social completeness.”
Is it possible to be a complete society without being a community? The primary requirement of a community, according to McIver and Page, is that it comprises all of an individual’s social interactions.
Positive attitudes toward one another are nurtured, and a community can execute all of its functions.
Robert E. Park applied principles of natural science (ecology) to urban environments (urban ecology) (Flanagan, W. 1993).
Ecology is study of the relationship between living creatures and their environment. The city, like any other environment, is a condition rather than a defining force.
It is a Chicago School notion that relates urban structure to biological things. Urban ecology has long been a popular theory in urban sociology and anthropology.
The hypothesis is a metaphor for how competing groups coexist in shared urban surroundings and processes. IGNOU BSOE 141 Solved Free Assignment
Urban groupings, like biological systems, are interrelated and dynamic, rising and falling with political, economic, and social tides. We can examine trends in immigration and emigration to tie this to the functionalist theory.
People leaving a country rely on one another and a new culture to assimilate and integrate. Immigrants become emigrants, and so forth.
Complete history of urban sociology must distinguish between urbanisation and urbanism.
Urbanization refers to both the origins of cities and processes of building them. Urbanisation occurs when people move from rural areas to urban areas, either temporarily or permanently.
As a result of urbanisation, more people are living in cities, cities are becoming larger, and more people are living in urban regions.
Spatial-temporal arrangements of social activities in connection to interrelated societal developments and change processes.
Urbanism, on the other hand, is the study of living patterns within urban communities. Cultural issues, social strife, and political structure are all addressed at a local level, including street, neighbourhood, and city levels.
According to Louis Wirth, it’s a way of life. Some of the most influential sociologists of the twentieth century were Karl Marx, Ferdinand Tönnies, Émile Durkheim, Max Weber, and Georg Simmel. IGNOU BSOE 141 Solved Free Assignment
A group of sociologists and academics at the University of Chicago built on these theoretical foundations in the early twentieth century.
Robert Park, Louis Wirth, and Ernest Burgess’ work on Chicago’s inner city changed not only the goals of urban research in sociology but also the formation of human geography.
The Chicago School’s views have been defended and criticised, but they remained one of the most important historical advancements in understanding of urbanisation and the city, in the social sciences. Cultural, economic, and political sociology are all sub- disciplines of sociology.
Q. 3. Define city and discuss the sociological relevance of cities.
Ans. American historian and sociologist Lewis Mumford described a city, as a place where heterogeneous groups can form economic organisations governed by rules and housed in permanent structures within a defined geographical area (Mumford 1937). IGNOU BSOE 141 Solved Free Assignment
As cities grow in size and density, they became permanent settlements of socially disparate people (Wirth 1938). Ullman claimed that cities play one or more of these three roles:
Cities as Hubs: Cities are hubs for trade, communication, networking, and culture. Depending on their size, these centres can range from hamlets to New York City.
In India, New Delhi is a good example of a political hub. In current times, many cities are becoming hubs for trade and communication, creating a global network of links.
Cities as Transport Hubs: These cities are the gates for goods and cargo. Cities like Mumbai and Vizag form at transportation breakdowns, or foci, from where subsequent routes extend to a greater territory.
These cities also develop warehousing, smart logistics, value addition, and repackaging. The rapid urbanisation and expansion of transportation infrastructure is decentralising this function.
Chauncy and Edward predicted in 1945 that airways would forever change the way cities grew. This is undoubtedly the situation how Today, most Indian cities are ready to handle cross-border and cross- ocean trade.
Cities as Concentration points for specialised services: Cities deliver specific services due to their local resources or strategic positions. They encourage growth of specialised industries and services. IGNOU BSOE 141 Solved Free Assignment
For example, the climate in Darjeeling, West Bengal, is ideal for tea plantations. This feature has helped the city grow as a tourism and export hub.
Many Indian cities, such as Chottanagpur, Kollam, Thiruvanan- thapuram, and Bengaluru-Chennai, grew into major cities due to their favourable positions for mining, education, manufacturing, and recreation (Harris and Ullman, 1945).
Remember that a city can serve numerous purposes and presence of one does not imply the absence of another.
Moreover, as stated previously, a city’s functions can be assessed using other criterias as well. One such is Chauncy and Edward’s.
Q. 4. How is globalization and network significant in urban sociology? Discuss.
Ans. Globalisation, alongwith information technology, is the second component of social transformation. This includes technological, organisational, and institutional components. IGNOU BSOE 141 Solved Free Assignment
This is a historically new tendency, as previous internationalisations were unable to fully explore the benefits of information and communication technology, as David Held also observed (1999).
The electronic hypertext, which serves as a common reference point for symbolic processing from all sources and messages, becomes the third dimension included inside the cultural manifestation.
The internet is the medium that connects people, as- well-as the shared multimedia hypertexts, and has grown exponentially in recent years as a result of globalisation.
This hypertext is critical to the construction of a new society, as this is a virtual reality-based culture.
Virtuality becomes the symbolic world and an integral aspect of the experience made and shared by communicating individuals.
The final significant element of teese new global networks is the demise of the sovereign nation-state concept. IGNOU BSOE 141 Solved Free Assignment
This is not to call into doubt the nation-institutional state’s existence, but with the restructuring of power apparatuses, change is unavoidable.
National governments, transnational networks, and organisations all undergo restructuring. Thus, the entirety of political representation is re-presented and fine-tuned.
Additionally, there is a significant problem inside existing patriarchy, as seen by women’s insurgency and the emergence of homosexual and lesbian movements that fight anti-heterosexual attitudes and practises.
This is a step forward in terms of establishing diverse types of families with more equal principles of life. The problems are about pace, velocity, and human toll that patriarchy imposes.
This may evolve as a result of numerous sexualities, socialisation, and personal networking. These are the changes in lifestyle that occur in conjunction with other domains of social change. IGNOU BSOE 141 Solved Free Assignment
Notable advancements have also been made in the fields of research and scientific understanding.
This knowledge is being applied to the advancement of sciences. This is demonstrated by the ecological influence that has recently impacted our ways of living.
It is critical to remember what Castells said: “We are only at the start of a truly tremendous cultural change that is reversing the path of thought that has prevailed among the world’s main groups since the Enlighten- ment” (2000: 694).
Thus, we observe the formation and flourishing of a new society as a result of the interaction of three critical components that occurred concurrently.
This encompassed major technological revolutions, the reorganisation of capitalism, and the birth of social movements in the 1960s in the United States and the the Western Europe.
In the midst of this diversity, a new social structure based on networks is emerging, resulting in a network society.
Q. 5. What are slums? How are they formed?
Ans. According to Goswami, S., and Manna, a slum is a densely populated place with inadequate infra-structure, overcrowded populations, unsanitary living conditions, and a lack of suitable sanitary and drinking water services.
The formation of slums in developing countries such as India may be considered a by-product of urbanisation. IGNOU BSOE 141 Solved Free Assignment
In addition to migration from rural regions and other city precincts, reverse migration, conversion of city districts and peripheral land sites to slums and vice versa, and natural growth as a result of births and deaths within the slum are all factors contributing to the increase of its population.
The following are the key factors that have contributed to the expansion of slums in India:
Population Growth Rate: Indian population is rapidly increasing, with the rate of rise being much higher in urban areas than in rural areas, owing to the large number of people who are migrating from rural to urban areas.
Individuals relocate to metropolitan regions for a variety of reasons, including poverty, unemployment, a scarcity of other services or luxuries, and most importantly, to improve their socio-economic standing.
The infrastructure of cities serves as a honey trap for those living in rural areas. Metropolitan areas are experiencing slower population growth than the rest of the country.
As a result of this discrepancy in growth rates, slums have been allowed to sprout up.
Poor Housing Planning: Slums are exacerbated as a result of a shortage of adequate low-cost housing and ineffective government planning, and both of these problems contribute to the supply side of the housing problem.
Inadequate financial resources, as-well-as a lack of coordination within the government bureaucracy, are two of the most significant issues contributing to poor home design efficiency. IGNOU BSOE 141 Solved Free Assignment
Agricultural Development in Villages: Villages in India are underdeveloped at the most fundamental levels, and residents continue to suffer from a lack of access to water, electricity, and a range of other essentials even today.
Individuals are forced to migrate to urban regions due to a lack of facilities in rural areas, putting an extra demand on the already overburdened urban population.
Despite the fact that it is a less major reason for creation of slums, it is nonetheless one of the important factors.
Politics of the Ballot Box: Slum dwellers stand to gain as-well-as everyone else from the democratic process. For politicians who are participating in the slum clearance process, there are conflicts of interest as a result of the procedure.
Slum residents’ elevation and education are important to politicians because they could jeopardise the potential to get cheap votes from other areas if they were to move out of their current situation.
High House Rents in Cities: Because of their financial conditions, poor people which is the vast majority of who live in rural areas, are unable to afford high rents associated with metropolitan homes because of the high cost of living.
It is as a result that, whenever and wherever they come across land, whether it is public or private, they instantly begin to dwell in temporary shelters; when more people join them over time, the area quickly becomes a slum.
Displaced Persons: In addition to refugees, displaced persons are accommodated in a large number of slum regions all over India, including Delhi.
Due to the increasing population pressure that occurs in urban areas, the development of slums begins as soon as a neighbourhood is identified as such. Slums begin to expand as soon as a neighbourhood is identified as such.
Even if slums are not a result of official design, the government’s failure to invest in rural development is at the root of the slum-building phenomena.
Instead of being purposefully built, slums are produced as a result of political instability, and once they have taken roots, it is impossible to get rid of them.
To remove slums, the only method currently accessible is to prevent rural-to-urban migration. IGNOU BSOE 141 Solved Free Assignment
However, this will not be sufficient to resolve such an issue; additional initiatives, such as employment development in small towns and urban planning are to be required.
Q. 6. Describe the role of network in urban sociology.
Ans. Because networks serve as an organising element for social systems, these structures are being re-imagined.
Human ties with production/consumption, as-well-as any power dynamics or experience that is voiced in a meaningful interaction within the fabric of culture, are represented by the social structures in this context.
Sociology must seize the opportunity presented by the emergence of a new social structure in order to shout out the conceptual and methodological issues that are currently under consideration.
The study of networks has been a part of sociology for quite some time.
Popular works include those by Wellman, Fischer, and Granovetter, to name only a few. The territorial constraint is no longer applicable, as soon as communication technology that enable participatory social practises become widely available.
Although this is the most obvious approach to assume the end of the spatial dimension of society, it should not be seen as the only way to do so.
For many people, meaningful physical space is a significant source of experience-building opportunity. IGNOU BSOE 141 Solved Free Assignment
Furthermore, because interactive communication takes place at a distance, it is not possible to completely eliminate the need for a physical space. It only aids in the formation of a new form type of spatial configuration.
The electronic networks and information flow that make up this place are what defines it. Besides these, it is composed of regions, as the physical spaces require network connectivity in order to function effectively.
Q. 7. What is migration and how does it impact society.
Ans. Migration is a phrase that refers to the movement of people from one geographical region to another, whether temporarily or permanently, for a variety of reasons.
Relocating to a different nation or region can be beneficial for individuals and their families who wish to improve their material or social circumstances, as-well-as prospects for themselves or their families.
According to the United Nations, migrants are those who have been in a foreign country for more than a year, regardless of the reason for their migration, whether voluntarily or involuntary, or the form of transportation they used to get there (whether regular or irregular). IGNOU BSOE 141 Solved Free Assignment
In accordance with this definition, those who travel for short periods of time, such as tourists and business travellers, would not be considered migrants in the traditional sense.
The process of migration is a selective one, affecting only those individuals or families that meet certain economic, social, educational, and demographic criteria. Individuals move for a variety of reasons, which vary from person to person.
In general, people travel in response to current circumstances. In rural areas, particularly in smaller settlements located outside towns and cities, a majority of agricultural labourers are unskilled employees who do agricultural duties in exchange for wages that have been in place for decades.
A large number of Indian farmers migrate from one site to another throughout the harvesting season in search of work in various regions.
Migration for this reason might be motivated by a variety of factors, the most common of which is a desire for higher standard of living.
Q. 8. Discuss the nature of occupation found in urban areas?
Ans. Generally, the occupations in urban spaces are divided into four types mentioned below: IGNOU BSOE 141 Solved Free Assignment
Street Workers: Street workers, often known as street vendors, are a critical component of any country’s economy.
Street vendors sell their wares and provide services in public areas such as streets or other market areas.
They are critical in shaping a country’s informal economy. Street workers can be observed working day and night on the streets of practically every town and city in the world.
They are self-employed, such as rickshaw drivers, vegetable vendors, cobblers, snack vendors, tea vendors, and ice cream vendors, among others.
Self-Employed Businessmen: Self-employ-ment is defined as working independently to earn a living. Additionally, street work is a self-employed occupation.
However, in terms of business, self-employed businessmen are individuals who have established their own business or enterprise and are the sole proprietors of their enterprise, such as the proprietor of a temporary store.
Businessmen might be classified as structured and unstructured or disorganised. In organised business, businessmen’s accounts and economic affairs are kept track of.
In comparison, there are other businessmen who operate a small firm, are self- employed, and thus fall into the unorganised sector.
Those in the latter category establish their own businesses with little initial investments and hence earn lower returns than businessmen in the organised sector.
Factory Workers: Another component of urban occupation is factory work, which is a key source of income for migrants in India’s cities and towns.
Individuals who are employed in factories or other manufacturing units comprise an unorganised sector of employment because they are often employed informally by factory owners. IGNOU BSOE 141 Solved Free Assignment
Organised Sector Workers: Workers in the organised sector are individuals who work in government-registered sectors.
Employees’ periods of employment are rigorous and permanent or regular in structured sectors.
There are numerous terms and conditions that define an organised job sector. Indeed, becoming a structured sector is a rigorous procedure that involves formal government registration.
The government regulates organised sectors and requires them to pay taxes as well.
Q. 9. Outline the features of a “Gated Community” in big cities.
Ans. Fortified enclaves, sometimes known as gated communities, are residential areas that are private, well-protected, and under constant supervision by security personnel, as opposed to open neighbourhoods.
In their most basic form, they are defined as geographically constrained areas that provide sufficient amenities to support the lives of the people who live inside their boundaries.
The availability of various types of housing in gated communities is in addition to providing access to amenities such as gymnasiums, walking paths and trails, children’s playgrounds and daycares as-well-as retail centres and restaurants.
Recreation hubs, specialised sports zones, swimming pools, and other facilities are also available in gated communities.
When compared to a gated community, the following characteristics can be found in an apartment complex or a condominium building: As a result, gated communities give the illusion of being a mini-city within a city, which is a common misconception about them among the public. IGNOU BSOE 141 Solved Free Assignment
The residents in gated communities enjoy a lifestyle that is both urban and natural in nature, depending on where they live within these boundaries.
Q. 10. Discuss the meaning of consumer culture” and concept of leisure.
Ans. The urban can also be understood as a general movement from production-centered capitalism, based on work and compulsion, to consumption-centered capitalism, based on leisure, market “seduction”, and spectacle (Bauman 1992; Ritzer 1999).
Contemporary theorists have developed the idea of a “means of consumption” and have shifted into a more cultural study of consumer society (Baudrillard 1970/1988; Ritzer 1999; Slater 1997).
Consumer society is governed by more general indications, models, and cultural codes, all of which flow freely like signifiers, according to one school of postmodern critique (Baudrillard 1975).
In addition to sophisticated marketing strategies, the proliferation of visual images and electronic media, and most importantly the emergence of style as identity, scholars argue that the rise of “spaces of consumption” like themed restaurants, theme parks and bars, is due to widespread cultural and aesthetic changes.
Leisure evolved as a novel concept in post-industrial civilizations as a result of various changes in occupation and production processes, with the urban dweller working in factories and offices from morning to night.
As a result of the need to provide a respite for the workers, the concept of entertainment; parks, etc. came into being.