GANDHI AND THE CONTEMPORARY WOLRD
IGNOU BPSE 141 Solved Free Assignment
BPSE 141 Solved Free Assignment July 2023 & January 2024
Q. 1. Write a note on Gandhi’s struggles in South Africa.
Ans. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi used to live in South Africa before becoming the leader of the Indian liberation struggle, where he campaigned against injustice and class separation.
Within ten years, Gandhi had successfully spread the ideology of Satyagraha throughout the country, propelling it towards becoming a society free of prejudice based on race, class, or ethnicity.
Aboard the S.S. Safari, Gandhi made his way to Durban in 1893.
Gandhi rose quickly through the ranks of the Indian community in South Africa to become its de facto leader. IGNOU BPSE 141 Solved Free Assignment
His engagement in the non-violent movement in South Africa had such an influence that he is still regarded as a leader in the country today as a result of his efforts.
From 1893 through 1914, Gandhi worked as an attorney and as a civil servant in various capacities. Gandhi stated during a meeting in New Delhi that he was born in India, but that he was made in South Africa.
Here is a list of things Gandhi performed in South Africa for the rights of South African Indians:
.Gandhi was booted out of a train while travelling to Pretoria by train, despite the fact that he had purchased a first-class ticket.
The reason for this was that a white man had complained about an Indian taking up space next to him on the train.IGNOU BPSE 141 Solved Free Assignment
. Gandhi created the Natal Indian Congress in response to this in 1894, which is still active today.It was this organisation that organised non-violent demonstrations against white people’s harsh treatment of native Africans and Indians in the United States.
. In 1896, he travelled to India for a brief period of time and recruited 800 Indians to accompany him on his mission to South Africa. They were met by a crowd of angry people, and Gandhi was hurt as a result of the attack.
.Although Gandhi recruited approximately 1,100 Indians after the onset of the Boer War in 1899 and organised the Indian Ambulance Corps for the British, ethnic discrimination and torture against Indians continued.
.Gandhi was inspired by the book “Unto This Last” by the English artist John Ruskin, and he established the Phoenix Farm near Durban as a result.
Gandhi would use this location to educate his cadres in non-violent Satyagraha, also known as peaceful restraint. Phoenix Farm is widely regarded as the birthplace of the Satyagraha movement. IGNOU BPSE 141 Solved Free Assignment
But it was at the Tolstoy Farm in South Africa, Gandhi’s second camp in the country, that Satyagraha was transformed into a weapon of social protest.
. When Gandhi organised the first Satyagraha campaign in September 1906, he was protesting against the Transvaal Asiatic ordinance, which had been enacted against the local Indians at the time.
In June 1907, he staged another Satyagraha demonstration against the Black Act.
. In 1908, he was sentenced to prison for his role in the organisation of non-violent movements. However, following a meeting with General Smuts, a British Commonwealth statesman, he was allowed to leave prison.
However, he was later wever, he attacked and sent to prison again because of this, which led him to start Satyagraha in protest.
. After being found guilty in Volkshurst and Pretoria, he was sentenced to a three-month jail term. Following his release, Gandhi travelled to England in order to seek the aid of the Indian community living in the country.
.In 1913, he also fought against the law that made non-Christian marriages void, which was in place at the time.IGNOU BPSE 141 Solved Free Assignment
.A second peaceful resistance campaign against the oppression of Indian minorities was organised by Gandhi in the Transvaal against the oppression of Indian minorities.
He was in charge of a group of approximately 2,000 Indians who crossed the Transvaal border.
Q. 2. Critically examine Gandhi’s conception of modern civilization and alternative modernity.
Ans. Considering that Indian civilization was better to Western civilization, it is understandable that some people could question why Western nations chose to enslave and colonise India in the first place.
Gandhi asserts categorically that the English did not conquer India; rather, the Indians surrendered it to them in exchange for our freedom.
“They (the British) are not in India because of their might, but rather because we are keeping them,” he explained.IGNOU BPSE 141 Solved Free Assignment
Gandhi wrote the following about the West’s role in India’s loss of independence: “They (the British) came to our country first for the purpose of trade.” Remember the name of the company, Bahadur.
Who was responsible for that, Bahadur? At the moment, they had no intention of forming a kingdom in the traditional sense of the word.
Who provided assistance to the officers of the company? Who wasn’t tempted by the sight of their precious metal? Who was it who purchased their goods?
The fact that we did all of this is documented in history. Because we wanted to get wealthy as quickly as possible, we welcomed the company’s officers with open arms. We were able to assist them.
If I am in the habit of consuming bhang and a vendor of the substance sells it to me, should I hold him or myself responsible? Will I be able to break the habit if I place the blame on the seller? IGNOU BPSE 141 Solved Free Assignment
And, if a particular retailer is forced to close, will not another merchant step in to fill the void?… Because we provided encouragement, English merchants were able to establish themselves in India.
When our Princes got into a fight between themselves, they turned to Company Bahadur for assistance.
That corporation was well-versed in both business and military affairs. It was not hindered by moral dilemmas or ethical dilemmas.
The purpose of the organisation was to expand its trade and generate revenue. It acknowledged our support and extended the number of warehouses in its operation.
It employed an army to protect the latter, which was also used by us to protect ourselves.IGNOU BPSE 141 Solved Free Assignment
Gandhi believed that Indians’ distancing themselves from their civilization, which was primarily spiritual, and instead gravitating toward the material riches on which Western civilisation was founded was the inner and fundamental cause of India’s loss of its independence.
Gandhi was born in 1869 and died in 1948. He decries the fratricidal attitude of Indian kings, which he believes provided an opening for the British to expand their military presence in the country.
His other point of reference is the animosity that existed between Hindus and Muslims in India at the time, which he sees as a potential opportunity for the East India Company, and thus as a result of which the Indians created the circumstances that allowed the East India Company to gain control over India.
And Gandhi ends by saying, “Therefore, it is more accurate to say that we surrendered India to the English rather than that India was lost.”
Gandhi’s Critique of Modern Civilization in his philosophy, Gandhi “believed that Indian civilisation was certainly the best, but that all civilization had been put through their places, and that it was Indian civilisation’s turn during the British era to prove it.” IGNOU BPSE 141 Solved Free Assignment
During this time period, Gandhi expressed regret that India’s civilisation had been jeopardised as a result of the failure of its sons to uphold the law.
As a result of his ‘recognition’ that slavery had not harmed the entirety of India and that it had only affected those who had been affected by modern civilisation who had become enslaved, Gandhi came off as fairly optimistic.
Gandhi begins laying out his strategy for liberating India by repeating the proverb “that the removal of the cause of a sickness results in the removal of the ailment itself.” Gandhi is referring to the removal of the disease’s source.
Similar to this, he asserts that “if the root cause of India’s enslavement is addressed, India will be able to achieve freedom.” He also brings up an interesting point, namely, that “the entire country of India is not affected.”
Only those who have been impacted by Western culture have become enslaved, and we measure the universe by the terrible foot-rule that we have established for ourselves. IGNOU BPSE 141 Solved Free Assignment
When we are slaves, we believe that the entire universe is under our control. For the simple reason that we are in such poor shape, we believe that the entire country is in the same state.
Although this is not the case, it is equally incorrect to attribute our slavery on the entire population of India.”
“If we keep in mind the above reality, we can understand that if we become free, India will also become free,” he says after painting this vision of India in his mind’s eye.
India’s freedom struggle, according to Gandhi, was “India’s contribution to peace.” Swadeshi and Swaraj were the names he used to describe his interpretation of nationalism. IGNOU BPSE 141 Solved Free Assignment
He claimed that the goal of his Swaraj was to preserve the genius of our civilisation’s development.
Critique of Industrialization and Mechanization
Gandhi believed that industrialization had bred a harmful nationalism in the West. Industrialization, he claims, created social stratification, resulting in greed and worker enslavement, as well as economic inequity.
On the Machine’s roots, he judged Western society. The Machine’s supremacy was the root of India’s illness. He blamed machines for India’s poverty.
So, Gandhi used ‘Khadi’, or cotton yarn spinning on wooden charkhas, to promote ‘Swaraj’ and ‘Swadeshi’. IGNOU BPSE 141 Solved Free Assignment
To him, wearing and adopting indigenous artefacts would make everyone proud of our disappearing civilisation. Rural hymns by saints like Kabir popularised this idea.
Gandhi declared categorically that Swadeshi included everything created in India, not just hand-spun Khaddar. The restoration to the rich civilization of pre-European India was symbolised by Khadi.
Gandhi turned Khadi into a cult as a technique for nation-building from the grassroots when he retired from active politics in the mid-1920s. He suggested the group get a Khadi franchise and even a “yarn currency.”
It should have puzzled British and Western-educated Indian town reds alike Gandhi’s deep attachment to the spinning wheel. It was obvious, given their inability to appreciate Indian village poverty. IGNOU BPSE 141 Solved Free Assignment
Education as Critique of Modernity Modernism in India was clearly introduced through basic education. The colonial overlords’ design was blind to the demands and hardships of the countryside’s teeming millions.
Gandhi’s primary education plan was based on rural education, with handicrafts as the primary medium. Gandhi’s teaching and educational philosophy were interwoven with his khadi-based way of living.
Gandhi criticised the Western educational system for several reasons. He thought it was unsuited for India and a poor copy of the Western model.
He went on to say that our schools and universities had generated an army of clerks and office-seekers since the teaching medium was a foreign language.
A lack of creativity, deteriorated vernaculars, and denied the masses of higher information would have percolated through education classes’ contacts with them, he insisted. IGNOU BPSE 141 Solved Free Assignment
As a result of a lack of religious foundations for education, and a lack of artisan skills, this education system polarised India’s educated and uneducated. He claimed that omitting the most basic necessity for agriculture education was a crime.
If Gandhi had attacked educated Indians’ educational training and ideas, he would have been branded a traitor to his country for being wilful victims of the trendy school system. Despite their antipathy to British rule, most nationalists accepted it.
However, most other nationalists accepted the British educational system as a means of advancing India’s material status.
Gandhi, on the other hand, held opposing views from the start. This would allow a complete boycott of foreign yarn and textiles. This type of preparation also fosters self-reliance and independence.IGNOU BPSE 141 Solved Free Assignment
Q. 1. Discuss Gandhi critique of development.
Ans. Gandhi suggested a manner of living that might be converted into a wide philosophy of development. His relational worldview emphasised the interco-nnection of the universe’s constituents.
His entire life philosophy was based on the idea that no human being could be the sole guardian of the earth and its resources.
Gandhi saw life as a path to awakening. Humans are social creatures that must live in company rather than alone, so they face an endless array of challenges and opportunities.
To him, the spirit, or soul, is the most fundamental human component. He saw the body as a tool. He thought elevating the body hampered the spirit’s assertion and growth.
To achieve this goal, one must first consider one’s own wants access to resources, exploitation of resources, and relationships with other beings and nature.
We must constantly examine our relationship with nature, our usage of energy, food, and other resources, and our gains from it.
We must assess our use of it in relation to our mission and societal duties. To complete our purpose without causing undue environmental stress, we must maximise our time. IGNOU BPSE 141 Solved Free Assignment
Gandhi provided a way of life or an art of living to the public and proved its validity by living it himself.
Humans can meet their basic needs without jeopardising the interests of other creatures if they adopt Gandhi’s ideology. In its purest form, it helps achieve a better existence.
Gandhi’s life philosophy promotes a more eco-friendly and sustainable growth pattern.
Gandhi’s development model embraces all aspects of life, including political, economic, social, and spiritual, yet it must be dissected for examination.
Gandhi’s economic views differed from many mainstream economists. Most economists are obsessed with material concerns.
Gandhi believed that when people talk about economic progress, they mean unrestrained financial advancement, whereas actual progress refers to moral advancement.IGNOU BPSE 141 Solved Free Assignment
Q. 2. Examine Gandhi’s concept of Swaraj and Swadeshi.
Ans. Swaraj is defined by Gandhi as a “model code of conduct that demonstrates to men the way of responsibility”, the route of control over desires, and the path of “mastery over their thoughts and passions”.
A personal moral being who is supposed to limit the pleasures of others is raised up in this way. It also thinks happiness is mostly a mental thing.
To attain this state of “Swaraj”, one must live a simple life and abstain from hunger for wealth and power.
According to Gandhi, good mental intelligence is impossible until one abandons material pursuits. IGNOU BPSE 141 Solved Free Assignment
Essentially, he desired to establish a world in which an individual worked as agricultural labour and lived autonomously within a sustainable village environment.
Gandhi classified “Swaraj” as follows:
. National Independence
. Political freedom of the individual
. Economic freedom of the individual
. Spiritual freedom of the individual or ‘self-rule’.
Gandhi’s Swadeshi idea prioritised local products, even if they were of lower quality or more expensive than those created elsewhere, and sought to remedy local manufacturers’ difficulties.
Gandhi’s Swadeshi did not imply rejection of all foreign goods simply because they are foreign, nor did it imply continuing to waste national time and money promoting indigenous manufacturing. IGNOU BPSE 141 Solved Free Assignment
This would be incorrect and contradictory to the Swadeshi spirit. There will be a healthy exchange of products in the Swadeshi economic order, rather than cutthroat competition brought about by market forces.
He established a guiding concept for all foreign goods: nothing should be imported that was likely to be detrimental to the interests of indigenous industry.
Gandhi identified khadi as an essential and critical corollary of the Swadeshi philosophy in its practical application to society.
Gandhi emphasised the critical significance of developing the Khadi sector. Khadi was Gandhi’s symbol of Indian humanity’s oneness, economic freedom and equality and Swaraj.
He felt that the development of the Khadi business will alleviate hunger and poverty for millions of people. IGNOU BPSE 141 Solved Free Assignment
Gandhi advocated for the use of charkha, which was regarded as a sign of non-violence. ‘Swaraj through spinning’ was his tagline.
Q. 3. Elaborate upon Gandhi’s concept of Trusteeship.
Ans. It is vital to remember that Gandhi’s economic theories were part of a larger campaign against exploitation, poverty, social injustice, and the degradation of moral principles, all of which he opposed.
Gandhi was a populist economist who advocated on behalf of the working people during his lifetime.
His approach was founded on the realisation of the inherent dignity of the human individual in all of his interactions.IGNOU BPSE 141 Solved Free Assignment
He was able to create his economic worldview as a result of the several experiments he undertook during his life.
In the end, he was able to shift the focus of current socio-economic problems to the goal of protecting human dignity because of his work.
According to Gandhi, affluent men should act in the role of trustees for the assets they own, i.e., they should pledge their property and other assets to the general public on their own behalf.
In order to earn their bread (i.e., their living), they must descend to the level of common labour, no matter how wealthy they may be (hard work).
As an advocate for workers, he said that they should think of their work as a gift to society as a whole, and that they should treat their work as if it were their own.
Workers sell their work on the open market, and the rich buy it for their own use in exchange for their money.IGNOU BPSE 141 Solved Free Assignment
As a result, the rich don’t have to do any physical work very often, but labourers have to do physical work on a regular basis.
Workers would have plenty of free time in an ideal environment, and the owners of industrial facilities would be responsible for completing physical labour as well as other tasks.
Then and only then will the general public come to recognise the value of labour as a legitimate occupation.
Employers should encourage and support workers’ participation in all phases of the manufacturing and distribution process. Employees are afforded similar safeguards under state law in some cases as well.IGNOU BPSE 141 Solved Free Assignment
Q. 1. Satyagraha Vs Duragraha
Ans. According to Gandhi, Satyagraha was one of the most effective forms of direct action available to a Satyagrahi (practitioner of Satyagraha).
A Satyagrahi will therefore seek the constituted authority on an ongoing basis, appeal to public opinion, educate public opinion, and explain his argument calmly before anyone who will listen to him, resorting to Satyagraha only after exhausting all other options.
He continued by stating that his experiences had taught him that every righteous or just battle is subject to a law of advancement.
Gandhi distinguished Satyagraha (clinging to truth) from Duragraha (clinging to power), arguing that protest was more about harassing than enlightening opponents. IGNOU BPSE 141 Solved Free Assignment
He wrote, “There must be no haste, no barbarism, no insolence, and no undue pressure.”
If we are to foster a truly democratic spirit, we cannot afford to be intolerant. Intolerance reveals a lack of commitment to one’s cause.
Q. 2. Silent Valley Movement.
Ans. Silent Valley National Park has one of India’s last surviving tropical moist evergreen rain forests.
They called it Silent Valley because there were no boisterous cicadas. Initial worldwide attention to the Silent Valley was drawn by the indigenous people’s fight against the Kerala State Electricity Board’s proposed hydropower project in the valley (KSEB).
In 1928, Sairandhri’s location on the Kunthipuzha River was thought of as a source of energy.IGNOU BPSE 141 Solved Free Assignment
The Silent Valley Movement gained national attention in the 1980s, when state-led development initiatives dominated.
In development, dams were icons. Concerns about a hydroelectric project jeopardising the park’s species richness spurred the Save Silent Valley movement in the 1970s.
The Kerala State Electricity Board announced its plan to start dam construction in 1976, attracting public attention.
The movement emphasised the need to protect the environment for future generations. The lion-tailed Macaque became a symbol of the non-violent movement to save the evergreen forests.
The campaign included the Narmada Bachao Andolan, the Bombay Natural History Society, and the Silent Valley Action Forum.
Others included: Vandana Shiva, Medha Patkar, Sundarlal Bahuguna, Baba Amte, and Sunita Narain. Public awareness campaigns in print and electronic media influenced public opinion.IGNOU BPSE 141 Solved Free Assignment
The Kerala Sastra Sahitya Parishad took over the initiative from local villagers (KSSP). Numerous KSSP scientific studies have emphasised the need to preserve the ecosystem’s pristine status for the sake of humanity.
The KSSP biologists recognised the need to protect the valley’s biodiversity.
The KSSP organised public opposition. It had science clubs all around the state and sent bulletins and magazines to students, youth, and the general public. It had written to the Kerala government detailing its worries.
It organised street performances, exhibitions, public debates, and a 400-community “marathon march”. For the first time in the state’s history, students spoke out against the proposed project.
Following KSSP’s massive campaign, the Central Government engaged renowned plant geneticist and agricultural scientist Dr. M.S. Swaminathan to investigate.
On November 15, 1983, the Silent Valley Forests were named a national park by the Central Government. IGNOU BPSE 141 Solved Free Assignment
On September 1, 1986, Silent Valley National Park became part of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve. Since then, a long-term conservation campaign has been launched to safeguard Silent Valley.
In many ways, the Silent Valley movement prepared the ground for subsequent environmental movements.
The Silent Valley initiative educated people on the need for environmental protection. It is also widely agreed that effective environmental protection requires the active involvement of local citizens, scientists and other members of the public.
Q. 3. Relevance of Pacifism in contemporary world.
Ans. The phrase “pacifism” is rare nowadays. We hear more about nuclear disarmament, peace-making, and anti-war actions.
Many theorists have presented techniques for settling conflicts and improving the world. IGNOU BPSE 141 Solved Free Assignment
So pacifism has lost its relevance? Is this a priceless idea without defenders? We can present a convincing “no.” The term “pacifism” isn’t often used. But it’s still relevant as a viable alternative to war.
It opposes war. Its importance has grown as the world’s issues have multiplied. We fight wars to achieve and establish peace.
Pacifism is a feasible option in today’s conflict-ridden globe. Pacifism was strongly ingrained throughout Europe.
Eventually, it resonated with well-known leaders like Mahatma Gandhi and a whole lot of other people, too.
Q. 4. Concept of Social Harmony.
Ans. Social harmony is a traditional concept that depicts an ideal society characterised by the absence of conflict and everyone working cooperatively with one another. IGNOU BPSE 141 Solved Free Assignment
Democracy and the rule of law, as well as “fairness and justice”, are two aspects of social amicability that are important to consider.
It reflects a fundamental concern shared by the broader populace. Despite the fact that social harmony is a social concept, it is a part of social groups, and it can help people think about how to be good citizens in a modern setting where the state is primarily responsible for the welfare of its citizens.
Furthermore, the concept of social harmony can be measured in a natural way. In terms of how to deal with the question of how people and nature can live together peacefully, it has more potential than most other methods.
Social harmony is the most important value and the most highly regarded evaluation in every society.
Social congruity is an integrative motivation in a global, information society that unites in itself love, peace, justice, freedom, equality, brotherhood, collaboration, nonviolence, tolerance, humanism, and other universal values, and places a special emphasis on children’s well- being and development.
Because of this, harmony is a shared value throughout western and eastern cultures, and it has the potential to prevent a clash of civilizations.
Social harmony fosters a peaceful and long-lasting peace that transcends wars, terrorism and impoverishment.IGNOU BPSE 141 Solved Free Assignment
Q. 5. Gulabi Gang.
Ans. Suman Singh Chauhan of Badausa, Uttar Pradesh’s Banda district, saw her friend’s intoxicated husband assault her in 2002.
With her friends and neighbours, she rushed to her friend’s house and openly thrashed her friend’s husband. This tragedy prompted a group of Badausa women vigilantes to act against social injustices.
The Gulabi Gang (Pink Gang) battled against gender-based social problems as well as hoarding, bribery, and caste prejudice.
They used pink sarees and bamboo clubs to make their opinions heard. Unemployment is high in Badausa, which is one of India’s 200 poorest districts.
The gang’s ladies were mostly Dalits. Gang leader Sampat Pal Devi told the BBC: “Nobody comes to our rescue in these regions.”
Officials and cops are crooked and anti-poor. As a result, we sometimes must enforce the law ourselves. We choose to chastise wrongdoers.