IGNOU BPSC 110 Solved Free Assignment
BPSC 110 Solved Free Assignment July 2023 & January 2024
Q. 1. Explain theories of globalisation.
Ans. The proversus anti-globalisation is nothing less than a debate of the older and familiar debate between capitalism and socialism since globalisation has become a free market orientation.
There are no alternatives to market structures and the choice is left between neoliberal globalisation and regulated globalisation.
The first wave of global globalisation theory is called hyper globalism. It implies that national economies have become less important due to the more importance given to capital mobility, economic interdependence and multinational companies.
Francis Fukuyama (End of History), Thomas Friedman (World is Flat) and Kenichi Ohmae (End of the Nation-State) supported this wave.
Political restrictions on movement of money have reduced due to technological changes like computerized financial transactions.
It has denationalized economies as the national boundaries will have to facilitate connections between different parts of the world through supranational organizations such as the European Union.
It is bringing economic changes to political and cultural changes. This has also led to decline in national culture as people adapt to world global culture.
Nation states have established international organizations such as the UN and the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
This is the second wave supported by the sceptics who believe that there is not much new about globalisation and its consequences are being hyped for political reasons.
Paul Hirst and Grahame Thompson (Globalisation in Question: The International Economy and Possibility of Governance) are the main supporters of this wave. Sceptics take it as a revolutionary technological and economic force.
These are the fields of interest for the politicians, theorists and corporates. Nation states have a role to play at National and International levels.
The developed nations like North America and Europe continue to be powerful. Sceptics argue that national identities cannot replace national cultures. They state that economic globalisation has not been accepted everywhere.
For example Sub-Saharan Africa is less integrated with global economies like East Asia and Europe.
Poverty and inequality in Africa has increased due to globalisation. Sceptics have concluded that globalisation stressed on power, inequality, conflict and importance of nation states.
The third wave lies between hyper-globalists and sceptics. The main supporters are David Held and Anthony McGrew (The Global Transformations Reader: An Introduction to the Globalisation Debate), Anthony Giddens (Runway World) and Ulrich Beck (Risk Society).
As per them, national, economic, political and cultural forces are being transformed to share sovereignty with other counterparts on problems like drugs, crime, environment, development in international transport and communication.
Global inequality is a three tier structure which includes the middle group of countries in Asia and Latin America which are more integrated in the global economy.
National culture like films, food, religion and fashion are global culture with inputs from international sources.
Q. 2. Critically examine the various dimensions of state sovergenity.
Ans. Sovereignty is the supreme authority within a territory. It has a hierarchy within the state as-well-as external autonomy for the state.
A sovereign state is a political body that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
The concepts of sovereignty have been discussed since history but they are still debatable.
The term sovereignty are four types: Domestic sovereignty, interdependence sovereignty, international legal sovereignty and Westphalian Sovereignty. Sovereignty is further divided into two parts which are internal sovereignty and external sovereignty.
Internal Sovereignty is the relationship between sovereign power and the political community. A state that has internal sovereignty when it is being elected by the people has popular legitimacy.
It examines the internal affairs of a state and how it works. Internal sovereignty takes care of the internal affairs of a state.
Rebel groups disturb the peace if a nation has weak internal sovereignty. The lack of internal sovereignty can cause war because of two reasons.
It is either when the value of agreement by allowing serious violations or implementation of large subsidies are required which costs war more than peace.
The strong internal sovereignty allows a state to prevent opposition groups in exchange for agreements.
It allows the state to imply sanctions for the violation of laws. Internal sovereignty means the relationship between a sovereign power and its subjects.
It implies the location of the highest authority within the state. In the UK, the internal sovereignty lies with the Parliament which has constitutional principles of parliamentary sovereignty.
External sovereignty allows a state towork indepen- dently and freely in the world political system. It is also called state sovereignty or national sovereignty.
The states are legally equal and the territorial integrity and political freedom of a state can never be broken.
External state sovereignty has challenges as the international human rights legal structure is increasing. The internal sovereignty has been devalued by globalisation.
External sovereignty shows the relationship between sovereign power and other states. It is connected with international laws.
It decides when a foreign country can interfere in another country’s matter. External sovereignty states that the State is independent of any restrictions on the part of the other states.
Every free state reserves the authority to frame trade treaties and make military agreements.
Each state is independent of other states. Every free state has the liberty to make its foreign policy and can join any bloc of power it favours.
External sovereignty means national freedom which means the modern state is a sovereign state. In 1648 the Peace of Westphalia was established after thirty years of religious conflict in Europe.
It dealt with territorial sovereignty where non-interference in the affairs of other states is mentioned. The Treaty of Westphalia created a new European order of equal sovereign states.
Foreign governments use several criteria and political considerations when deciding whether or not to recognize the sovereignty of a state over a territory.
The criteria which is required to be part of the United Nations is that the state membership in the United Nations will be affected by a decision of the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council.
The government-in-exile of many European states during World War II were considered sovereign but their territories were the colonies for foreign occupation. They went under respective governance as soon as their occupation ended.
The government of the Republic of China was sovereign from 1911 to 1971. But its mainland China Territory had been occupied by Communist Chinese forces since 1949.
But its sovereign and political status got lost in 1971 when it lost UN recognition.
External sovereignty is linked with international laws which ask whether a country can intervene into another’s territory.
The thirty years War which is a European religious conflict, the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 set-up the idea of territorial sovereignty where a country cannot interfere into the affairs of another country. This resulted in the extension of cuius regio, eius religio in Rome.
It allowed the church in Rome to interfere little with the internal affairs of many European states. In international law, sovereignty means that a government has full control over the affairs within a geographical area.
Foreign governments use various conditions and political considerations while deciding whether to take a sovereign state over a territory.
A nation which is part of the UN can affect a decision of the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council.
Q. 1. Examine the impact of industrial revolution on world economy.
Ans. It began in Britain and spread to the whole world. Currently, this process is known as Industrialization. It started with the social and institutional changes when feudalism was declining in England after the English Civil War in the 17th century.
The steam engine was invented and the credit goes to it which made technology innovations responsible for the Industrial revolution.
Eric Hobsbawn said that the industrial revolution started in the 1780s and took place over 50-60 years to bring technological changes in the world. The industrial revolution impacted all sectors such as social life, politics etc.
It increased the production and consumption and per-capita wealth. A strong middle- class of industrialists and businessmen came into society who took over landowners and nobles.
According to Karl Marx, industrialization divided society into two classes the bourgeoisie, those who own the means of production and the proletariat, the working class.
Friedrich Engels in 1844 mentioned that the Industrial revolution had changed civil society in English. The taxpayers were demanding franchise rights.
The mass spread of newspapers and books was possible due to the use of steam engines and printing presses. Literacy increased due to availability of printed material.
Right to vote was granted in Britain under Reform Bills of 1832, 1867 and 1884-85. Social issues included Scientific knowledge. Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations argues for capitalism.
He says, industrialization increases the wealth for all which is used for consumption and life expectancy in England. He also said that capitalism helps free markets. Modern industries are working on the basis of division of labour.
It increases production and skills of labour. Economies are advantaged, facing growth and prosperity.
The concept of ‘invisible hand’ where people have a natural feeling of raising standards increases demands by producing goods and services.
He said that the competition among the businesses is healthy. It keeps producers honest.
It gives a chance to the consumer that they can avoid dishonest seller and may favour the honest one. The competition ensures fair price, quality of product and economic innovation.
Q. 2. Explain the organisational structure and woking of the World Bank.
Ans. The World Bank consists of 189 member countries. These member countries form the Board of Governors. The World Bank is affiliated with the UN and its aim is to increase economic development of member states.
Its headquarters is in Washington D.C. it plays an important role in supervising and reshaping public institutions in developing countries jointly with the IMF and WTO.
It was founded in 1944 at the UN Monetary and Financial Conference which is also known as the Bretton Woods Conference. It formed an international economic system post World War II.
The World Bank officially started its operations in June 1946. In the early 1950s, it invested in infrastructure projects in developing countries.
It provided invest- ments for roads, water and sewage facilities, airports, maritime ports and hydroelectric dams.
The World Bank consists of five institutions which are the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), the International development Association (IDA), the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA), the International Finance Corporation (IFC) and the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID).
These governors form policies at the World Bank. The IBRD provides loans at market rates of interest to middle income developing countries and lower income countries.
The IDA provides interest free long term loans, technical assistance and policy advice on health, education and rural development. The IDA provides interest free loans but charges a service fee.
The IDA loans about $1.3 billion a year to the developing countries to fund development projects.
The IRD gets finance through contributions from developed countries. The IFC works in partnership with private institutions and provides loans and it guarantees to business undertakings in developing countries.
MIGA provides loan guarantees and insurance to foreign investors against loss caused by non-profit risks in developing countries.
The ICSID works independently of the IBRD, for conciliation of investment disputes between foreign investors and their host developing countries.
These Governors are generally the minister of development or finance. They meet once a year at the Annual Meetings of the Boards of Governors of the World Bank group and the IMF.
There are 25 Executive Directors who are assigned duties by the governors and they work on-site at the Bank.
The five of the largest shareholders appoint an executive director. The World Bank Group’s President heads meetings of the Boards of Directors and is the ultimate incharge of the Bank.
Q. 3. Discuss the phenomenon of Merger and Acquisition (M&A) in the global economy.
Ans. The term M&A means the combination of companies or assets through many kinds of financial transactions involving mergers, acquisitions, tenders, purchase of goods and management acquisitions.
When a single company takes over another country and announces itself to its new owner it is called as acquisition.
A merger means the two firms of same size combine and form a new entity and is known as a merger of equals.
The merger of two companies is done when the Boards of Directors approve the combination and ask for shareholders’ approval.
An acquisition company requires a majority stake in the acquired firm. It does not change its name and changes its organisational structure.
In the past, many economists supported M&A by saying that the newly formed larger firms are more efficient.
M&A increases the size of firms and these firms in return dominate markets. Firms engage in mergers because it can prove profitable.
If profits rise due to low costs and higher productivity then the consumers get lower prices and that improve their financial position. Many companies use M&A to grow in size and leapfrog their competitors. It takes a longer time to expand.
For example, M&A activity in the sectors such as dot-coms and telecoms in the late 1990s, commodity and energy producers in 2006-07 etc.
M&A occurs when two companies with the same businesses join and form branches and regional offices, manufacturing units etc. It boosts earnings per share and make the M&A transaction grow.
Global companies use M&A for corporate tax. For example, a US company buys a smaller foreign competitor and merges the entity’s tax home overseas to a lower tax jurisdiction. It reduces tax bills.
An M&A transaction provides its shareholders to cash out profits. India has witnessed mergers and acquisitions in the last 20 years.
The Indian Governments have become liberalised regarding monopolies and have restricted trade practices. The total value of mergers in 2018 crossed the 100 billion dollar mark.
Private enterprises participated to maximise profits through M&A transactions. The merger of two big companies either reduces competition or marginalises it. Mergers can lead to economies to scale.
It reduces average costs and gives benefits which make production more efficient. It motivates R&D. R&D brings growth to industries with the help of increased profits. It also helps unprofitable yet potential businesses from closing down.
A merger also invites transfer of resources from one profitable to more independent and profitable one.
When the merger company is failing and shutting down, the acquirer takes over the control of the merger company. When merger results in monopoly the competitiveness of the market becomes problematic.
This brings down the prices of the commodities to more competition and higher productivity.
India is facing the problem of un-employment but through M&A corporations grow and establish many offices and operations in all parts of India and is creating more skilled employment.
M&A has given many benefits to the Indian Economy. It gave investments in sectors like textiles, education, agriculture, clothing, technology, automobiles. NBFCs in India need mergers which can provide ease in taxation.
A much bigger corporation is formed and gets tax benefits. Mergers boost economy.
It also solves the problem of lack of resources, limited supply and ease of heavy taxes.
Indian firms have been acquiring many foreign companies such as Byju’s acquired Osmo, OYO rooms acquired the leisure Group, TATA motors acquired Range Rover and Jaguar which marked the most honoured and remarkable acquisition of all times.
These acquisitions help India to fight with the problem of unemployment. These foreign companies are bringing technological development to India as well.
Q. 1. Impact of cultural dimension of globalisation
Ans. Globalisation and culture as a theme was first presented by Ronald Robertson through Globali-sation: Social Theory and Global Culture in 1992.
Indian scholar, Appadurai explained culture at three levels of human interaction. The humans have relations with nature, life, symbols, rituals and have hunger for several answers which motivate them to achieve goals.
This hunger connects cultures and interdependencies.
The length of cultural exchanges are much more than the earlier times. Technology like the internet, mobile handsets are the symbolic system which influences individualism, consumerism and many religious discourses.
The data through internet spreads worldwide more easily and fast and is influencing people’s lives.
Robert Holton explained this inter-connectedness with the help of concepts such as homogenization, polarization and hybridization. Global culture is standardized with Western or American patterns under homogenization.
It is also named as McDonalization. MNCs have transformed this world into a global village. Polarization is a global cultural development alongwith cultural alternatives and opposing western norms.
Hybridi-zation means accepting and mixing of elements of different cultures and then creating hybrid and syncretic forms. It is also called glocalisation.
Travelling through airplanes, internet, international migration etc., have opened geographical boundaries and different cultures are interacting with each other.
Yi Wang says that those who support anti-globalisation underestimate people’s subjectivity.
For example, Coke and McDonalds are very popular in the USA. but in India only the rich could afford them and these brands are considered status symbols.
McDonalds has made changes in their product according to the local taste, with of spices and local preferences. Whereas in China, People still prefer to go to Chinese restaurants.
They are still dominating the markets. The homogenization of culture makes people feel the impact of their food, music, fashion etc., but people are more happy with hybridization.
Q. 2. Role of United Nations in the conservation of environment.
Ans. The UN Conference on Human Environment held, in 1972 where many countries participated to solve the issues through collective methods.
The Stockholm Conference was held, from 5th to 16th June in 1972 where 1200 delegates from 14 countries participated.
Mrs. Indira Gandhi of India and Olaf Palme of Sweden attended it. A document of 26 principles was framed and accepted by both the developed and the developing nations.
The principle 21 was taken into consideration which says that a state has sovereign rights over its resources. It took global assurance to protect resources and balance economic development alongwith the environment.
It helped in establishing the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) which conducts international environment meetings and development of law. The former Prime Minister of India, Late Mrs.
Indira Gandhi brought many laws related to environment. The Chipko movement in the state of Uttarakhand in 1970s by women was best example to stop deforestation for commercial purposes.
The 1972 London Dumping Convention, International Convention for the prevention of pollution from ships 1973, Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, 1973, etc. Were some of the agreements on species, pollution etc.
In 1983, the UN General Assembly set-up an independent commission to propose long-term environmental strategies for achieving sustainable development to the year 2000 and beyond.
Many countries started their initiatives to conserve their resources. The UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) which is also known as Rio Summit or the Earth Summit was set-up.
The Summit planned to work and stop rapid environmental destruction and increase the participation of nations in securing resources and promote sustainable development in all countries.
It was held, from 3rd to 14th June in 1992 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It was attended by 178 national delegates, 1400 official NGOs and many journalists.
Agenda 21, the Rio declaration and the statement of Forest principles were adopted in the summit. The Summit resulted in the origin of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
Another convention would review recommendations mentioned in Agenda 21 within 5 years. The Rio Declaration has 21 principles for the protection of the natural environment.
Agenda 21 is an agreement of 40 chapters which include the principles like resources, deforestation, drought, sustainable agriculture etc.
Its partner members implement the principles youth, women and NGOs and provide them funds, transfer of technology etc. Later, it was taken by the General Assembly in its special session in New York.
It was later discussed in the Kyoto meeting to decide for legally-binding agreement which should be signed by the members.
The World Summit on Sustainable Development was held, in Johannesburg from 26th August to 4th September, 2002.
This meeting was held to convey the members to abide by the rules to international agreements which were fruitful for humans.
Q. 3. Difference between NPT & CTBT.
Ans. NTP: It is a treaty which prevents the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament.
The NPT was signed on 1st July in 1968 by the US, the Soviet, Britain and 59 other nations. In 1968, the final draft was signed.
It came into force in 1970. The NPT has more ratified countries than in other disarmament agreements. 191 states entered into the treaty.
It has some functions to perform. It set-up a system under the responsibility of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).
Article III of the treaty states that the parties should accept the negotiations in a separate agreement concluded with IAEA to accomplish its objective to prevent diversion of nuclear energy from peaceful uses to nuclear weapons.
The treaty mentions that each state party to the treaty must not provide source or special fissionable material, or any equipment designed for the processing or production or use of special fissionable material to any non-nuclear state, etc.
Article IV says that the provisions shall be imposed without disturbing economic or technological developments of the parties or international co-operation in the field of peaceful nuclear activities.
Article VIII mentions that review of the treaty must be done every five years. The 2015 Review Conference of the Parties to the treaty ended without the adoption of a consensus substantive results.
Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT): This treaty bans all nuclear explosions for everyone, by everyone and everywhere.
CD started its negotiations on a comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty in January 1994 within the framework of the Ad-hoc Committee.
The final treaty was presented after two years of negotiation in June 1996. It orders states to eliminate nuclear weapons within the fixed time period. Till date the treaty was signed by 185 countries and 165 have ratified it.
China, Egypt, Iran, Israel etc have signed it but not ratified it but counties such India, Pakistan, North Korea have not signed it.
India did not relate it to its provision for the entry-into-force of the treaty. Which is not correct in multilateral practise. And it is parallel to international law.
Q. 4. India’s climate commitment and its progress.
Ans. India had set three commitments targets under the Paris Climate Agreement. Two of the commitments have a 2030 deadline.
The commitments are: (1) the greenhouse gas emission intensity of its GDP will be reduced by 33-35% below 2005 levels by 2030.
(2) 40% of India’s power will come from fossil fuel resources.
(3) India will set-up an extra carbon sink of 2.5- 3 billion tonnes of CO, by forest and forest cover by 2030.
India is about to achieve its target for emission intensity of the economy by having a share of non-fossil fuel based power capacity before 2030.
The emission intensity of India’s GDP reduced by 21% below 2005 levels by 2014. India accounts for only 7% of global emission. In per capita terms, the emission was at 2.5 CO,e per person in 2014.
By March 2018, 35% of its capacity was based on non-fossil fuels such as renewables, hydroelectricity and nuclear. India’s air pollution levels have become a serious domestic issue.
The WHO estimated that 11 of the 12 cities with high levels of air pollution in the world are in India. Renewable sources of the huge needs of households for energy.
30 million people in India are still without electricity and the government is responsible to provide them reliable energy access. India is a leader in the solar energy industry.
The cost of renewable sources is reduced by 50% with technological innovations and policy incentives. India is a developing country which is still industrializing with sustainable processes.
By the year 2022, India will install 100 GW of solar energy, 60GW of wind power, 15 GW of more biomass and small hydro. It will generate employment approx. 3,30,000 new jobs.
India’s solar energy capacity increased eightfold from 2014-18 and wind power capacity increased from 21 GW to 34 GW. India has set-up a target of 227 GW of renewable capacity by 2022.
India is determined to follow the Paris Agreement fully in a collective manner. It is vital to support the developing countries by sustained and adequate means such as finance, technological support etc.
Q. 5. Difference among refugee, migrant and diaspora.
Ans. The term Refugee comes from the Latin word ‘Tugere’ which means to flee for safety.
According to the 1951 Refugee Convention and the 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees, Refugee is a person who flees from his country of origin ‘because of political or other oppressions and is difficult to get protect of that country and in result loses his/her nationality.
The African Union’s 1969 Convention governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa clarifies that a person facing external aggression, occupation, foreign domination or any other public disturbances also comes under the term refugee.
Asylum- seekers are individuals who are asking for asylum but nothing has been decided yet. Refugees move in large groups, often the people are victims of violence, torture, economic mogrants, victims of trafficking.
Women and children are often badly affected. Migration is geopolitical in nature which initiates trade and cultural exchanges.
It proves beneficial for the states, businesses and communities. Migrants when returning bring savings, skills and international contacts.
Young migrants enhance their standard of living and other life prospects. But migration has some negative impacts too. It declines the wages especially in lower paid jobs.
It allows workers to work at low wages and low pay makes employers concentrate less on productivity, training and innovation. The migrants in large quantities puts pressure on public services as it increases population.
Migration forces children to grow in poverty where they have no access to nutrition, education, health services etc. Migrants are often exploited which can cause internal conflicts in the host countries.
In Diaspora, people maintain a strong bond to their homeland, their roots and their origin which is opposite to migration. An example to show diaspora existed from ancient times is the Jews who were expelled from Judea.
People have a common memory of their home in diaspora. Their identity is affected by the homeland. In Diaspora, people can leave the country based on social, economical and political factors.