INTRODUCTION TO COMPARATIVE GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS
IGNOU BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment
BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment July 2023 & January 2024
Q. 1. Describe how the nature, field and scope of comparative plitics have evolved in response to the political concerns over different historical periods.
Ans. The nature and scope of comparative politics has changed as per the changes happened historically in its subject matter, which is determined by the geographical space (i.e., countries, regions) and the dominant ideas concerning social reality and change. Thus, the main focus of the studies has kept changing.
The Origins of Comparative Study of Politics
Comparative politics originated in ancient Greece with Aristotle who studied the Constitutions of 150 states and classified them into a typology of regimes.
He classified regimes and political systems in terms of their types as democracy, aristocracy and monarchy and differentiated them on certain norms of good governance. IGNOU BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment
He also divided regimes into good and bad – ideal and perverted. Aristotle’s views were picked by Romans like Polybius (201-120 B.C.) and Cicero (106-43 B.C.) who considered them in formal and legalistic terms.
In the 15th century, Machiavelli (1469-1527) compared different types of principalities such as hereditary, new, mixed and ecclesiastic ones and republics. Later thinkers like John Locke and Max Weber worked on these ancient studies.
The Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries
Comparative politics focused was centred on European countries which dominated the world politics. IGNOU BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment
Liberalism was the main ideology during this period. Comparative politics studied institutions, distribution of power and relationship between the different layers of government.
For examples, James Bryce’s Modern Democracies (1921), Herman Finer’s Theory and Practice of Modern Governments (1932) and Carl J. Friedrich’s Constitutional Government and Democracy (1937), Roberto Michels’, Political Parties (1915) and Maurice Duverger’s Political Parties (1950) studied institutions, governments and regime types in European countries. These studies excluded from their analysis a large number of countries.
The Second World War and After
The 1930s saw the change in politics and economy. Socialism emerged as a critical alternative to western liberalism and capitalism.
European (British) hegemony started declining and the United States of America emerged as the ‘new hegemon’ in world politics and economy.
The notions of development, modernisation, nation-building and state-building became popular. IGNOU BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment
Many in Asia, America and Latin America favoured Socialism, but several newly independent countries stayed away from both the power blocs.
Comparative politics until the 1940s focused on institutions, legal-constitutional principles regulating them and the manner in which they functioned in western (European) liberal-democracies.
In mid-1950s, the institutional approach was criticised. The critique based on behaviouralism intended to provide scientific rigour to the discipline and develop a science of politics.
The behaviouralists developed an enquiry which was quantitative, based on survey techniques involving the examination of empirical facts separated from values, to provide value-neutral, non- prescriptive, objective observations and explanations.
They studied social reality by seeking answers to questions like why people behave politically as they do, and why as a result, political processes and systems function as they do. IGNOU BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment
The concept of politics was broadened by the emphasis on ‘realism’ or politics ‘in practice’ as distinguished from just ‘legalism’.
This included the functioning of less formally structured agencies, behaviours and processes such as political parties, elections, interest groups, voting behaviour and attitudes. The notion of the ‘system’ replaced the notion of the state.
It enabled scholars to focus on the ‘extra-legal’, ‘social’ and ‘cultural’ institutions, critical to the understanding of non-western politics.
With the change of focus on actual practices and functions of institutions, scholars studied the legal powers of these institutions, what they actually did, how they were related to one another and their roles in the making and execution of public policy.
This led to the emergence of structural-functionalism approach. Some theoretical and conceptual approaches were developed: Study of political culture, political socialisation, developmentalism, dependency and interdependency, corporatism, bureaucratic-authoritarianism and later transitions to democracy.
Behaviouralist wanted to bring scientific rigour in political science to anticipate or study the social and political turmoil of the times with its new environmental and feminist movements, anti-war perspective and civil rights concerns.
They tried to reconcile two forces: Making political science more rigorous and making it more relevant led to the post-behavioural movement.
The 1970s and Challenges to Developmentalism
The 1970s saw criticism against developmentalism for favouring abstract models, which studied political/social/cultural systems as a single universalistic framework.
These criticisms studied the ethnocentrism of these models and focused on the Third World to work out a theory of underdevelopment. Their focus was on solutions to the backwardness of developing countries.
The 1980s: The Return of the State
Several theories and subject-matters emerged in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Some of them are bureaucratic- authoritarianism, indigenous concepts of change, transitions to democracy, the politics of structural adjustment, neoliberalism and privatisation. IGNOU BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment
For some scholars, these developments undermined and broke the unity of the field which was dominated by developmentalism.
For others, they added healthy diversity, providing alternative approaches and covering new subject areas.
The Late Twentieth century: Globalisation and Emerging Trends
Scaling down of Systems: Between 1960s and 1980s, the development of comparative political analysis included more variables like policy, ideology and governing experience.
With the 1980s, focus shifted from general theory to the relevance of context. The tendency reflects the renewed influence of historical inquiry in the social sciences.
More in-depth understanding of countries was made. Focus on grand systems and model building declined. Stress was put on specific contexts and cultures.
The scale of comparisons was brought down, but comparisons at the level of smaller regions remained.IGNOU BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment
Civil Society and Democratisation Approach (es): The notion of the end of history emerged with the disintegration of Soviet Union.
Francis Fukuyama argued that the history of ideas ended with the recognition and triumph of liberal democracy as the final form of human government.
Western liberal scholars suggested that the economic development of the west had resolved political problems like the issues of freedom and state power and workers’ rights which are assumed to accompany industrialisation.
Daniel Bell said there was an ideological consensus, or the suspension of a need for ideological differences over issues of political practice.
In the early 1990s, the idea of the ‘end of history’ was accompanied with another phenomenon of the 1980s, ‘globalisation’. The approaches to the study of civil society and democratisation gave importance to the protection of individual rights.
There were also the resurgence of peoples movements seeking autonomy, right to indigenous culture, movements of tribes, dalits, lower castes and the women’s movement and the environment movement.
Information Collection and Diffusion: The unprecedented developments in information and communication technology such as the Internet and World Wide Web has made the production, collection and analysis of data easier and assured their faster and wider diffusion. IGNOU BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment
These developments have enhanced the availability of data and made possible the emergence of new issues and themes which extend beyond the confines of the nation-state.
This made it possible the formation of the global network of social movement organisations and the global network of activists.
Q. 2. Examine the meaning and evolution of the doctrine of parliamentary supremacy.
Ans. In Britain, the Parliament is the absolute or the highest law-making authority. It has the power to legislate, amend or repeal any law without being challenged, vetoed or over-ridden by any other domestic person or body of persons.
Thus, De Lolme says Parliament can do everything but make a woman a man, and a man a woman.
According to Dicey, three traits of parliamentary sovereignty in England are:
(a) legislative power to amend any law,
(b) no legal difference between different kinds of laws as constitutional/fundamental and others, and IGNOU BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment
(c) no authority, judicial or otherwise has power to declare void a parliamentary act.
The British Parliament is the national legislature and legal sovereign of the country. It makes laws, scrutinizes and ensures accountability of the executive and represents the voices and concerns of people.
The Members of Parliament are an important link between the Government and the people.
EVOLUTION OF THE DOCTRINE OF PARLIAMENTARY SUPREMACY
Professor Mayor Grant notes the evolution of British Parliament in four broad phases:
(i) First Phase: The Parliament has one house – House of Lords-in the middle ages. “Wise men including archbishops and bishops and political such as Earls and knights were the members during the Saxton time.
In 1215, Magna Carta was promulgated after barons resisted to the policy of excessive taxes imposition by the monarch.
The 13th century also saw the creation of the Commons as costly wars weighed heavily on extensive tax collections not only from the lords but also the freemen of the country. IGNOU BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment
The tax obligation was supplemented with limited right of representation. Four knights were elected by each county for Westminster.
The federal Council became more representative with three major factions being the clergy, the barons and the commoners.
In the 14th century, the two chambers or Houses were seprated into the House of Commons and the House of Lord.
(ii) Second Phase: This is the period from 1485 to the 17th century. This phase saw a tussle of power between the Stuart kings and the Parliament for ultimate sovereign authority.
The kings asserted their divine right to rule but the Parliament rejected it. In 1628, Charles I signed the petition of rights but was not followed. He later dissolved the Parliament.
All these resulted in Civil War for 11 years during which no parliamentary session was held. IGNOU BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment
The Civil War led to the legal sovereign authority of Parliament once and for all. Parliament gained the right to punish those royal officials who violated the tax collection rules.
The Commons also started asserting their sole propriety against the House of Lords on the right to approve the matters of finance and taxation.
(iii) Third Phase: During this phase from 1688 to 1832, Britain saw the start of some of the practices related to modern parliamentary system like party system, the doctrine of ministerial responsibility, Cabinet system and public reporting of Parliamentary debates.
During James II’s rule, the Glorious Revolution of 1688 established the ultimate sovereignty of the Parliament.
The Bill of Rights in 1689 reinforced this by advocating for a constitutional or limited monarchy with a supreme Parliament.
Queen-in-Parliament became the sole sovereign. The Bill of Rights 1689, also called the Great Charters, and the Act of Settlement in 1701 enhanced the Parliamentary powers at the expense of Royal powers.
(iv) Fourth Phase: This phase started in 1832 and continues till today. The period saw institutionalization and specification of the roles, responsibilities and relations between the executive and the legislature on the one hand, and between the two Houses on the other. IGNOU BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment
The legal sovereignty of the elected British Parliament was established as the representative body of the people.
The British electorate was hailed as the authority through the Reform Act, 1832 when electoral districts were redrawn.
The franchise was extended later, especially after 1867. In 1918, women got the right to vote.
More devolution of power has happened through the creation of Northern Irish, Scottish and Welsh regional assemblies or Parliaments to meet the nationalistic aspirations of British people.
These Parliaments are elected bodies. They are responsible for certain devolved matters while the reserved matters are the responsibility of the Westminster Parliament.IGNOU BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment
The most important dimensions of British political domain are controlled and administered by the Parliament.
According to Bogdanor, the fundamental feature of British constitutional development is the long tradition of continuous and undivided Parliamentary sovereignty.
Q. 1. What are the major challenges confronting the Chinese Communist Party in contemporary times? Explain.
Ans. The party is criticised due to lack of transparency in governance and decision-making process. China’s politics is very secretive, decided by a handful of top party leaders with no public scrutiny and accountability.
For example, the succession and or selection of party leaders such as members of the Central Committee, the Politburo and its Standing Committee, CMC and CCDI are decided by the top leadership.
China scholars like David Shambaugh and Gordon Chang argue that CPC’s rule in China is historically anachronistic and suffers from a deepening governance and legitimacy crisis. IGNOU BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment
Forceful suppressive measures taken by CPC such as in the Tiananmen massacre where hundreds of pro-democracy citizens were killed also undermined the Communist Party’s legitimacy and severely eroded its global reputation.
The growing awareness of civil and political rights among the Chinese citizens and their growing expectations for wider political reforms has brought profound challenge to the party.
There is a growing demand for political democratization, including multi-party election, internal democracy, ensuring transparency, protection of civil rights and liberties and so on thereby making the party more accountable.
New technologies, especially the internet, has empowered the Chinese citizens in tremendous ways, making it increasingly difficult for the CPC to control the public opinion.IGNOU BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment
Corruption is another challenge facing the party in recent times. It has eroded the reputation of the party and decreased its governing capacity.
The rapid economic growth in China since the 1980s also brought serious problems such as unemployment and income disparity.
The widening gap between the rich and the poor, the drift between urban and rural, and other frustrations have created social unrest in many parts of China.
Q. 2. Explain the doctrine of rule of law. How does it act as a constraint on the powers of the government?
Ans. The concept of rule of law can be traced to the ancience Greece. Classical political philosophers like Plato and Aristotle advocated that law. Aristotle said law should govern and those who are in power should be servants of the law.
According to the doctrine of rule of law, both the citizens and the Government are bound by the law which is already determined and specified in general terms. Besides, it requires mechanism and institutions for enforcement of the rules.
The doctrine of rule of law has its origin in England and it is one of the fundamental characteristics of the British constitutional system.
It lays down that the law is supreme and hence the government must act according to law and within the limits of the law.
It is the legal principle that law should govern a nation, as opposed to being governed by arbitrary decisions of individualgovernment officials.
It primarily refers to the influence and authority of law within society, particularly as a constraint upon behavior, including behavior of government officials.
A V Dicey in his book The Law of the Constitution (1885) has given the following three implications of the doctrine of rule of law.IGNOU BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment
(i) Absence of arbitrary power, that is, no man is punished except for a breach of law
(ii) Equality before the law,that is, equal subjection of all citizens (rich or poor, high or low, official or non official) to the ordinary law of the land administered by the ordinary law courts
(iii) The primacy of the rights of individual, that is, the Constitution is the result of the rights of the individual as defined and enforced by courts of law, rather than constitution being the source of the individual rights.
Q. 3. What are the development strategies adopted by Brazil since its independence? Elaborate.
Ans. Brazil was ruled by Portugal for over three hundred years before it became independent in 1822.
As a colony, its resources were exploited hugely through brazilwood extraction in 16th century, sugar production during 16th-18th centuries, and gold and diamond mining in 18th century.
Brazil was an export-oriented economy with slaves from Africa and, for a brief time, from India providing the workforce.IGNOU BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment
Portuguese royal family established Rio de Janeiro as the de facto capital of Portugal in early 19th century after Napoleonic French forces invaded Portugal.
In 1822, the king returned to Portugal and his regent Dom Pedro declared independence.
The constitutional monarchy provided political stability and vibrant economic growth. Civil rights were provided to the subjects except women and slaves.
In 1889, Emperor Dom Pedro II was overthrown by a military coup, and the First Republic in Brazil was established.
The beginning of the elections with restricted voting rights was an important achievement of the First Republic.
The Old Republic was an oligarchy. The federal government was weak and powerful provinces like Sao Paulo and Minas Gerais had much influence on the federal politics.
Elections were conducted regularly with the limited voting rights ranging from one to five per cent of the total population.IGNOU BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment
Elections were not seen as free and fair. The presidency alternated between two provinces- Sao Paulo and Minas Gerais.
The Brazilian state played a double role. In coastal cities, the government “accommodated cosmopolitan, liberal, and outward- looking financial and export sectors”.
Brazil exported coffee, cotton, rubber and tobacco. The federal government also represented the interests of provinces and landlords controlling plantation in rural areas.
The economy was a mix of traditional and modern because it was primarily based on the primary sector with moderate export.
In 1945, Getulio Vargas was forced to quit by the military leaders. The Second Republic (1945-64) established after that expanded voting rights, industrialisation and urbanisation. The state emerged as a leading force in industrialisation.
The government set-up oil company Petrobras and the National Bank for Economic Development (BNDES). Juscelino Kubitschek, popularly known as “JK”, was the most remarkable ruler of this phase. IGNOU BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment
He came to power in 1956 with a promise to achieve fifty years of development in just five years. He continued focusing on state-led industrialisation till his 1961.
The economic development that Brazil adopted from 1930 to 1984 is called national or state developmentalism.
During this phase, Brazil moved by the dynamic comparative advantage logic instead of developing by the logic of static comparative advantage theory.
A static version of comparative advantage theory entails that a state should keep producing what it is producing efficiently.
Thus, it leads to the status quo. In contrast, the dynamic comparative advantage theory envisions an active role for the state in breaking the vicious cycle of underdevelopment through industrialisation.
Import substitution and self-reliance were regarded as vital strategies to industrialise and end the dependency of any state.
A defining feature of state developmentalism during 1930-64 was that the state established, owned and operated hundreds of enterprises, controlled prices of essential goods, provided a subsidy to needy people and facilitated credits to firms.
In this effort, to protect the nascent industries, it imposed tariffs on imports of manufactured goods from developed states of the Core.
The Military Regime (1964-1985) is a crucial phase for the country. State-owned industrialisation flourished during this period.
President Ernesto Geisel (1974-1979) was a leading figure with regard to state-led industrialisation and the establishment of state-owned enterprises.
Before resuming the Brazilian presidency, he served as the chief executive officer of the Brazilian petro giant Petrobras.
He was a strong supporter of the state-led development and policy of import substitution. In the aviation field, the military regime set up a state-owned enterprise named Embraer in 1969. IGNOU BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment
Unlike the other industries that were found to provide a substitute for import, the Embraer’s main goals was to develop the civil aviation industry to the extent that it can emerge as an exporter of commercial aeroplanes.
Since its initial days, Embraer was integrated with the global airline market.
During 1965-1979, regarded as a ‘miracle’ in Brazilian history, industries were decentralised. People also moved from the agriculture sector to the manufacturing industry in this phase.
Brazil saw splendid economic development. It grew nine to ten per cent per annum. Capital accumulation rose because value addition in industries rose at an impressive rate of 7.7 per cent annually during 1967-1979. Brazil’s industrial production increased four-fold.
The cycle of dependency, under which Brazil was forced to export natural resources like coffee, rubber, cotton, minerals, wood, sugar and import manufactured goods from developed states, broke.
By the end of the 1970s, the external and internal situations in Brazil gradually started changing. IGNOU BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment
Brazil’s state-led development was funded by the cheap credit available in the international market. In 1980, the external credit relatively became costly after America’s Federal Reserve Board hiked the interest rate.
The 1982 Mexican debt crisis made the credit of the private sector almost disappeared. Due to the dollar shortage, Brazil depreciated its currency leading to high inflation.
The fall of currency reduced its capacity to meet debt obligations. In three years from 1980 to 1983, the net profit of state-owned enterprises declined as their expenditure went up.
The government also sought to bring price stability and maintain the unemployment rate low through these enterprises.
After the price control, these enterprises’ profits reduced, but because of inflation, they had to spend more and more on the employees.
Capital formation, which was at five per cent in 1980, fell to 3 per cent in 1982 and further reduced to two per cent in 1990.
These external and internal factors paved the way for change in the developmental model, from state developmentalism to the neoliberal development model, characterised by liberalisation and privatisation.
Besides, in the mid-1980s, the end of the military regime weakened the support base of the state-led development.IGNOU BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment
In 1985, the New Republican phase of Brazilian politics started. In 1988, a new constitution with a multiparty presidential system was promulgated.
The system provides for a four-year tenure for the president. In the 1980s, Brazil moved away from the state-led development model to the neoliberal model of development.
With liberalisation and privatisation, the government substantially reduced its role in the economy.
The number of federally controlled enterprise fell from around 250 enterprises to 47, and the number of State Government entities fell from about 400 enterprises to 49 in 2014.
In the 1990s, Brazil opened up many sectors to foreign competition, privatized most of the state-owned firms and let most domestic prices to be determined by market forces. IGNOU BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment
It was a departure from a system in which the government-owned and operated hundreds of state-owned enterprises and dozens of state-owned banks, controlled prices and supported big national firms using subsidies and trade measures.
Three defining features of implementing the neoliberal model of development in contemporary Brazil made it different from other states.
(i) Brazil has kept majority shares in some state-owned enterprises despite marching on the path of privatisation and liberalisation. It is called as “leviathan as a majority stakeholder”.
(ii) In some enterprises, the government sold out a large part of shares to private players. The state was reduced to a minority stakeholder in these enterprse. The government has also handed over these firms’ control or management to private players.
(iii) The state has a leading lender to public and private enterprises. The National Bank for Economic and Social Development (BNDES) has been the leading lender.
In 2013, the bank’s amount of given loan was three-time higher than the amount of loan provided by the World Bank.IGNOU BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment
Brazil is today one of the top ten states in the world measured either in GDP or purchasing power parity terms. In terms of GDP, Brazil is ranked ninth and in terms of PPP, it is eighth.
It also plays a pivotal role in shaping the global norm and standards-setting. The country has shaped global climate change negotiation at the international fora.
Q. 1. Federalism in Nigeria
Ans. The Nigerian federalism is a creation of the British. Before the arrival of British colonialists, the area now known as Nigeria was inhabited by peoples who belonged to different empires, kingdoms and societies, which were traditionally administered.
The relationship between these various entities was characterized by much conflict and little co-operation. IGNOU BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment
After a series of efforts at pacification and conquest, effective British occupation of the area took place from the Royal Niger Company, whose charter was revoked in that year. Consequent upon this, three separate territories emerged.
These are Lagos, the Protectorate of Southern Nigeria and the Protectorate of Northern Nigeria. The choice of federalism as the preferred system of government for Nigeria was not accidental.
The eventual transformation of Nigeria into a federal state started in 1954 as a result of the 1953 Lyttleton constitution conference.
In a federal structure, adequate autonomy is given to each level of government to enable it perform its responsibility without frustration.
As a device for the containment of intra societal pluralism, federalism offers good prospect for achieving political stability of especially heterogeneous societies.
Given this background, it could be reasoned that Nigeria’s adoption of the federal system was not as a strategy to manage problems of pre independence period but more importantly as an enduring strategy that would help detonate a major source of threat to the future political stability of an independent Nigeria.
Q. 2. Deutsch’s cybernetics theory.
Ans. The communication approach is another important derivative of the systems analysis. Karl Deutsch called the communication approach as Cybernetics.
The approach refers to the systematic study of communi-cation and control in organisations of all types. IGNOU BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment
It suggests that all organisations are alike in certain fundamental ways and that every organisation is held, together by communication.
According to Cybernetics, governments are organisations where information-processes are communicated through channels.
According to Deutsch, the political system is a system of decision-making and enforcement as a network of communication channels.
He drew from the science of neurophysiology, psychology and electrical enginee-ring, and perceived the similarities in processes and functional requirements between living things, electronic machines and social organisations.
According to him, organizations in the society have the capacity to transmit and react to information.
The characteristic features of the cybernetics model of the systems analysis are:
Feedback is a key concept. Deutsch says feedback means a communications network that produces action in response to an input information.
It is also called a servo mechanism. All organisations feature feedback mechanisms. Feedback introduces dynamism.IGNOU BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment
This model includes communication, control and channels against Easton’s input-output model of interactions and Almond’s structural-functional analysis of structures and their functions.
All these explain the functioning of the system – its ability to adapt itself amidst changes and its capacity to over time.
The model has some drawbacks: it is an engineering approach that explains the performance of human beings and living institutions as if they are machines.
It is quantity-oriented instead of quality-oriented that makes the understanding of political phenomena complex.
A derivative of the systems approach, cybernetics contributed its bit in explaining political phenomena relating to human behaviour.
Q. 3. Wallerstein’s World System analysis.
Ans. Immanuel Wallerstein, who developed the idea of the world capitalist economy in his world-system analysis, argued that the expansion of Europe in the sixteenth century signalled the end of pre-capitalist modes of production in those areas of the Third World included in the world capitalist market.
According to this theory, the Third World does not have dualism or feudalism.
The modern world-system is unitary and is synonymous with the capitalist mode of production. It is disparate in that it is divided into tiers – core, semi-periphery, and periphery – which play functionally specific roles within the system as a whole.
World-system theory emphasises on the multilateral relations of the system as a whole (core-core and periphery-periphery relations become important to the analysis as do core-periphery ones), instead of the unilateral relations of the system of metropole and satellite characteristic of dependency theory.
Wallerstein’s argued that the creation of the world capitalist economy in the sixteenth century led to a new period of history, based on expanded accumulation rather than stagnant consumption.IGNOU BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment
The three key factors behind this are:
(i) the geographical size of the world expanded through incorporation,
(ii) the variegated methods of labour control for different products and different zones developed and
(iii) Relatively strong state machineries as the core states of the capitalist world economy developed.
Q. 4. Dictatorship of the proletariat
Ans. The state under the dictatorship of the proletariatis is a class state and there will be class division.
The purpose of the dictatorship of the proletariat is to use the state power for the removal of capitalist elements from society by transferring the means of production from private ownership to state property.
Marx said proletariat state is first stage of socialism and its ultimate objective will be to create the conditions for its eventual transition to a stateless and classless society called communism which Marx called as the second stage or higher stage of socialism.
Marx called socialism or the socialist state as immature or crude form of communism. Communism is the ultimate stage of socialism.
The society will be free from class and class antagonism and the state will wither away in communism. IGNOU BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment
In this regard, Marx said the period of the revolutionary transformation of the one to the other lies between capitalist and communist society.
During this transition period, the state can be nothing but the dictatorship of the proletariat.
Therefore, in the Marxist perspective, the dictatorship of the proletariat is a temporary or interim stage of socialism towards communism. Thus, the Marxist theory of the state does not glorify the state.
Q. 5. The concept of dependent development.
Ans. Dependency refers to the dependence of underdeveloped states on developed one.
According to this notion, resources flow from a “periphery” of poor and underdeveloped states to a “core” of wealthy states, enriching the latter at the expense of the former.
It is a central contention of dependency theory that poor states are impoverished and rich ones enriched by the way poor states are integrated into the “world system”.IGNOU BPSC 105 Solved Free Assignment
The theory arose as a reaction to modernization theory, an earlier theory of development which held that all societies progress through similar stages of development, that today’s underdeveloped areas are thus in a similar situation to that of today’s developed areas at some time in the past, and that, therefore, the task of helping the underdeveloped areas out of poverty is to accelerate them along this supposed common path of development, by various means such as investment, technology transfers, and closer integration into the world market.
Dependency theory rejected this view, arguing that underdeveloped countries are not merely primitive versions of developed countries, but have unique features and structures of their own; and, importantly, are in the situation of being the weaker members in a world market economy.