HISTORY OF INDIA-1
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BHIC 101 Solved Free Assignment July 2023 & January 2024
Q. 1. Evaluate the literary sources in the reconstruction of ancient Indian History.
Ans. Literacy source;
Religious Literature: History is not a record of only the rulers. It is mostly an account of the people’s life and living.
The literature of every time is like a mirror of that time. Mental and social conditions of the people are known from literary
The Religious Literature of India is too vast. It includes the Vedas, the Upanishads, the great epics like the Ramayana and Mahabharata, and the Puranas of the Hindus.
These are like mines of information about religious beliefs, social systems, people’s manners and customs, political institutions, and conditions of culture.
The religious writings of the Jainas and the Buddhists are also enormous. They include the Jatakas and the Angas, etc.
While dealing with religious subjects, they also write about historical persons and political events. Contemporary economic and social conditions are vividly known from these sources. IGNOU BHIC 101 Solved Free Assignment
Secular Literature: There are many kinds of secular or non-religious literature. The law-books of ancient India known as Dharmasutras and Smritis belong to this group.
They contain code of duties for kings, administrators, and people. They also contain rules regarding property, and prescribe punishments for murder, theft and other crimes.
Kautilya’s Arthashastra is a famous work. It not only speaks of the State and polity, but also of socio-economic system.
Authors like Patanjali and Panini, though they wrote Sanskrit grammar, also described some political events. The dramas of Kalidasa, Vishakhadatta, and Bhasa give us useful information about the people and society.
There were some historical writings too. Bana wrote Harshacharita or the Life of Harsha. Bilhana wrote about Vikramaditya. Kalhana’s Rajatarangini was a historical text of great value. It is an account of the history of Kashmir.
It presents the career of the Kings in chronological order. Chand Bardai wrote Prithviraj Charita. There are many other biographical works and chronicles which contain historical information.IGNOU BHIC 101 Solved Free Assignment
Historians try to find correct material for history from all such literary sources
- Accounts of Foreigners.
From very ancient times, foreigners visited India. Some of them left valuable accounts of their travels or visits. Ancient Greek and Roman historians also wrote about India from their knowledge and information.
All these foreign accounts prove useful for writing historyWe know of Chandragupta Maurya’s victory over the Greeks from the Greek accounts.
They mentioned him as Sandrokottas in their writings. The Greek ambassador Megasthenes stayed in the court of Chandragupta Maurya and wrote his famous work Indika. IGNOU BHIC 101 Solved Free Assignment
Unfortunately this work was lost. But fragments from it were preserved in the quotations by other Greek writers. But even those brief accounts are regarded most precious to know Mauryan polity and society.
From works such as Ptolemy’s Geography, we know of India’s ports and harbours. From Pliny’s work we know of trade relations between Rome and India.
These writers wrote in early centuries of the Christian era. The Chinese traveler Fa-Hien left valuable accounts on the time of the imperial Guptas.
Hieuen Tsang, who is described as the ‘Prince of Pilgrims’ wrote details about the India of the age of Harsha. IGNOU BHIC 101 Solved Free Assignment
Another Chinese, Itsing, visited India in 7the century A.D. His accounts contain the socio- religious condition of those days.
Travellers from the Islamic world also visited India. Al Beruni who came at the time of Mahmud of Ghazani studied Sanskrit himself. His writings on ‘Hind’ give useful information.
History demands devotion to truth. Historians construct history from various sources to present the truth of the past to the men of today and the future.
Q. 2. Write an essay on science and technology in ancient India.
Ans. India had achieved great heights in the field of science and technology. This section deals with the various facets of Indian science and technology from the earliest period.IGNOU BHIC 101 Solved Free Assignment
Hydrology in Ancient India: The hydraulic techniques were introduced in India to meet the needs of agriculture. The techniques include the highly advanced methods of water harvesting.
The water bodies were scarce in many areas and the efforts were made with the help of science and technology to harness the meagre resources available to humankind. The period witnessed many advances in the field of hydraulic engineering.
Harappan Civilization: The features of Indus Valley indicate the high level of technology that was implemented by the Harappan people.
The Great Bath is an example which has been found from Mohenjodaro. It is a tank which was accessed by steps on both sides.
The tank has an excellent drainage system. The way the tank had been constructed and the techniques used for water proofing indicate high level of hydraulic engineering skills. IGNOU BHIC 101 Solved Free Assignment
A Dockyard has been unearthed at Lothal which is a testimony to the engineering skill of the Harappans.
The entire structure was constructed in such a way that during high tide, water would swell the channel’s natural flow and push the extra water upstream.
Extra water was discharged through a water spill channel which was built in the southern wall of the dockyard.
Another example is that of the various rock cut reservoirs that were constructed to harvest rain water at Dholavira, in the Rann of Kutch.
The scientific techniques can be proved from the other examples like water management at other Harappan sites of Kalibangan, Surkotada, Chanhudaro.
Wells both public and private have been found. All the examples tell us that the drainage and sewerage system at Harappan sites was of a most developed kind and became a defining feature of this urban, highly advanced civilization.
Historical Period: There are many dynasties which are known for having constructed irrigation channels, reservoirs, embankments and wells for the purposes of water harvesting. IGNOU BHIC 101 Solved Free Assignment
The Mauryan rulers dug wells for public use alongside roads and also document the construction of irrigation devices for newly settled villages.
The Arthashastra gives us the details about irrigation techniques, rainfall regimes and water harvesting methods.
Another remarkable example of hydraulic engineering is the tank constructed at the site of Sringaverapura near Allahabad of 1st century BCE.
It is a huge tank more than 250m long. Mathematics: The ancient people of India had a good measure of command in the field of science and mathematics.
The people were interested in two subjects – geometry and astronomy. The Vedic literature also documents the term ganita, which means the science of calculation.
Ganita included astronomy, arithmetic and algebra but not geometry. The Common Era mathematics developed to adequately express describe and account for astronomical ideas and phenomena.
The priests encouraged the development of mathematics in early Jainism and devoted one of the four branches of Anuyoga (religious literature) to the elucidation of ganitanuyoga (mathematical principles), samkhyana (science of calculation) and jyotisha (astronomy). IGNOU BHIC 101 Solved Free Assignment
The system with zero also first developed in India and then moved to the other parts of the world. The zero-Sunya means void, passed over into Arabic as sifr.
Astronomy: Astronomy originated in the Vedic period and came to be called nakshatra vidya (science of stars). An astronomer was called nakshatra-daria (star observer) or ganaka (calculator).
The Rigveda says that the universe is made up of prthivi (earth), antariksa (sky, literally meaning the region below the stars), and div or dyaus (heaven).
The Shatapatha Brahmana describes the earth as parimandala (globe or spherical). Rigveda documented that the axial rotation and annual revolution are caused by the sun and there is only one Sun which causes day and night, twilight, month, year, seasons. IGNOU BHIC 101 Solved Free Assignment
The Rigveda also documented that the moon shines by the borrowed light of the Sun. Indian astronomy was both accurate and pragmatic to a large extent.
Medicine: The traditional system of Indian medicine is Ayurveda which deals with both mind and body.
The word ‘Ayurveda’ is made up of two words – dyus and veda. Dyus means life and the latter knowledge or science.
The Caraka Samhita, dyus believes in sukha (happiness), dukha (sorrow), hita (good) and anhita (bad).IGNOU BHIC 101 Solved Free Assignment
Ayurveda deals with the mental, physical and spiritual life of an individual while interacting with the environment.
There is a deep impact of Ayurveda on Greek medicine and its concepts occur in Hippocratic manuals. There are many ideas associated with Greek medicine which might have been incorporated in Ayurveda.
The basic principle of Ayurveda is on a novel and holistic approach to health and wellness and consists of self discipline, exercise and plant-based medicine approach to health and illness.
The practice is based on the analytical, rational and practical approach and has influenced the modern day medicine too, especially in the field of plastic surgery.
Architecture: The Harappan civilization was one of the most developed and urban kind. IGNOU BHIC 101 Solved Free Assignment
The detailed layouts and well constructed houses in the cities and towns such as Harappa, Mohenjodaro, Lothal, Kalibangan, Dholavira, Rakhigarhi tells about its fine architecture and highly developed technical skill of the ancient Indians.
The houses were spacious and well made and the roads were very wide. The houses were made up of burnt bricks and consisted of a central courtyard besides a room containing a well, paved bathroom and a number of drains.
There was a sewer pipe which tells about the excellent drainage system.
The presence of copper axes at Kalibangan indicate that beginnings of copper metallurgy as early as 2450 BCE.
The skills of the people are reflected in the excellent drainage system, roads, granaries, houses, weights and measures, seals.
The graduated scales made of shell at Mohenjodaro, of bronze rod at Harappa, and of ivory at Lothal indicate their knowledge of practical geometry and land surveying.
The construction of religious buildings such as stupas and caitya grhas also indicate the technological skill of the Buddhists.
There are many factors that were considered by the architect of the period like the type of rock and whether it was free of faults, the existence of a suitable ledge from where the cave excavation could be started, and the proximity of spring or river water for drinking and bathing.IGNOU BHIC 101 Solved Free Assignment
Developments in Metallurgy: There is a rich Indian history of stone-working, agriculture, animal husbandry, pottery, metallurgy, textile manufacture, bead-making, wood-carving, cart- making, boat-making and sailing.
The first evidence of copper comes from the site of Mehrgarh in 6000 BCE in the form of a copper bead. The Harappans obtained copper ore from the Aravalli hills, Baluchistan and beyond.
They found out adding tin to copper produced bronze which was harder than copper but easier to cast and also the impurities present in the ore such as nickel, arsenic and lead hardened bronze even more and it could be used to dress stones.
The Harappans also produced the tools such as spearheads, arrowheads, axes, chisels, sickles, blades (for knives as well as razors), needles, hooks, and vessels such as jars, pots and pans, besides objects of toiletry such as bronze mirrors; those were slightly oval, with their face raised, and one side was highly polished.
The craftsmen of the period also invented the true saw, with teeth and the adjoining part of the blade set alternatively from side to side, a type of saw
unknown elsewhere until Roman times.
Gold and silver ornaments have been discovered from Harappan site of Mohenjodaro (circa 3000 BCE).IGNOU BHIC 101 Solved Free Assignment
Q. 3. Explain the main features of Mauryan art.
Ans. The Mauryan art grew over a period and received various impulses and influences. The sculpture and architecture belongs to the Mauryan period especially to Ashoka’s reign.
Niharanjan Ray believes that the Mauryan art was different from the earlier art traditions and made a departure from the use of wood, sun dried brick, clay, ivory and metal to that of stone in huge dimensions.
There are details of ornamentation which are a copy of the wooden prototype.
Another important feature of the Mauryan art is its Achaemenid connection.
There was a close relation between the Mauryan kings and the Hellenistic court. The Hellenistic art borrowed and was influenced heavily by Achaemenid art traditions.
Another belief is that the elements of Mauryan art were indigenous in origin and were a combination of folk and court elements.
The famous Mauryan polish had pre-Mauryan beginnings and the motifs of bull, lion, lotus, geese that were used in the Ashokan pillars had indigenous antecedents. Mauryan art was a continuation of tradition that was as old as the Vedas.
The stambha architecture which had its beginning in wood was transformed into a new medium, stone. IGNOU BHIC 101 Solved Free Assignment
The Mauryan art and architecture feature can be seen in the pillars found in the caves of Karle, Bedsa, Nasik, Kanheri (second century BCE to second century CE), Ajanta (cave XIX), Ellora (sixth to eighth century CE).
Examples of Mauryan Art: Some of the examples of Mauryan art are:
- Remains of the royal palace and the city of Pataliputra.
- A monolithic railing at Sarnath.
- The excavated chaitya halls or cave dwellings in the Barabar-Nagarjuni group of hills in Gaya.
- The non-edict bearing and edict bearing pillars with their capitals.
- The front half of an elephant carved in round from a live rock in Dhauli in Odisha.
Some of the common elements of art are:
- all of them are monumental in conception and design;
- these are fine, orderly and precise in execution;
- these are with the exception of the remains of the royal palace and city buildings of Pataliputra;
- they are all made of grey sand stone of huge proportions;
- these are beautifully chiselled and display a high polish;
- these are examples of royal art which is associated more with emperor Ashoka and his successors.
Q. 4. What was the background of the rise of new religious ideas during the sixth century BCE. Discuss the impact of these religious ideas on the contemporary society.
Ans. There were many changes that took place in the sixth century BCE. There was a break in the old tribal society. The sacrifice or yajna was the main feature of the Brahmanical religion. IGNOU BHIC 101 Solved Free Assignment
The Vedas recognized the great sacrifices which were initiated on behalf of wealthy tribesmen and powerful chiefs.
The sacrifices were done with the objective to propitiate the Gods and in return obtain boons from them.
The sacrifice were done with the objective of fulfilling one’s desires with regard to greater wealth, sons, cattle, success in war and long life.
The priests were well aware of the ritual and sacrificial formulae and were the ones who alone knew how to bring the gods to sacrifice and hence enjoyed great power.
There were many changes that took place in the religious ideology by the Later Vedic period. It was believed that universe was originated from sacrifice. Regular sacrifices ensured the continuity of the cosmos and prevented chaos.
The Gods were secondary and it was the Brahmana who was supreme in terms of his role as a mediator in sacrifice. IGNOU BHIC 101 Solved Free Assignment
There was dissatisfaction with the excessive ritualism of the Vedic religion and the sacrificial cult was no longer considered valid.
The ‘Second Urbanization’ had developed in new towns, coinage, new forms of wealth and new classes of rich setthis and gahapatis (the immensely wealthy traders and financiers).
The use of iron led to the clearing of forests and the availability of more and more land for cultivation.
The belief was that asceticism was the answer to the problems of continuous change that the society was going through.
Asceticism was achieved in complete freedom from all social obligations and ties and in turn ensured for the renouncer moral status higher than that of a sacrificing brahmana. IGNOU BHIC 101 Solved Free Assignment
There were questions about creation, cosmos and Man in the Rigveda and the Hymn of Creation representing the earliest record of philosophic doubt, the beginnings of abstract thinking had been laid.
There was emergence of variety of speculations and alternative ideas regarding the origin of the universe, the nature of soul, cosmic energy and consciousness.
Q. 5. What do you understand by Mature Harappan civilization? Discuss some important sites of the Harappan civilization?
Ans. There were three phases in Harappan culture: Early, Mature and Late. The focus of this chapter is on the mature phase.
The main distinguishing feature of the Mature Harappan phase is its artefacts and technology (Possehl 2003). There were new pottery styles and increasing use of metal and introduction of bronze.
The new metallic objects were pots, pans, copper tablets, blades, fishhooks, razor and others. IGNOU BHIC 101 Solved Free Assignment
The baked bricks were being used and there was expansion of bead making. widespread use of carnelian and development of a complex technology to drill the hard stones. Many inscriptions have been found at different sites.
The uniformity was the main characteristic of this phase and also showed the usage of uniform kind of artefacts.
The motifs on the seals display one kind of iconography. The sites display the unprecedented civic amenities such as roomy houses with bathrooms, serviceable roads; elaborate system of drainage, water supply system.
The sites also display differences in town planning and religious beliefs.
The uniformity in culture is one of the main features of this phase. In town planning, most settlements were divided into two areas: a citadel and a lower town.
There were important buildings and an occasional residence in the citadel mound. In some sites like Harappa, Mohenjodaro and Kalibangan, the citadel was often constructed at a distance from the lower town, while at other sites like Banawali, Lothal and Dholavira; both were located within the same compound.
The drainage system is one of the most interesting features of the Harappan settlements.IGNOU BHIC 101 Solved Free Assignment
Mohenjodaro in Sindh: Mohenjodaro is located to the west of the river Indus. The site has two mounds – a western citadel mound and eastern lower town. The mounds are constructed on an artificial platform and were fortified.
There are many famous buildings that were discovered here. One of the famous structures is the Great Bath.
The bath is well designed and beautifully structured. The purpose of the bath is debatable. There are many scholars who consider it to have been used for ritual ablution while others believe that it was a public pool.
Harappa in Punjab (Pakistan): The site is situated near the dried river bed of river Ravi. The citadel area has thick mud-brick wall and on its north, we have another mound on which Wheeler identified a ‘Granary’.
There are some gaps between the walls which according, to Wheeler, was to provide air circulation to keep the grains fresh.
Also discovered are the series of burnt-brick circular platforms and burnt wheat and husked barley which means that the structure was a granary.
Kalibangan in Rajasthan: The site is situated to the west of now dried up river Ghaggar and consists of a higher citadel mound on the west, and a lower residential mound on the east. IGNOU BHIC 101 Solved Free Assignment
The citadel from inside is divided into a northern and southern sector by a wall. The platforms have a few altars containing ash, charcoal and clay stele.
There is a bathing platforms connected with a corbelled drain. The whole complex may indicate practice of a sacrificial cult, although it has been disputed. The fire altars are found in the residences of the eastern lower mound.
Banawali in Haryana: The site is situated to the right of the dried river. The citadel and the lower town of the site are located within the same complex.
There are bathing pavements and wells and drains. A multiroomed house which gave proofs for seals and the weights are recognized as a ‘merchant’s house’.
Dholavira in Gujarat: The site is situated on an island in the Rann of Kutch. The site is unique in many senses among the Harappan settlements and its location perhaps affected several aspects of its town planning.
Instead of bricks, the buildings here are mainly built using the locally available sandstone. The site is famous for the arrangements it has made to conserve water. The site has a unique town plan. IGNOU BHIC 101 Solved Free Assignment
There are three areas: citadel-bailey complex, middle town and a lower town located within the same fortified complex. One of the rooms in the castle-bailey area has a fallen signboard.
Lothal in Gujarat: Lothal was taken as a port town of the Harappans and is situated in a low deltaic area in the Saurashtra peninsula.
Both the citadel and the lower town are situated within the same complex. There is recovery of around 65 terracotta sealing in the citadel having impressions of reed; woven fiber, cords, and matting have been recovered.
Q. 6. Mesolithic culture.
Ans. Mesolithic cultures developed diverse local adaptations to special environments. The Mesolithic hunter achieved a greater efficiency than did the Palaeolithic and was able to exploit a wider range of animal and vegetable food sources.
Immigrant Neolithic farmers probably absorbed many indigenous mesolithic hunters and fishers, and some neolithic communities seem to have been composed entirely of Mesolithic peoples who adopted neolithic equipment (these are sometimes called Secondary Neolithic).IGNOU BHIC 101 Solved Free Assignment
Because the Mesolithic is characterized by a suite of material culture, its timing varies depending upon location.
In north- western Europe, for instance, the Mesolithic began about 8000 BCE, after the end of the Pleistocene Epoch (i.e., about 2,600,000 to 11,700 years ago), and lasted until about 2700 BCE.
Elsewhere the dates of the Mesolithic are somewhat different.
Q. 7. Rock paintings.
Ans. The 400 paintings of Bhimbetka depicted engravings and bruising and also exhibit the earliest pictorial traces of human life in the Indian subcontinent.
The Bhimbetka rock shelters were also inhabited by the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic man as is evident from stone tools.
Yashodhar Mathpal and Somnath Chakravarty stated that there are about estimated 6214 rock art motifs in Bhimbetka. IGNOU BHIC 101 Solved Free Assignment
There are many shelters like the Zoo Rock, Wild Boar and Crab, IIIC-9, and Rangmahal which are particularly rich in paintings.
The paintings at Bhimbetka illustrate the zoomorphs (animal art) and a combination of animals with human figures (anthropomorphs).
These paintings also illustrate a large variety of wild animals which comprise oxen, gaur, buffalo, antelopes like nilgai, blackbuck, deer like barasingha, sambhar, chital, hog deer, barking deer, elephant, rhinoceros, tiger, leopard, hyena, wolf, jackal, fox, porcupine, monkey and rat.
The paintings also depicted a series of hunting scenes of archers are remarkable at Bhimbetka representing inter-group conflicts and probably within-the-group clashes as well. IGNOU BHIC 101 Solved Free Assignment
The paintings also depict the scenes of hunting showing weapons such as spears, sticks, bows and arrows, traps and snares as also fishing and digging of tubers and roots and collection of honey.
The later period paintings show the human figures and designs in geometric patterns as well as ritualistic/religious symbols and conch-shell inscriptions.
The paintings also depict the dance scenes and horse-riding warriors with umbrella-like head gears, scenes of honey collection, fishing, hunting of wild boar, etc.
Some of the paintings show the musical instruments of horns, pipes, drums and tom-toms. The paintings show different overlapping layers in red and white.
Q. 8. Religion in the later Vedic Period.
Ans. The Later Vedic age witnessed the emergence of a new intellectual thought. The people thought deeply about the problems of creation, life and death and arrived at the conclusion that there is one ‘Brahma’ (one Unchanging Principle) beyond the universe the creator and controller of the whole order.
It is the universal soul or the Absolute “that dwelleth in everything that guideth all beings within, the Inward guide, Immortal.”
After the death of a person his soul passes into another body and again into another and this process continues till it can be liberated from all its imperfections and merged in the Universal Soul. This is the doctrine of transmigration of souls.
The Aryans had also faith in the doctrine of Karma. It lays down that all actions, good or bad, reap their proper fruits. IGNOU BHIC 101 Solved Free Assignment
Souls have to be born again and again and bear the fruits of the actions (Karma) of their previous lives.
There is also doctrine of ‘Moksha’. It is a state of birth-lessness and deathlessness at a point when a soul is liberated from the cycle of births and deaths and mingled into the universal soul.”
It was essential for a man to attain moksha. All these are embodied in the Upanishad which were composed in the Later Vedic Period.
The later Vedic Aryans developed the concept of ascetic ideal of life as the rites and ceremonies were not the only means of attaining success in this world or bliss in heaven.
So there developed the ideas of Tapas and Brahmacharya (celibacy) leading to the same or even more important results. Tapa means meditation, accompanying by physical tortures.IGNOU BHIC 101 Solved Free Assignment
An ascetic person renounced the worldly life and retired to the solitude and exercised all the ascetic practices with the belief that they would not only obtain heaven, but also develop, “mystic, extra-ordinary and superhuman faculties.” This asceticism was widely practiced in the Epic age.
The Aryans of Vedic age had reached the highest stage of civilization. This age had excelled in every walks of life.
All the valuable things in man’s life -philosophy, religion, science and code of conduct were all developed in the Vedic age.
In fact Aryans served as the torch-bearers of Indian civilization throughout the ages.
Q. 9. Indian Philosophy and its Environmental Vision.
Ans. The ancient Indian philosophical tradition advocated the harmonious relationship with environment which was viewed as an organic living entity.
The man was believed to be the most intelligent creatures of all and was understood as being a small part of the environment.
There is a close relationship between the living and non living beings and on the spiritual side; a man had to abide by a set of rules of conduct which specified the duties and obligations towards other living species.
The Ancient Indian thought believes that the universe is a Srsti and the creation of Srsti was traced to Hiranyagarbha, the golden egg, which finally led to Creation.
An utmost respect was given to earth and the Earth, last of the Panch Tattva (sky, water, air, fire and earth), was treated as the mother of all living beings.
In the Vedas, prayers were offered for the continuance of resources of the earth and its bounties. According to the ancient Indian thought, all living beings must be treated with respect. IGNOU BHIC 101 Solved Free Assignment
There is a special power given to the animals and birds like predicting future, climatic or atmospheric changes and ability to foretell good or bad events.
The killing of animals was considered as a crime. They were as much worthy of worship as the Gods themselves. In the Rigvedic period different elements of nature were personified by the sages and worshipped.
They prayed for blessings from the Sun, Agni, Earth, etc.
The ancient thought can therefore be conceived of everything – animate and inanimate, human and non human, as part of a whole.
All beings were not complete without the other. This wisdom of this type required everything to be respected and protected for the universe to function in an orderly fashion.IGNOU BHIC 101 Solved Free Assignment
Q. 10. Position of women in early India.
Ans. The Vedic corpus is the first literary tradition in the Indian subcontinent and is the oldest in the world. There are many interesting references to women in various roles in many texts.
Some of the women are still remembered in various ritual and social contexts and their names, stories, some highly revered hymns and other interesting facets are mentioned in the Vedic corpus.
The importance of women is not limited to the social roles but also as originators of many important hymns.
Not only feminine and masculine but also various neuter characters and categories can be identified in the Vedic corpus. IGNOU BHIC 101 Solved Free Assignment
The Rigvedic society and polity seems to be teeming with life and agro-pastoral economy was enmeshed in close kinship ties.
There was an equal participation of men with women in society, economy and polity. The hymns including the gayatri mantra are ascribed to women.
Also there are many natural phenomena which are depicted as Goddesses and they are offered prayers. The power and stature of the goddesses is equally well established.
There was an equal participation of women in all three Vedic socio-political assemblies viz. IGNOU BHIC 101 Solved Free Assignment
Sabha, Samiti and Vidhata and had access to education and were even engaged in knowledge creation. There is no reason to believe that they were only confined to home and hearth.