Indian Classical Literature
IGNOU BEGC 101 Solved Free Assignment
BEGC 101 Solved Free Assignment July 2023 & January 2024
Q. 1. Answer with reference to the context
(i) “Persih the sinful thought,
Why are you out to sully your family’s honour;
And to make me fall: you are like a river
That crumbles its banks to muddy its crystal stream,
and uproots the tree growing by its edge.”
Ans. Context: The given lines are from 4 River by A.K. Ramanujan.
Explanation: In the given context of these lines, the speaker is trying to express their disapproval of admonishing someone for the sinful as well as dishonorable thoughts which arise in one’s mind.
In this particular phase, i.e., perish the sinful thought, it reflects upon a desire that is extremely strong for the negative thoughts and one should make them disappear completely. IGNOU BEGC 101 Solved Free Assignment
The speaker is also very concerned about the tarnishing of the family’s reputation as well as honour.
There has been a comparison made of a person’s actions to that of a river, which is that it muddies the clear water and uproots to a nearby tree.
By this, the speaker is trying to convey a strong sense of negativity and destruction which is associated with this.
There is a metaphor that highlights the consequences which are extremely harmful of pursuing dishonourable actions as the erosion and uprooting of the river symbolizes the impact which is de-establishing of both the individual’s moral character as well as the standing of the family in society.
Overall, the poem highlights the consequences of dishonourable actions and the plea for individuals to choose a path of integrity and moral uprightness.
(ii) “As the law is subtle, my dear, I fail
To resolve your riddle the proper way:
A man without property cannot stake aother’s
But given that wives are the husbans’s chattels?”
Ans. Context: These line are taken from ‘The Dicing’ from Mahabaharata by vyAs.
Explanation: In the Mahabharata, women are like objects and property. The plight of Draupadi in the dice hall indicates this. IGNOU BEGC 101 Solved Free Assignment
When Draupadi raises a question whether Yudhisthira who has lost his freedom, by losing the game of dice, has any moral or legal right to stake Draupadi, Bhisma says as the law is subtle and fails to resolve the riddle.
He says a man without property cannot stake another’s. But given that wives are the husband’s chattels, Yudhisthira may give up all earth with her riches before he’d give up the truth.” Therefore, he says he cannot resolve this doubt.
This riddle remains unresolved as none can say with certainty what the law says in this case.
Karna argues that “Draupadi is part of all he (Yudhisthira) owns and thus she has been won. IGNOU BEGC 101 Solved Free Assignment
He says “she submits too many men and assuredly is a whore!…She, the Pandavas’ wealth, and the Pandavas themselves have all been won by Saubala here according the law.”
Aspersion is cast on Draupadi’s character as Karna views her as a “whore” since she “submits to many men” who may be her husbands by law. It is the female sexuality that is at target here.
If Draupadi can be made available to five men why can’t others in the gathering likewise ‘enjoy’ her? this seems to be Karma’s suggestion.
She cannot be considered a respectful- virtuous woman because she exercises her right to be with several men.
This makes her a “whore” in Karna’s views and therefore, the men have all the right to bring her “for that matter naked” into the assembly hall.
The point is taken forward and Duhsasana … forcibly laid hold of Draupadi’s robe, O king, and in the midst of the assembly began to undress her.
Draupadi tells the assembly the truth of their action, that they have been mute spectators and thus, accomplices in the violent treatment meted out to her.
The Kurus and the sages she asserts have failed to follow the law for they allowed her molestation.IGNOU BEGC 101 Solved Free Assignment
Bhima expresses his anger with his elder brother Yudhisthira for staking Draupadi and using her as a pawn in the game.
He says “there are a lot of whores in the country of gamblers, Yudhisthira, but they never throw them, for they have pity even for women of that stripe.” He says he does not mind him losing all his wealth since he is the master of all we possess. “
But you went too far, I think, when you staked Draupadi. She did not deserve this! After she had won Pandavas As a girl, she is now because of you plagued by Kauravas…”
At this point Arjuna reminds Bhima: “Don’t fall in with the enemy’s plans, obey your highest law: no one may overreach his eldest brother by law.
The king was challenged by his foes, and remembering the baronial law, he played at the enemy’s wish. That is our great glory!” Clearly, Arjuna is more poised and detached than Bhima. IGNOU BEGC 101 Solved Free Assignment
For all his love for Draupadi, his sense of duty gets the better of him. It appears that the law in fact de-humanises him as he is unable to pledge support to his wife in this moment of crisis.
Bhima alone speaks with passion. Again the question of law takes centre-stage. The baronial law of not refusing the enemy if challenged is being posed here to explain Yudhisthira’a action.
(iii) “After my case has been investigated, by means of the ordeals of poison, water, balance, and fire, then with justice you might have today orered a saw to be used on this body of mine. But as you are killing me, a Brahmana, relying on the words of my enemy, you will surely fall into hell, along with your sons and grandsons!
And to make me fall: you are like a river
That crumbles its banks to muddy its crystal stream,
and uproots the tree growing by its edge.”
Ans. Context: These lines are taken from Mrichchhakatika by Sudraka.
Explanation: In the starting of Act X, two Chandalas appear. Chandalas are the lowest of the low and proverbially the messengers of death. They represent only the snuffing out of life. IGNOU BEGC 101 Solved Free Assignment
The playwright provides ample space to them but they end up as executioners literally. Yet, they have controlled temper and give the impression of conducting their job professionally. A sort of dignity is discernible in their behaviour.
The two Chandalas and Charudatta face each other moments before the execution is likely to happen. Their conversation is meaningful.
Sakara’s servant Sthavaraka has a change of heart and spills the beans. Finally, it is stated that Sakara has killed Vasantasena and put the blame on Charudatta.
A play of this kind cannot end in death and attendant misery. Towards the ending. Vasantasena comes to life as if emerging from the ashes like a Phoenix and announces that she is alive.
Vasanatasena also discloses the fall of King Palaka and the rise of King Aryaka.
(iv) “The Pantiyan king who sat
One the lion-throne, with Lakshmi glowing on his breast,
Fainted and died, not knowing what to do
With the ordeal of the woman with fair wreaths.”
Ans. Context: These lines are taken from ‘Cilanatti karam’ by Ilanko Atikas.
Explanation: She is the protagonist of the epic. The title “Cliapattikaram” (the tale of the anklet) is related to her. Kannaki makes the epic unique. She is a mortal, but is transformed into an immortalised character and deified.
She also belongs to the merchant class. None of the Sanskrit epics or the Greek epics depicts middle class protagonists. Kannaki is portrayed as an ideal woman with conjugal love, loyalty and chastity. IGNOU BEGC 101 Solved Free Assignment
She is deserted by her husband but she takes him back when he returns and supports him by giving up her anklets.
Later Kannaki “comes alive in the Book of Maturai as a woman who breaks free of societal barriers”. After Kovalan is executed, she goes to the court of the Pantiyan king and challenges him.
An angry Kannaki resembles the divine Chandi or Kali. Kannaki’s gets immortalised directly from her human form.
Her apotheosis is, however, completed by King Cenkuttuvan who establishes Kannaki as Pattini in his kingdom.
She is honoured by having a temple in her name in the Chera kingdom. The deified Kannaki is humanised through the lamentations of her mother as well as her mother-in-law/Kovalan’s mother who refers to her as daughter and daughter-in-law.
Q. 1. Examine the nature and function of dramatic art as propoagated by Bharat Munl’s Natyashastra.
Ans. According to Natyashastra, drama is that art which accepts human beings are in different inner states when they arrive as audience, then through the art performed, it provides enjoyment to those wanting pleasure, solace to those in grief, calmness to those who are worried, energy to those who are brave, courage to those who are cowards, eroticism to those who want company, enjoyment to those who are rich, knowledge to those who are uneducated, wisdom to those who are educated.
Drama represents the truths about life and worlds, through emotions and circumstances, to deliver entertainment, but more importantly ethos, questions, peace and happiness. IGNOU BEGC 101 Solved Free Assignment
The function of drama and the art of theatre, as envisioned in Natyashastra, is to restore the human potential, man’s journey of “delight at a higher level of consciousness”, and a life that is enlightened.
The text goes into specifics to explain the means available within dramatic arts to achieve its goals.
Just like the taste of food, states Natyashastra, is determined by combination of vegetables, spices and other articles such as sugar and salt, the audience tastes dominant states of a drama through expression of words, gestures and temperaments.
These dominant states are love, mirth, sorrow, anger, energy, terror, disgust and astonishment.IGNOU BEGC 101 Solved Free Assignment
The Natyasastra describes the stage for performance arts as the sacred space for artists, and discusses the specifics of stage design, positioning the actors, the relative locations, movement on stage, entrance and exit, change in background, transition, objects displayed on the stage, and such architectural features of a theatre; the text asserts that these aspects help the audience get absorbed in the drama as well as understand the message and the meaning being communicated.
Natyashastra is a treatise on the dramatic art. It outlines the aim, purpose and role of drama in ancient India.
Natyashastra mentions features and elements of Sanskrit drama. Natyashastra is the oldest text on the theory of drama that has survived for centuries.
According to Bharata, drama based on his treatise “will conduce”… people “to duty” bring them on the path of dharma and “provide guidance to people of the future”. Bharata notes that Natyashastra could be read by anyone.
The Natyashastra provides ten different types of dramatic representations that are determined by factors of length of a play, theme, plot and characters:
(i) Nataka and Prakarna belong to the category of full length plays of five to ten acts that have as their subject plots taken from histories and fictional stories respectively.
(ii) Bhanas that are satirical monologues and dwell on superficial or less important themes. IGNOU BEGC 101 Solved Free Assignment
(iii) Between these extremes, the treatise fits in tragedies and comedies that may have one to four acts and the subject is of relative importance.
(iv) Samavakara and ihamrga (that have less than five acts but deal with divine themes);
(v) vyayog and anka (one act plays based on a single day’s event).
The Natyashastra has taken elements from the first four Vedas. From the Rigveda, it took the “recitative” quality, from the Yajurveda “histrionic representation”, from the Atharvaveda “rituals and style” and from the Samaveda the “rasas”.
The Natyashastra is best known for expounding the theory of rasas which is particularly relevant for us in understanding the aesthetic sensibility of Kalidasa. Sheldon Pollock says rasa can be “savoured”. To him:
Bharata’s language often clearly suggests that his analytical focus is on rasa in the character. IGNOU BEGC 101 Solved Free Assignment
The comic, for example, ‘is seen to exist for the most part in women and characters of low status, not in the response of the viewer.
Moreover, Bharata’s conception of the casual process-bhavas, or emotions, are the factors that ‘manifest’ the rasa- implies, or at least later is taken to imply, the pre-existence of rasa in the character and hence the character’s analytical primacy.
Bharata lists eight rasas – the erotic (srngar); the comic (hasya); the furious (raudra); the pathetic (karuna); the heroic (vir); the marvelous (adhbhut); the odious (bibhatsa); and the terrible (bhayanak).
Among these, the rasa of srngar reigns supreme. Srngar is the rasa of pleasure and beauty.
Q. 2. Was Yudhidhthira right in staking Draupadi in the game of dice? Does he have any moral/ legal rights to do so? Discuss.
Ans. Yes, it is wrong on the part of Yudhisthira to have staked Draupadi in the game of dice. IGNOU BEGC 101 Solved Free Assignment
Every individual, whether a man or a woman, has his/her own rights. One should not possess others and put her or him as a stake in a gamble.
Vidura visits and invites Yudhistira to Dhrtarastra’s palace to “play and enjoy a family game”.
In the first reaction, Yudhistira says “at a dicing we surely shall quarrel”. Vidura agrees and says “I know that the game will bring disaster”.
However, both Vidura and Yudhisthira, considered wise men in the book, hold similar opinions on the outcome of the dice game.
They both feel bound by a sense of duty or Dharma towards King Dhrtarastra. Both agree to become part of it.IGNOU BEGC 101 Solved Free Assignment
Yudhisthira knows the danger involved in playing the game of dice as he says that “most dangerous gamblers have been collected, who are sure to play with wizard tricks” and yet he adds “it is the King Dhrtarastra’s behest, so I will not refuse, sage, to go to the game. A son will always respect the father”.
He obeys the order of the king Dhrtarastra on a moral basis – that a son should be ever-obedient.
Losing the Kingdom, Brothers and Self in Gambling
Yudhisthira loses everything starting with his inexhaustible gold, “regal chariot”, a “thousand must elephants”, a “hundred thousand slave girls and male slaves”.
He loses “myriads of chariots, carts and horses” along with his city, his country, the wealth of all his people till he is left with nothing but his brothers and wife.
At last, he loses himself in the game. Sakuni decided, tricked and cried ‘Won’. The Pandavas turns into the slaves of the Kauravas.
No one dares to chide Duryodhana or put an end to the game. Even when Vidura tells Dhrtarastra that Duryodhana is drunk with playing dice and starting a feud with great warriors, but the King ignores his advice.
At Sakuni’s insinuation, Yudhisthira stakes Draupadi and loses the game. Dhrtarastra is “exhilarated” by the Kauravas” winning spree and is blinded by power like his son Duryodhana who with deep satisfaction orders his steward to bring Draupadi to the court.IGNOU BEGC 101 Solved Free Assignment
Bhisma, Drona, Krpa and others broke out in sweat. Vidura again warns Duryodhana. He underpins the fact that in the clash between the two groups – the Kauravas and the Pandavas – the latter are far more powerful and that Duryodhana is a “dumb deer” before, the Pandavas who are described as “angry tigers”.
Vidura can see the future and thus, his words carry an air of ominous finality. He asserts that this will cause the end of the Kurus.
Maddened with revenge, Duryodhana instructs the steward to bring Draupadi to the court.
Q. 3. Examine the Mrichchhkatika as a prakarna.
Ans. Mrichchhakatika has characters bound in situations which move from the starting to the end in a sequence.
In ancient period, there were rules governing literary forms. Many plays have the emotion of laughter or comedy. IGNOU BEGC 101 Solved Free Assignment
Laughter is enjoyable and earthly and trivialises life’s content, making it available to the crude and vulgar.
In Mrichchhakatika, the guiding principle is the comic approach. It holds the main function of art to be entertaining and letting people know that society, however difficult and complex is manageable.
The play has a crisis that shows itself in the situation of the protagonist, rendered poor by circumstances.
Mrichchhakatika has an ordinary scholar rendered poor by fate. Worldly shuffles of events are emotionally supported by a courtesan.
The two are lovers, each holding the other in high regard and earning on that account adulation from the middle rung citizens in the society of the town.
Thus, it can be considered as Prakarana, which is defined as a lesser play.
According to Biswanath Banerjee, Mrich-chhakatika is a prakarana. It presents the love-episode of Charudatta, a poor but noble Brahmin tradesman of Ujjayini, and Vasantasena, a rich and attractive courtesan of the same place, which ends in their happy union. IGNOU BEGC 101 Solved Free Assignment
Its main theme has been furnished with various impressive and attractive incidents and actions to make the work of Shudraka the most enjoyable one in the whole range of Sanskrit dramatic literature.
Banerjee says the primary condition of a parkarana is that it should be a drama of invention. The plot should be an invention of the poet, based on worldly life focusing on the actions of men and women.
Shudraka’s drama fulfils the condition of dramaturgy quite well, and even goes beyond it to be considered as the only drama of invention.
The main theme has been presented in ten acts, the predominant sentiment (rasa) is love or shringara, a deep and calm (dhir-prashanta) Brahmin is the hero of the two heroines, one, i.e., Dhuta, is born of a noble family, kulaja, and the other, Vasantasena, is a public woman or ganika, and this makes the composition a mixed or samkirna type of prakarana.
The play has characters who are weak but ambitious individuals. They are driven by the urge to succeed and wield power in their world.
It does not matter whether they adopt fair or unfair means in the pursuit of their goals, since morality or adherence to norms is not their strongpoint.
Barring a few such as Charudatta, the people in the play bear resemblance to ordinary mortals given to pleasures of the flesh.
If rich, they indulge in vices like gambling, if poor they break the rules of the road and rob, waylay, resort to lies and half-truths, cheat and swindle.
The writer sees to it that they reflect the time in which they live and appear normal in a world of inequality and class divisions. IGNOU BEGC 101 Solved Free Assignment
The action of the play is confined to a city as the one described but which at the same time takes its broader inspirations from the nearby villages and forest.
Q. 4. Write a detailed note on akam and puram poetry in Cilappatikaran.
Ans. The themes of Akam and Puram are mutal, karu and uri. Mutal relates to time and place. Karu shows the relationship between human beings and the world.
Uri reflects various phases of love and war. Mutal is further divided into seven Thinais in both Akam and Puram. There are five akam thinais, also called Aintinai, and are named after the local flora and fauna.
In Akam poetry, the Aintianis are: Kurinchi, Mullai, Marutam, Neytal and Palai. Two other Akam thinais, Kaikkilai (unrequited love) and Perunthinal (mismatched love or lust), are considered inappropriate subjects for poetry.
In puram poetry, six out of the seven thinais are named after flowers/trees and show military situations. IGNOU BEGC 101 Solved Free Assignment
The categorisation of the environment into the thinais is the earliest attempt by the Sangam poets towards the formulation of an environmental aesthetics, where the human bhava seeks its correspondence in the natural vibhava.
On the use of natural landscape in akam poetry, Xavier S. Thani Nayagam says this type of poetry considers as its essential theme one of the five aspects of love poetry, chooses an apt situation and writes using the prescribed landscape, the annual season and the period of the day pertinent to the division.
The poet uses similes and metaphors using objects exclusive to the region such as the Gods, food, fauna, flora, music and other indigenous objects of the region. Puram poems are easier because their themes are based in the objective.
Cilapattikaran, believed to have been composed in the 5th Century CE, has Iyal (poetry), Isai (music) and Natakam (dance) and is interspersed with prose sections.
The epic has 5730 lines in akaval meter. The text uses kali and venpa meters. The prose pieces are considered as one of the earliests in Tamil poetry.
The Book of Pukar has 10 cantos and uses the Akam form of poetry. The setting is in Pukar in the Chola kingdom. It narrates the conjugal life of Kannaki-Kovalan and the romance between Matavi and Kovalan.
In cantos 6 and 7, the Neytal thinai is invoked. The misunderstanding between Matavi and Kovalan occur here. Palai thinai is used in canto 10.
Repentant Kovalan and Kannaki leave Pukar without informing their parents. This book depicts the moral ethics of Kannaki and Matavi.
It shows Kannaki’s supreme value of karpu because of her fidelity, patience and chastity. It also presents Matavi in a positive light as a chaste woman.
The Book of Matural focuses on the journey of Kannaki and Kovalan to Maturai and their quest for their karma. IGNOU BEGC 101 Solved Free Assignment
It uses Puram when narrates Kannaki entering the court of the Pantiya king after the execution of her husband.
She proves her husband’s innocence in the court. Kannaki is compared to Kali when with simmering eyes and dishevelled hair she holds her anklet in the court. The king dies of guilt and the queen dies of shock.
Kannaki curses Maturai city and wrenches off her left breast and flings it on the city. She asks the God of fire to go after the wicked and spare the “brahmans, good men, cows, chaste women, the old and children”.
Powered by her chastity, Kannaki annihilates the unjust, the adharma and the untruth.
In the Book of Pukar, she forgives her husband and later takes him back and helps him by giving up her anklets for him to sell, here she is vengeful and punishing.
Thus, in the Book of Pukar she is depicted through Akam, but is depicted in the Puram poetry. Kannaki’s apotheosis into a deity starts.
A middle class woman in the first book, Kannaki starts to be an immortal woman.
The Book of Vanci completes her immortality. This book uses both Akam and Puram poetry. This Book begins in the Akam tradition.
In Canto 24, “The Round Dance of the Hill Dwellers”, there are short lyrics in the Kurinchi thinai. IGNOU BEGC 101 Solved Free Assignment
Spoken by ‘she’ and her woman friend – “her friend speaks to her”/”she speaks to her friend” – with ‘He’ sometimes within earshot.
The lyrics are about the woman’s relationship with her beloved, “the man from the high mountain”. This canto shows various phases of love. The friend of the woman in love encourages her to take bathe in the waterfall.
The woman in love also tells her friend that because of her strange behaviour, the villagers doubt that she is possessed by spirit.
The friend assures the woman will be successful in her love. The women do the Kuravai dance, dedicated to Lord Murugan and Valli, and sings in praise of Kannaki. They also pay respect to their king, Cenkuttuvan.
The Akam poems show the merging of the Murugan cult with the new cult of Kannaki. IGNOU BEGC 101 Solved Free Assignment
In Canto 25, “The Choice of the Stone”, the narrative shifts from Kannaki and the hill dwellers to King Cenkuttuvan and the Puram genre is used.
The king knows about Kannaki from the hill dwellers and the poet Cattan and decides to build a temple for her.
From canto 25 onwards, the narrative is more about Cenkuttuvan than Kannaki. Kannaki becomes the silent deity while Cenkuttuvan, the symbol of patriarchal authority, institutionalises her and legitimises his authority as a king.
This canto starts with the Puram thinai (Vanci) which tells about the preparation for war. It describes King Cenkuttuvan’s chivalry during the war.
He is compared to Lord Indra. Along with the Vanci thinai, the Korravanci thurai (theme) is used to praise the king who destroys his enemy valiantly in the battlefield.
This canto also has the Vallai song: “the vallai song of those who pounded grain”. These songs praise a heroic figure and are sung by women while working in the fields, winnowing or gathering grains.
In Canto 26, “Removing the Stone”, Tumpai thinai is used to illustrate the battle. The king is engaged in a violent battle with the Aryan kings of the North. It gives a gory and blood-curdling description. As the king destroys his enemies, he is
described as a famished lion. He is compared with the god of death because of his wrath and thirst for blood. The descriptions get gorier as the goblins celebrate the violence and feasts on the dead bodies.
The celebration by the goblins makes the victory a damp affair for Cenkuttuvan.
Illango Atikal, a Jaina ascetic, questions the need for such violence to defend Dharma.IGNOU BEGC 101 Solved Free Assignment
He forces us to question whether it is legitimate to camouflage the violent imperialist tendencies with the cause of Dharma. Here, the Puram form is used.
In Canto 27 titled as “The Lustration”, both the Akam and the Puram domains are used. The Queen of Vanci knows that the King is on his way back from the war. She prepares for his welcome.
The Kurinchi thinai is used in the Akam domain to describe this. The queen dresses up to welcome him with the help of her maids.
This canto also re-narrates the story of Kannaki. Matalan informs the king about Kannaki, Kovalan and Matavi. The Akam is used to describe their domestic lives.
The news of Kovalan and Kannaki’s death leads to the death of Kavunti, Kannaki’s mother and of Kovalan’s mother.
Kovalan’s father and Kannaki’s father give up their wealth. Matavi and her daughter Manimekalai renounce their material life and enter the Jaina monastery. The reference to death continues in Puram poems.
The Pantiya King offers the sacrifice of one thousand goldsmiths to Pattini to absolve the kingdom of the sin committed by the goldsmith who had implicated Kovalan falsely. IGNOU BEGC 101 Solved Free Assignment
Canto 27 also describes the valour and the righteousness of the Chera king through the Puram domain.
In Canto 28, “The Dedication of the Memorial Stone”, the Kanchi thinai of the Puram genre is used. Matalan counsels the king about the uncertainty of life and asks him to conduct sacrifices and other rituals for spiritual power.
In this canto, the synthesis of Kannaki as a Pattini and King Cenkuttuvan begins. It is well depicted through the alternation between Akam and Puram, Kannaki is absorbed into the patriarchal domain of King Cenkuttuvan.
She is deified by Cenkuttuvan. The cult of Pattini is thus institutionalised. Her worship is ritualised and authorised by the king’s decree.
Canto 29 titled as “Benediction” has both prose and poetry sections. The Preface is a prose piece which summarises the past happenings of the text.
The poetry section is in the Akam form. They are in the form of lamentations by the relatives of Kannaki – Tevanti, the foster mother and close friend.”
Cenkuttuvan, Kannaki and the girls of Vanci also speak. The close friend and the foster mother remain anonymous. IGNOU BEGC 101 Solved Free Assignment
They remind the readers about the virtues of chastity, perseverance and justice- the ideals the Pattini goes on to symbolise and, the Jaina value of renunciation.
The poetic section begins with an introduction of the speakers – Tevanti, Foster Mother and the Close Friend.
They introduce themselves as a relative of Kannaki. They tell the readers about the fate of some of the close relatives of Kannaki and Kovalan. Cenkuttuvan gives a description of the vision that he has of the Goddess.
Kannaki appears next and her words are a reiteration of her assimilation into the patriarchial fold. The Pantiya king, whose authority she had challenged and subverted in the Book of Maturai, is now forgiven by the Pattini.
The girls of Vanci sing in praise of Pattini. The Pantiya king is also blessed and thus absolved of his sin of being unjust.IGNOU BEGC 101 Solved Free Assignment
These stanzas are followed by the Song of the Wooden Ball (16-19), the Song of the Ball (20-22), the Song of the Swing (23-25), the Song of the Pestle (26-28). These songs celebrate the political power of the Tamil empire.
The Chola, Chera and Pantiya dynasties are praised in these songs. The final stanza of the Canto is a synthesis of the sacred power of Kannaki and the imperial power of Cenkuttuvan.
Canto 30 titled “The Granting of a Favour” completes the deification Kanniki. Cenkuttuvan institutionalises Kannaki as Pattini.
It tells about the value of renunciation, through the example set by Manimekalai. The Puram thinai Kanchi is used here.
The Kanchi thinai is also used to talk about the prevailing beliefs in the cycle of birth and death as well as in the organic, casual principle of Karma.
WHATSAPP FOR OTHER ASSIGNMENT