IGNOU BSOE 143 Free Solved Assignment 2021-22- Helpfirst

BSOE 143

ENVIRONMENTAL SOCIOLOGY

BSOE 143 Free Solved Assignment

BSOE 143 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022

Q 1 What do you understand by sustainability? Discuss with examples.

ASN: Sustainability is a broad discipline, giving students and graduates insights into most aspects of the human world from business to technology to the environment and the social sciences.

The core skills with which a graduate leaves college or university are highly sought after, especially in a modern world looking to drastically reduce carbon emissions and discover and develop the technologies of the future.

Sustainability draws on politics, economics and, philosophy and other social sciences as well as the hard sciences.

Sustainability skills and environmental awareness is a priority in many corporate jobs at graduate level and over as businesses seek to adhere to new legislation.

Therefore, Sustainability graduates will go into many fields but most commonly civic planning, environmental consultancy (built and natural environment), agriculture, not for profit, corporate strategies, health assessment and planning, and even into law and decision making. BSOE 143 Free Solved Assignment

Entry-level jobs are growing and over the coming years, bachelors graduates can expect more and more options and opportunities.

Sustainability is one the newest degree subjects that attempts to bridge social science with civic engineering and environmental science with the technology of the future.

When we hear the word “sustainability” we tend to think of renewable fuel sources, reducing carbon emissions, protecting environments and a way of keeping the delicate ecosystems of our planet in balance.

In short, sustainability looks to protect our natural environment, human and ecological health, while driving innovation and not compromising our way of life

The definition of “sustainability” is the study of how natural systems function, remain diverse and produce everything it needs for the ecology to remain in balance.

It also acknowledges that human civilisation takes resources to sustain our modern way of life (1).

There are countless examples throughout human history where a civilisation has damaged its own environment and seriously affected its own survival chances (some of which Jared Diamond explores in his book Collapse: How Complex Societies Choose to Fail or Survive (10)). BSOE 143 Free Solved Assignment

Sustainability takes into account how we might live in harmony with the natural world around us, protecting it from damage and destruction.

The Three Pillars of Sustainability

In 2005, the World Summit on Social Development identified three core areas that contribute to the philosophy and social science of sustainable development.

These “pillars” in many national standards and certification schemes, form the backbone of tackling the core areas that the world now faces.

The Brundtland Commission described it as “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (6). We must consider the future then, in making our decisions about the present.

Economic Development

This is the issue that proves the most problematic as most people disagree on political ideology what is and is not economically sound, and how it will affect businesses and by extension, jobs and employability (2, p4).

It is also about providing incentives for businesses and other organisations to adhere to sustainability guidelines beyond their normal legislative requirements.

Also, to encourage and foster incentives for the average person to do their bit where and when they can; one person can rarely achieve much, but taken as a group, effects in some areas are cumulative. BSOE 143 Free Solved Assignment

The supply and demand market is consumerist in nature and modern life requires a lot of resources every single day (6); for the sake of the environment, getting what we consume under control is the paramount issue.

Economic development is about giving people what they want without compromising quality of life, especially in the developing world, and reducing the financial burden and “red tape” of doing the right thing.

Social DevelopmenT

There are many facets to this pillar. Most importantly is awareness of and legislation protection of the health of people from pollution and other harmful activities of business and other organisations (6).

In North America, Europe and the rest of the developed world, there are strong checks and programmes of legislation in place to ensure that people’s health and wellness is strongly protected.

It is also about maintaining access to basic resources without compromising the quality of life. The biggest hot topic for many people right now is sustainable housing and how we can better build the homes we live in from sustainable material.

The final element is education – encouraging people to participate in environmental sustainability and teaching them about the effects of environmental protection as well as warning of the dangers if we cannot achieve our goals (7, p7-12).

Environmental Protection

We all know what we need to do to protect the environment, whether that is recycling, reducing our power consumption by switching electronic devices off rather than using standby, by walking short journeys instead of taking the bus.

Businesses are regulated to prevent pollution and to keep their own carbon emissions low. There are incentives to installing renewable power sources in our homes and businesses.

Environmental protection is the third pillar and to many, the primary concern of the future of humanity. BSOE 143 Free Solved Assignment

It defines how we should study and protect ecosystems, air quality, integrity and sustainability of our resources and focusing on the elements that place stress on the environment (6).

It also concerns how technology will drive our greener future; the EPA recognized that developing technology and biotechnology is key to this sustainability, and protecting the environment of the future from potential damage that technological advances could potentially bring (1).

What are the Primary Goals of Sustainability?

The sustainable development professional network thinks, acts and works globally.

In 2012, the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development met to discuss and develop a set of goals to work towards; they grew out of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) that claimed success in reducing global poverty while acknowledging there was still much more to do.

The SDG eventually came up with a list of 17 items (8) which included amongst other things:

The end of poverty and hunger

Better standards of education and healthcare – particularly as it pertains to water quality and better sanitation

To achieve gender equality BSOE 143 Free Solved Assignment

Sustainable economic growth while promoting jobs and stronger economies

All of the above and more while tackling the effects of climate change, pollution and other environmental factors that can harm and do harm people’s health, livelihoods and lives.

Sustainability to include health of the land, air and sea

Finally, it acknowledged the concept of nature having certain rights – that people have stewardship of the world and the importance of putting people at the forefront of solving the above global issues (9) through management of the environment and of consumption (for example, reducing packaging and discouraging food waste as well as promoting the use of recyclable materials).

BSOE 143 Free Solved Assignment

Q 2 Critically examine the term Political Ecology in the study of environment.

ANS: Political ecology is the study of the relationships between political, economic and social factors with environmental issues and changes. Political ecology differs from apolitical ecological studies by politicizing environmental issues and phenomena.

The academic discipline offers wide-ranging studies integrating ecological social sciences with political economy in topics such as degradation and marginalization, environmental conflict, conservation and control, and environmental identities and social movements.

The term “political ecology” was first coined by Frank Thone in an article published in 1935 (Nature Rambling: We Fight for Grass, The Science Newsletter 27, 717, Jan. 5: 14).

it has been widely used since then in the context of human geography and human ecology, but with no real systematic definition. BSOE 143 Free Solved Assignment

Anthropologist Eric R. Wolf gave it a second life in 1972 in an article entitled “Ownership and Political Ecology,” in which he discusses how local rules of ownership and inheritance “mediate between the pressures emanating from the larger society and the exigencies of the local ecosystem” (Wolf 1972, p. 202).

Other origins include other early works of Eric R. Wolf as well as John W. Cole and Hans Magnus Enzensberger and others in the 1970s and 1980s.

The origins of the field in the 1970s and 1980s were a result of the development of radical development geography and cultural ecology (Bryant 1998, p. 80).

Historically, political ecology has focused on phenomena in and affecting the developing world; since the field’s inception, “research has sought primarily to understand the political dynamics surrounding material and discursive struggles over the environment in the third world” (Bryant 1998, p. 89).

Political ecology’s broad scope and interdisciplinary nature lends itself to multiple definitions and understandings.

However, common assumptions across the field give it relevance.

Raymond L. Bryant and Sinéad Bailey have developed three fundamental assumptions in practicing political ecology: First, costs and benefits associated with environmental change are distributed unequally. Changes in the environment do not affect society in a homogenous way: political, social, and economic differences account for uneven distribution of costs and benefits.

Second, this unequal distribution inevitably reinforces or reduces existing social and economic inequalities. BSOE 143 Free Solved Assignment

In this assumption, political ecology runs into inherent political economies as “any change in environmental conditions must affect the political and economic status quo.” (Bryant and Bailey 1997, p. 28).

Third, the unequal distribution of costs and benefits and the reinforcing or reducing of preexisting inequalities holds political implications in terms of the altered power relationships that now result.

In addition, political ecology attempts to provide critiques as well as alternatives in the interplay of the environment and political, economic and social factors.

Robbins asserts that the discipline has a “normative understanding that there are very likely better, less coercive, less exploitative, and more sustainable ways of doing things” (2004, 12).

From these assumptions, political ecology can be used to: inform policymakers and organizations of the complexities surrounding environment and development, thereby contributing to better environmental governance.

understand the decisions that communities make about the natural environment in the context of their political environment, economic pressure, and societal regulations look at how unequal relations in and among societies affect the natural environment, especially in context of government policy BSOE 143 Free Solved Assignment

Scope and Influences

Political ecology’s movement as a field since its inception in the 1970s has complicated its scope and goals. Through the discipline’s history, certain influences have grown more and less influential in determining the focus of study.

Peter Walker traces the importance of the ecological sciences in political ecology (Walker 2005, p. 74).

He points to the transition, for many critics, from a ‘structuralist’ approach through the 1970s and 1980s, in which ecology tains a key position in the discipline, to a ‘poststructuralist approach with an emphasis on the ‘politics’ in political ecology (Walker 2005, p. 74-75).

This turn has raised questions as to the differentiation with environmental politics as well as the field’s use of the term of ‘ecology’.

The discipline has drawn much from cultural ecology, a form of analysis that showed how culture depends upon, and is influenced by, the material conditions of society (political ecology has largely eclipsed cultural ecology as a form of analysis according to Walker, 2005).

As Walker states, “whereas cultural ecology and systems theory emphasize[s] adaptation and homeostasis, political ecology emphasize[s] the role of political economy as a force of maladaptation and instability” BSOE 143 Free Solved Assignment

Assignment B

Q 3 Examine the main features the Anti-dam movements in India.

ANS: Movements against dams not only counts high among all environmental movements in India but also in the world. India’s North East with its increased emphasis on construction of dams has also triggered number of protests in the region.

This makes it necessary to delve into the issue of movements against dams in North East India.

When the director of Centre for Science and Environment, Sunita Narain maintained that the strongest environmental protests in India have centred around dams and displacement, a close look at the North East reiterates the fact.

The harnessing of hydropower has however led to a lot of resistance from the people of the region.

The strongest protests in the region are mainly against the dams that are to be constructed on the river Barak and Brahmaputra.

Besides dams on Loktak and Tipaimukh in Manipur and on the Gomti river in Tripura have also invited strong resistance from the people.

The major objectives of this paper lie to understand the nature of movements against the construction of dams. It tries to explore the causes of movements against dams in the region in particular and in India and the world in general.

Moreover, since the region is the abode of a number of ethnic groups with their distinct set of culture and values, the paper also keeps a scope to inquire if the region has a special variety of environmentalism in so far as the movements against dams is concerned.

North East India interestingly registers its strongest environmental movement centring the construction of dams. BSOE 143 Free Solved Assignment

Though the projects are at different stages of development, some commonalities are observed in all cases.

A clear observation is the social, economic,(EIA), public hearings into stage managed affairs where people’s voices were not allowed to cleverly manipulated to suit the project.

While taking lower Subansiri project under consideration, it is found that the 116 m. high dam would submerge 3,436 ha.of forests. The total requirement of forest land for the project is in Arunachal Pradesh and 856.3 ha.

In Assam survey and investigation works have been completed and the Detailed Project Report (DPR) is presently undergoing the techno-economic clearance required from the MoEF.

Q 4 What do you understand by the term ecofeminism?

ANS: Ecofeminism is a branch of feminism that sees environmentalism, and the relationship between women and the earth, as foundational to its analysis and practice. Ecofeminist thinkers draw on the concept of gender to analyse the relationships between humans and the natural world.

The term was coined by the French writer Françoise d’Eaubonne in her book Le Féminisme ou la Mort.

Ecofeminist theory asserts a feminist perspective of Green politics that calls for an egalitarian, collaborative society in which there is no one dominant group.

Today, there are several branches of ecofeminism, with varying approaches and analyses, including liberal ecofeminism, spiritual/cultural ecofeminism, and social/socialist ecofeminism. BSOE 143 Free Solved Assignment

Interpretations of ecofeminism and how it might be applied to social thought include ecofeminist art, social justice and political philosophy, religion, contemporary feminism, and poetry.

Ecofeminist analysis explores the connections between women and nature in culture, economy, religion, politics, literature and iconography, and addresses the parallels between the oppression of nature and the oppression of women.

These parallels include but are not limited to seeing women and nature as property, seeing men as the curators of culture and women as the curators of nature, and how men dominate women and humans dominate nature.

Ecofeminism emphasizes that both women and nature must be respected,

From ecofeminism, came several branches of thought: Liberal/radical ecofeminism – This term was used for ecofeminism with a focus on environmentalism and seeking change through legislation and improved regulations.

Socialist/materialist ecofeminism – Through the study of political theory and history, socialist or materialist ecofeminism examines how the patriarchal structure of capitalism turns both women and nature into commodities.

Spiritual/cultural ecofeminism – This branch included the study of nature-based spirituality and focused on the values of caring, compassion and nonviolence.

In her book, “Earthcare: Women and the Environment,” Carolyn Merchant explained that “cultural ecofeminism celebrates the relationship between women and nature through the revival of ancient rituals centered on goddess worship, the moon, animals, and the female reproductive system.”

Q 5 How is material desires socially constructed? Explain with examples.

ANS: There is often a secret meaning behind our material desires. It might be a feeling or some validation or to find our life purpose. Shopping for stuff is often a displacement activity we use to replace what we really want.

Often, the reason we avoid doing what we really want is fear of some kind. When we want something material, it’s sometimes not the actual thing we are seeking. Instead, we are searching for something more. BSOE 143 Free Solved Assignment

There is often a secret meaning behind our material desires. It might be a feeling or some validation or to find our life purpose.

Shopping for stuff is often a displacement activity we use to replace what we really want. Often, the reason we avoid doing what we really want is fear of some kind.

Fear of failure, fear of success and fear of what other may think are common culprits.

Our materialism isn’t shallow. Far from it. It is connected to our deepest dreams for our lives It’s relatively easy to work out what is behind your material desires. It’s just a question of asking why you want what you want.

For example, I am addicted to stationery. One of my favourite activities is shopping for new notebooks, pens, and folders.

Whatever the stationary department has on offer, I want it. But I have more than enough stationary already. BSOE 143 Free Solved Assignment

So why do I desire more? I figured out that, subconsciously, I believed that having the right stationary would turn me into a more successful writer.

With the right notebook and pen, computer and desk, I would finally write that brilliant novel that, in my most ambitious moments, I believe I am capable of.

Another obsession I have is handbags. This was a more difficult one to fathom. I’m not particularly fashion conscious.

I’m not obsessed with designer labels. So what could be behind my penchant for handbags? I finally realized my desire for the perfect handbag is also part of my desire to be a novelist.

The perfect handbag would be just the right size for a big notebook and pen so I could jot down my brilliant musings on the bus (I rarely even take the bus).

It would also make me more organized and efficient. I would therefore finally have more time to write. BSOE 143 Free Solved Assignment

BSOE 143 Free Solved Assignment
BSOE 143 Free Solved Assignment

Assignment C

Q 6 Beej Bachao Andolan

ANS: The ‘Beej Bachao Andolan’ (Save the Seed Movement or BBA] is not only a crusade to conserve traditional seeds but also to promote agriculture and local tradition.

A farmer and social activist, Vijay Jardhari realized that modern agriculture was destroying traditional farming.

In the late 1980s, the movement was initiated by the group of activists of Hemwal Valley of Tehri and led by a farmer and social activist Vijay Jardhari.

‘Beej Bachao Andolan (Save the Seeds Movement) was started from Jardhargaon of Tehri district, Uttarakhand.

Because of the adverse effects of Green revolution, many indigenous practises and seeds have been lost. BSOE 143 Free Solved Assignment

Earlier there were more than 3000 varieties of rice in Garhwal before Green Revolution, now there are only 320.

“We started the ‘Beej Bachao Andolan’ as an awareness campaign in 1989 for farmers to discontinue growing cash crops like peas, potatoes and soybean, and promote indigenous practices like the ‘Baranaja’,” Vijay Jardhari said.

It is a traditional method of mixed farming and intercropping of twelve species in agriculture.

Achievement:

His dedication not only brought change in the lives of villagers but also changed the attitude of the government.

The Agriculture Department accepts that his Barahnaja scheme is being practised all over the region.

People like him can bring a significant change in the agricultural practices in today’s fast eroding farming sector.

The success of movement can simply be measured by the collection of about 350 varieties of paddy, eight varieties of wheat, four of barley, 220 varieties of kidney beans (rajma), eight of cowpea and 12 varieties of navrangi dhal. BSOE 143 Free Solved Assignment

Q 7 Medha Patkar

ANS: Medha Patkar (born 1 December 1954) is an Indian social activist working on various crucial political and economic issues raised by tribals, dalits, farmers, labourers and women facing injustice in India.

Medha Patkar has been a central organizer and strategist for Narmada Bachao Andolan (NBA), a people’s movement organized to stop the construction of a series of dams planned for India’s largest westward flowing river, the Narmada.

The World Bankfinanced Sardar Sarovar Dam is the keystone of the Narmada Valley Development Project, one of the world’s largest river development projects.

Upon completion, Sardar Sarovar would submerge more than 37,000 hectares of forest and agricultural land.

The dam and its associated canal system would also displace some 320,000 villagers, mostly from tribal communities, whose livelihoods depend on these natural resources.

In 1985, Patkar began mobilizing massive marches and rallies against the project and, though the protests were peaceful, was repeatedly beaten and arrested by the police.

She almost died during a 22-day hunger strike in 1991. Undaunted, she undertook two more long protest fasts in 1993 and 1994. BSOE 143 Free Solved Assignment

With each subsequent summer monsoon season, when flooding threatens the villages near the dam site, Patkar has joined the tribal residents in resisting evacuation.

To date, as many as 35,000 people have been relocated by the project; however, they have not been adequately resettled and hundreds of families have returned to their home villages despite the constant threat of submergence.

The activists are continually subjected to intimidation. In 1994 the NBA office was ransacked, and later Patkar was arrested for refusing to leave the village of Manibeli, which was to be flooded.

Q 8 Anthropocene

ANS: Our impact on Earth is now so significant that we should declare an entirely distinct geological epoch – the Anthropocene – according to the Working Group on the Anthropocene (WGA).

The group of experts presented the recommendation to the International Geological Congress on Monday 29 August, drawing on a study published in Science in January.

The majority of the group have voted to formally designate the Anthropocene and recommend that its start date should be around the 1950s.

“Being able to pinpoint an interval of time is saying something about how we have had an incredible impact on the environment of our planet,” Dr Colin Waters, principal geologist at the British Geological Survey and WGA secretary, told The Guardian.

Q 9 The notion of risk

ANS: The notion of “risk” and its ramifications permeate decision-making processes in each individual’s life and business outcomes and of society itself.

Indeed, risk, and how it is managed, are critical aspects of decision making at all levels. We must evaluate profit opportunities in business and in personal terms in terms of the countervailing risks they engender. BSOE 143 Free Solved Assignment

We must evaluate solutions to problems (global, political, financial, and individual) on a risk-cost, costbenefit basis rather than on an absolute basis.

Because of risk’s all-pervasive presence in our daily lives, you might be surprised that the word “risk” is hard to pin down.

For example, what does a businessperson mean when he or she says, “This project should be rejected since it is too risky”?

Does it mean that the amount of loss is too high or that the expected value of the loss is high?

Is the expected profit on the project too small to justify the consequent risk exposure and the potential losses that might ensue?

The reality is that the term “risk” (as used in the English language) is ambiguous in this regard.

One might use any of the previous interpretations. Thus, professionals try to use different words to delineate each of these different interpretations.

Q 10 Globalisation

ANS: The term globalisation refers to the integration of the economy of the nation with the world economy. It is a multifaceted aspect. BSOE 143 Free Solved Assignment

It is a result of the collection of multiple strategies that are directed at transforming the world towards a greater interdependence and integration.

It includes the creation of networks and pursuits transforming social, economical, and geographical barriers.

Globalisation tries to build links in such a way that the events in India can be determined by the events happening distances away.

India is one of the countries that succeeded significantly after the initiation and implementation of globalisation.

The growth of foreign investment in the field of corporate, retail, and the scientific sector is enormous in the country.

It also had a tremendous impact on the social, monetary, cultural, and political areas. In recent years, globalisation has increased due to improvements in transportation and information technology.

With the improved global synergies, comes the growth of global trade, doctrines, and culture. BSOE 143 Free Solved Assignment

Globalisation in the Indian economy

Indian society is changing drastically after urbanisation and globalisation. The economic policies have had a direct influence in forming the basic framework of the economy.

Economic policies established and administered by the government also performed an essential role in planning levels of savings, employment, income, and investments in the society.

Cross country culture is one of the critical impacts of globalisation on Indian society. It has significantly changed several aspects of the country, including cultural, social, political, and economical.

However, economic unification is the main factor that contributes maximum to a country’s economy into an international economy. BSOE 143 Free Solved Assignment

BSOE 141 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022

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