IGNOU BANC 133 Free Solved Assignment 2021-22- Helpfirst

BANC 133

FUNDAMENTALS OF SOCIAL AND CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY

BANC 133 Free Solved Assignment

BANC 133 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022

A. Discuss the relevance of social and cultural anthropology.

Ans: It is also accepted in anthropological theory that the real social conditions do not show up on the surface but are at deeper layers below the visible reality, and to look for the real reasons, one may have to go deeper.

This is the reason that anthropological methods require long term and engaged study of a particular situation or ‘field’.

This in-depth study is mostly qualitative in nature where one engages with real human beings rather than just relyon secondary dataor statistics.

This is where anthropologists differ significantly from economists, as to them concepts like poverty are not just statistical figures but relate to real people, their lives and their real life conditions.

Anthropologists tend to put a face on the facts that they present. The ethnographic method, as the anthropological method of doing a holistic study of a specific area, is called, often uses as data, personal narratives, life histories and face to face interviews with real people.

It also involves the anthropologist going and staying for long periods of time with the people who are being studied and whose lives are then shared by them.

This is known in anthropological language as ‘going native’. Thus anthropological fieldwork involves the subjective interaction of the anthropologist with the field that can no longer be viewed as an object.BANC 133 Free Solved Assignment

The subjectivities of the informants and that of the anthropologist form an interaction where the subjective self of the anthropologist cannot be ignored.

In other words the anthropologist is not the passive, objective, scientific observer of the laboratory situation; he or she is a living human being in contact with other human beings and thus his or her emotions and sentiments remain alive.

The fieldwork situation is an interaction of one human being with others and therefore there is a cognitive and perceptual element from both sides.

The very presence of the anthropologist transforms the field as others begin to interact with the scholar, who becomes situated in the field, as a part of it.

This very subjectivity, the lack of so-called scientific objectivity is the hall mark of the anthropological method.

Such close interactions with the human beings often bring out data that would never be accessible by any superficial or short term methods.

The scope of anthropology thus extends to every dimension of human life but in a way that these areas are accessed with human concern and empathy.

The anthropologists thus find themselves as advocates for the people they study, representing them and fighting for them at various forums.

Thus a primary work of anthropologists is to investigate the real data, to go beyond stereotypes and prejudices to analyse with an open mind. To the anthropologists, there are societies and there are cultures. BANC 133 Free Solved Assignment

They are also now strongly committed to the value of not judging any cultural or social practice and to only understand things in their own context.

This moving beyond ethnocentrism towards a universal humanism is now the hallmark of being an anthropologist.

As students of anthropology you must also learn to be non-judgmental, to appreciate diversity and to understand that humans live according to their culture and cultures are not genetic, but acquired as members of divergent societies.

It is a human trait that we are diverse in our ways of life and the relevance of anthropology which is a human as well as a humane science is to understand this diversity and learn to respect it.

Anthropologists are extremely respectful of the ways of other people and they are also making all efforts to extend this appreciation to others,

so that more and more people are able to understand the relevance and need of cultural diversity and tolerance for ways not their own.

B. Write a note on fieldwork traditions in anthropology.

Ans: Anthropology is popularly known as a “field science”. This is because in its study of humans, both socially and biologically, it depends on authenticating its data from real experiences and knowledge. BANC 133 Free Solved Assignment

This reality is captured not by suppositions and theories but by gathering first hand knowledge on it.

This is where fieldwork as an approach of study comes in. This module will discuss the relevance of fieldwork and its tradition in anthropology and put forward how, it as a methodology since its inception and evolution has played an important role in anthropological study.

BANC 133 Free Solved Assignment
BANC 133 Free Solved Assignment

Concept of Fieldwork:

Fieldwork is central to the inquiry of anthropology. It can be said to have formed the foundation of the discipline.

The famous anthropologist, Margaret Mead notes: “We still have no way to make an anthropologist except by sending him into the field: this contact with living material is our distinguishing mark” Traditionally the word “field” indicates the area where the members of the group to be researched by the investigator, live in.

However today, the “field” may also be the internet, a museum, a school, a library, a hospital, a lab, a market, an urban eating joint, a virtual space etc. The “field” becomes the readymade laboratory for the researcher. BANC 133 Free Solved Assignment

Fieldwork is investigation in anthropology where the researcher stays in or visits the place of investigation for long periods of time, not less than a year, receives firsthand experience and collects data.

Powdermaker defines fieldwork as “the study of people and of their culture in their natural habitat.

Anthropological fieldwork has been characterised by the prolonged residence of the investigator, his participation in and observation of the society, and his attempt to understand the inside view of the native people and to achieve the holistic view of a social scientist”.

Others like Luhrmann points out that, “Anthropology is the naturalist’s trade: you sit and watch and learn from the species in its natural environment” Fieldwork is equally important to the socio-cultural anthropologists, the physical anthropologists and the archaeological anthropologists.

It is one methodology they follow in their distinct branches throughout their academic lifetime due to the remarkable awareness it provides.

Anthropologists depend on fieldwork as their ultimate source of gathering valid data. It is because as Srivastava puts it,”compared to the other methods, fieldwork yields a lot of data about the lifestyles of people and the meaning they attribute to their actions.

Fieldwork also teaches the distinction between ‘what people think’, ‘what people say’, ‘what people do, and ‘what people say they ought to have done Fieldwork is a kind of characteristic custom, a procedure that assists anthropologists in the inquiry of human life.

It offers a huge level of flexibility to the fieldworker as she/he can modify approaches and techniques of investigation and collection of data, create and add newer processes and formulate “on-the-spot strategies to come to grips with unforeseen challenges of fieldwork” History of Fieldwork in Anthropology Anthropology today may hold a strong position in fieldwork expertise. BANC 133 Free Solved Assignment

But this was not always the case. When anthropology began as a valid discipline, its precursors though very much interested in knowing about how people lived all over the world, were however not too keen to go out and investigate on their
own.

These European scholars of the nineteenth century rather preferred to be dependent on the inquiries made by missionaries, voyagers, traders, administrators, etc.

who were based locally in their places of interest, mostly colonies. Such scholars were generally known as armchair anthropologists.

Assignment – B

A. Symbolism.

Ans:-Symbols are the basis of culture. A symbol is an object, word, or action that stands for something else with no natural relationship that is culturally defined. Everything one does throughout their life is based and organized through cultural symbolism.

Symbolism is when something represents abstract ideas or concepts. Some good examples of symbols/symbolism would be objects, figures, sounds, and colors.

For example in the Hawaiian culture, the performance of a Lua is a symbol of their land and heritage which is performed through song and dance.

Also, they could be facial expressions or word interpretations. Symbols mean different things to different people, which is why it is impossible to hypothesize how a specific culture will symbolize something. BANC 133 Free Solved Assignment

Some symbols are gained from experience, while others are gained from culture. One of the most common cultural symbols is language. For example, the letters of an alphabet symbolize the sounds of a specific spoken language.

Symbolism leads to the “Layers of Meaning” concept. Culture is the meaning that is shared to provide guiding principles for individual meaning.

Language is the most often used form of symbolism. There are 6,912 known living languages, and the diversity is caused by isolation. Most languages have a different “symbol” for each letter, word, or phrase.

The use of symbols is adaptive, that means that humans can learn to associate new symbols to a concept or new concepts with a symbol. An example may be drawn from two populations who speak different languages that come into contact with one another and need to communicate.

It is important for anthropologists to consider their own cultural background when looking at symbolism in a different culture. This is because many symbols, though similar in appearance, can mean drastically different things.

These symbols can best be understood or interpreted though the eyes of the culture that they pertain to, otherwise they may lose their unique significance.

BANC 133 Free Solved Assignment
BANC 133 Free Solved Assignment

B. The British and American Schools of Anthropology.

Ans:The intrinsic relationship of anthropology with colonization is explicit in the further development of the discipline in its British version and the development of what came to be known as the American Cultural Tradition. BANC 133 Free Solved Assignment

In the continent, the academic roots of British structural-functional school was drawn from the functionalism of Durkheim who belonged to the French school of sociology.

The structural-functional school critiqued the classical evolutionists for their speculative theories. Moving away from the deductive theories of evolution they moved to empiricism and developed the field study method that has today become the hallmark of anthropology.

They believed that each society has a structure in the form of social relationships and there is a functional logic of each part of this structure that contributes to the whole.

The basic premises of structural-functionalism was based on the axiom of cultural relativism, that cultures were not higher and lower manifestation of stages of the same Culture, but cultures in plural were each functional wholes.

Each society was bounded and could be compared to a living organism whose parts contribute to the functioning of the entire body.

Thus one could not study parts of cultures, like religion and kinship, by using the comparative method, as was done in classical evolutionary theory, but a society needed to be studied in its entirety and in depth, and the functional relationship between its parts established by close and intimate interaction with the people concerned.

In America, the situation was quite different. Here the Native Americans had not only been dispersed and their societies destroyed, many tribes and communities had been depleted to almost the last survivors, when the anthropologists began to study them.

The father of American anthropology, Franz Boas, also drew his roots from German Diffusionism that emphasized history, migration and a more particularistic view of social transformation.BANC 133 Free Solved Assignment

c. Discuss institutions within the ambit of social and cultural anthropology.

Ans. Social anthropology deals primarily with the study of social relationships and the study of what we call as social institutions like family, kinship, political institutions and economic institutions.

They study norms and rules of behaviour and the structures that constitute society. Cultural anthropologists study symbols and meaning systems, they study values and beliefs and what are the underlying principles that guide action.

Although related, the two branches emphasise different aspects and approach their subject matter differently.

For example, if one is studying political institutions from a social perspective, then one will study the institutional structure of the political system, like if it is a Panchayat, then the structure of personnel, their rights and duties, the hierarchy and norms and principles of interaction etc. BANC 133 Free Solved Assignment

From a cultural perspective one may focus not on the positions them selves but the processes by which these are obtained.

The cultural anthropologists would focus on the symbols by which power is manifested and the subtle use of meanings in expressing and maintaining power.

Historically the social anthropological perspective was developed in Britain and the European continent, following the French School of Mauss, Hubert and Durkheim.

The doyens of the social anthropological perspective were scholars like A.R. Radcliffe-Brown, E.E.Evans-Pritchard, Bronislaw Malinowski, Raymond Firth and others
of the British school and they influenced Indian anthropologists like M.N. Srinivas and others.

Structures of hierarchy, co-operation and association, formal rules of behaviour and norms of interaction forms the focus of social anthropological analysis.

Cultural anthropology developed in the U.S.A. for historical reasons. The founding father of cultural anthropology in America was Franz Boas. He was followed by his students, such as Alfred Kroeber, Margaret Mead, Ruth Benedict, Ruth Bunzel and other distinguished scholars like Darryl Forde, Melville Herskovits, Ralph Linton and others.

Assignment –C

A. Rapport Building

Ans.Rapport building is a two-way process where the fieldworker is also being observed and questioned by the people in the field.BANC 133 Free Solved Assignment

Rapport building is a continuous process and one must try to build a relationship of trust and understanding with the respondents throughout the period of fieldwork.

The aim of rapport is to create a harmonious and friendly relation with people. Creating rapport helps in building trust, belief and confidence among two or more persons in a way that facilitates the flow of information both ways.

So, the question here is how to build rapport. Rapport is a harmonious relationship between people who have established mutual trust.

Building rapport is how humans connect, identify shared feelings, and establish two-way communication.

Rapport develops out of meaningful conversations and a willingness to embrace different points of view.

b. Caste and Tribe

Ans. In eighteenth century writings on India, the term ‘caste’ has often been used synonymously with ‘tribe’ and later as in the phrase, caste and tribe, as if they were cognate social groups. BANC 133 Free Solved Assignment

With the rise and growth of nationalism in Europe, the term ‘tribe’ was used to denote a particular stage of socio-political evolution of a community of people in a given region and language area.

In their progressive march through time, people who were aspiring towards nationhood, clan, tribe, nation etc. became denotative of various stages.

Let us have a look at the origin of the term and concept of ‘tribe’. The Middle English term tribuz which means the three divisions, into which the early Romans were grouped, is derived from a Latin root. This evolved into the modern English tribe.

For the Romans, the tribe was a political division. The Greeks equated it with their ‘fraternities’ at times, with geographical division at others.

However, in Irish traditions, the term tribe meant families or communities of people having the same surname.

c. Contemporary theories

Ans. Contemporary developmental theory stresses that the multiple levels of organization involved in human life (ranging from biology through culture, the natural and designed ecology, and history) are systemically integrated across ontogeny.

The objective of this research is to analyze the application of contemporary theories such as: multiple intelligences, emotional intelligence, neurosciences, connectivism, constructivism, conceptual pedagogy, humanism and its incidence in the educational process; aimed at developing a comprehensive education for. BANC 133 Free Solved Assignment

Contemporary anthropology simply refers to the study of the modern human condition. Our modern human species are quite different from our ancestors,

When the scope of anthropology covers the biology of humankind, it examines human as an organism and explains human origin, human evolution, human differentiation and human variation as influenced by heredity and environment.

d. Marriage

Ans.Marriage is a phenomena found in all types of societies though the pattern of marriage differs in different societies.

Marriage by most anthropologists has been described as a universal phenomena yet the debate continues as to how marriage came into existence.

In the early year’s social thinkers and anthropologists basically the followers of the theory of evolutionism were of the opinion that human beings lived in a state of promiscuity where individual marriage did not exist.

In such a society all the men had access to all the women and the children thus, born were the responsibility of the society at large. BANC 133 Free Solved Assignment

This slowly gave rise to group marriages to bring regulation and general order in the society where either many men were married to several women or sereval men were
married to a single woman and vice-versa.

e. Survey method

Ans.A survey method is a process, tool, or technique that you can use to gather information in research by asking questions to a predefined group of people.

Typically, it facilitates the exchange of information between the research participants and the person or organization carrying out the research.

Survey methods can be qualitative or quantitative depending on the type of research and the type of data you want to gather in the end.BANC 133 Free Solved Assignment

For instance, you can choose to create and administer an online survey with Form plus that allows you to collect statistical information from respondents.

For qualitative research, you can conduct a face-to-face interview or organize a focus group.

A survey is a data collection tool that lists a set of structured questions to which respondents provide answers based on their knowledge and experiences.

e. Survey method

Ans. A survey method is a process, tool, or technique that you can use to gather information in research by asking questions to a predefined group of people.

Typically, it facilitates the exchange of information between the research participants and the person or organization carrying out the research.

Survey methods can be qualitative or quantitative depending on the type of research and the type of data you want to gather in the end.

For instance, you can choose to create and administer an online survey with Form plus that allows you to collect statistical information from respondents.

For qualitative research, you can conduct a face-to-face interview or organize a focus group.

A survey is a data collection tool that lists a set of structured questions to which respondents provide answers based on their knowledge and experiences.

BANC 132 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022

BANC 131 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022

BANC 134 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022

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