Indian Culture: Perspective for Tourism
TS 4 Free Solved Assignment
TS 4 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022
Q 2 What are the important contributions made by ancient India in the field of sciences?
Ans: Important contributions made by ancient India in the field of sciences:
One of the oldest civilizations in the world, the Indian civilization has a strong tradition of science and technology.
Ancient India was a land of sages and seers as well as a land of scholars and scientists. Research has shown that from making the best steel in the world to teaching the world to count,
India was actively contributing to the field of science and technology centuries long before modern laboratories were set up.
Many theories and techniques discovered by the ancient Indians have created and strengthened the fundamentals of modern science and technology.
While some of these groundbreaking contributions have been acknowledged, some are still unknown to most. Important contributions made by ancient India in the field of sciences are as follows: TS 4 Free Solved Assignment
1 The idea of Zero: Little needs to be written about the mathematical digit ‘zero’, one of the most important inventions of all time.
Mathematician Aryabhata was the first person to create a symbol for zero and it was through his efforts that mathematical operations like addition and subtraction started using the digit, zero.
The concept of zero and its integration into the place-value system also enabled one to write numbers, no matter how large, by using only ten symbols.
2 The Decimal System: India gave the ingenious method of expressing all numbers by means of ten symbols – the decimal system. In this system, each symbol received a value of position as well as an absolute value.
Due to the simplicity of the decimal notation, which facilitated calculation, this system made the uses of arithmetic in practical inventions much faster and easier.
3 Numeral Notations: Indians, as early as 500 BCE, had devised a system of different symbols for every number from one to nine. This notation system was adopted by the Arabs who called it the hind numerals.
Centuries later, this notation system was adopted by the western world who called them the Arabic numerals as it reached them through the Arab traders.
4 Fibbonacci Numbers: The Fibonacci numbers and their sequence first appear in Indian mathematics as mātrāmeru, mentioned by Pingala in connection with the Sanskrit tradition of prosody. TS 4 Free Solved Assignment
Later on, the methods for the formation of these numbers were given by mathematicians Virahanka, Gopala and Hemacandra, much before the Italian mathematician Fibonacci introduced the fascinating sequence to Western European mathematics.
5 Binary Numbers: Binary numbers is the basic language in which computer programs are written. Binary basically refers to a set of two numbers, 1 and 0, the combinations of which are called bits and bytes.
The binary number system was first described by the Vedic scholar Pingala, in his book Chandahśāstra, which is the earliest known Sanskrit treatise on prosody.
6 Chakravala method of Algorithms: The chakravala method is a cyclic algorithm to solve indeterminate quadratic equations, including the Pell’s equation.
This method for obtaining integer solutions was developed by Brahmagupta, one of the well-known mathematicians of the 7th century CE.
7 Ruler Measurements: Excavations at Harappans sites have yielded rulers or linear measures made from ivory and shell.
Marked out in minute subdivisions with amazing accuracy, the calibrations correspond closely with the hasta increments of 1 3/8 inches, traditionally used in the ancient architecture of South India. TS 4 Free Solved Assignment
Ancient bricks found at the excavation sites have dimensions that correspond to the units on these rulers.
8 Ayurveda: Long before the birth of Hippocrates, Charaka authored a foundational
text, Charakasamhita, on the ancient science of Ayurveda.
Referred to as the Father of Indian Medicine, Charaka was was the first physician to present the concept of digestion, metabolism and immunity in his book.
Charaka’s ancient manual on preventive medicine remained a standard work on the subject for two millennia and was translated into many foreign languages, including Arabic and Latin.
Q 3 Discuss the role and functions of Rituals, Customs and Ceremonies.
Answer:Role and functions of Rituals, Customs and Ceremonies:
Ritual, the performance of ceremonial acts prescribed by tradition or by sacerdotal decree. Ritual is a specific, observable mode of behaviour exhibited by all known societies. It is thus possible to view ritual as a way of defining or describing humans.
Customs is an authority or agency in a country responsible for collecting tariffs and for controlling the flow of goods, including animals, transports, personal effects, and hazardous items, into and out of a country. TS 4 Free Solved Assignment
Traditionally, customs has been considered as the fiscal subject that charges customs duties (i.e. tariffs) and other taxes on import and export.
In recent decades, the views on the functions of customs have considerably expanded and now covers three basic issues: taxation, security, and trade facilitation.
In India rituals and customs are closely knit in social and religious life of people. Have you ever thought why people follow or perform all these seemingly complex rituals and customs
Do they serve any useful purpose from the point of utility in day-to-day life? You might have noticed that at times some priest or religious guru asks the followers to perform these rituals for some reason or the other.
Often people perform them on their own with great enthusiasm. There are a whole range of functions. Here we will discuss a few functions considered important sociologists.
i) Socialization: Rituals, ceremonies, etc. act as a socializing force. They bring the individuals within the defined society and integrate them.
ii) Social Control: They act as instruments of social control. They are linked with worldly rewards and punishments. The priest often controls society by asking followers to perform t5ese for some reason or the other. TS 4 Free Solved Assignment
Many times members of a particular community or caste are asked to perform these to correct the wrongs committed or else face ex-communication. In such a situation they become weapons of social control.
iii) Merit and Status: At times they are performed with a view to get social prestige and status. Like performing some sacrifice or conducting yagna etc.
iv) Identification: Certain rituals are performed to have a specific identity. Putting vermilion by married women or circumcision among Muslims or piercing of earlobes in some communities are a few examples.
v) Spiritual Advancement: Performance of customs and rituals is closely linked with people’s desire to achieve spiritual satisfaction and advancement.
Prayers, pilgrimage, fasting, sacrifices and various forms of worship are followed for this purpose. It applies to all religions and communities.
vi) Systems of Healing or Therapy: One of the most widespread functions of ceremonies and rituals have been to use these for healing purposes. This takes various forms in different religions, social groups and tribes. TS 4 Free Solved Assignment
The above list is not exhaustive and merely suggestive. Our purpose here is neither to provide a justification nor reject the rituals and customs.
We wish to give you only a perspective from the sociologists’ or anthropologists’ observations. One may argue that many of these are irrational illogical and pushes one into superstitions.
As suggested by Leach, if “Non -rationality is made a criterion of ritual, it must be remembered that the judge of what is rational is the observer and not the actor”.
The continuance of rituals and their performance have an economic basis also. There are a host of priests & ritual experts in all communities who follow the performance of these rituals as their occupation.
Similarly, for the performers or individuals following these they have become the very essence of religion and a way of life.
One important thing to note here is that customs, rituals and ceremonies are not confined to the realm of religion only. There are a number of customs or rituals which are part of social and secular life. TS 4 Free Solved Assignment
Q 5 Elaborate the different forms of Indian Theatre. Give suitable examples.
Ans: Different forms of Indian Theatre
Indian theater goes back to the 4th century B.C. All night dance-dramas, known yaksgana, are popular and held throughout India, particularly to mark major festivals.
They combine song and dance and are based on the Hindu epics and mythology and typically feature a story with good winning out over evil.
The history of theatre in India dates back around 5,000 years and is steeped in culture and tradition. In early forms, the performances were often narrative including recitation, singing, and dancing. TS 4 Free Solved Assignment
From Sanskrit dramas to folklore to Western influences to contemporary works, we will take a journey through the history and development of the Indian theatre.
This later not only structured the rich forms of Indian theatre but also aided in making Indian Natya ‘stand apart as a whole new form of expression.
India has the most recollect tradition in theatre which goes back to 5000 years. According to the rich timeline of Indian natya,
it has its roots deeply allied with Vedic ritualism and with age-old socio-cultural anthropology which delineated the development of various dramatic forms of Indian theatre.
1 Traditional Indian Theatre: The forms of Indian theatre acquired a rather a whole new facet with the emergence of the traditional Indian theatres.
The mudras and rasas of the classical Indian dance-drama were rather rationalised with the traditional aspects of Indian theatre. The forms of Indian theatre acquired a rather a whole new facet with the emergence of the traditional Indian theatres.
The mudraas and rasas of the classical Indian dance drama was rather rationised with the traditional aspects of Indian theatre. TS 4 Free Solved Assignment
Traditional theatre performances at that time were mainly connected with various Hindu religious cults and divinities and were mainly performed by the devotees. Drama was then rather an illustration of virtue and vices.
2 Folk Theatre In India: Gone are the days of traditional aspects which ruled the Indian theatre during the medieval period. Today a reorganized and streamlined form of Indian theatre has emerged which originated during the late 15th century.
Folk theatre as it has been named this art form actually has its roots associated with the times of the ancient times.
Although as a theatre form it emerged during the 16th century yet Folk theatre actually boasts of its diachronic relation with ancient Vedic literature and even with Buddhist literature. TS 4 Free Solved Assignment
Folk theatre as a typical theatre form gradually emerged as a regional form of drama based on the attributes of local religion, legends, art, vernacular, history and mythology.
3 Indian Puppet theatre: Forms of Indian theatre witnessed a marked change with the introduction of the Indian puppet theatre during the fag end of the medieval period.
Although puppetry started in a rather crude way in the cradles of evolution yet it is after the immense success of Indian folk theatre Indian puppet theatre gradually made its presence felt.
Shadow puppetry became popular as one of the classical forms of the Indian theatre. ‘Natyashastra’ by Bharata unfolds the fact that even in the ancient age puppetry was there.
4 Modern Indian theatre: Contemporary Indian theatre can be traced back to the British era.
The harmonized blend of Eastern and Western philosophy, the impact of London Theatres later added that contemporary tinge to the age old aspects of Indian drama.
Change was marked in the dramatic form however it is right after the independence of India and with the alteration in the socio and political set up in India Indian theatre and drama became lot more realistic and naturalistic.
5 Indian Street Theatre: One of the most important and contemporary forms of Indian theatre is the Indian street theatre. TS 4 Free Solved Assignment
In the recent era, street theatre has segregated itself as a means of illustrating the socio-political issues and an effort to reach the common people.
Q 6 Write an essay on “Religious monuments of India”.
Ans: Religious monuments of India
Indian History is the fall of rise of many kingdoms. Monuments, built by different kings, throw light on the past history of India.
Taj Mahal, built by Shah Jahan is one of the seven wonders of the world. Fed fort is famous for the use of red stone and marble.
Construction of Qutab Minar was begun by Qutub-u-din-Aibek and completed by Iltutmish. It is viewed as a symbol of military might of Turko-Afghan dynasty.
Hyderabad is often identified with ‘Charminar’. Some of the religious monuments are Jagannath Temple’ Konark Sun Temple, Badrinath Temple, Jama Masid of Delhi, Golden Temple of Amritsar etc. TS 4 Free Solved Assignment
Some great buildings have also built in India by the Britisher.
Indian History is full of the rise and fall or many kingdoms and empires. Monuments, built by the kings and the emperors of every period, throw light on the past history of India.
These monuments exhibit the glory of Indian and are part of our cultural heritage. Almost all states of India boast of some or the other important historical monuments.
India known for its diversity of culture and architecture is ornamented with historical monuments like forts, palaces, archaeological ruins, temples, churches.
There are hundreds of thousands of monuments extent across the length and breadth of the country.
But some of the most conspicuous ones include the Taj Mahal, Agra Fort, Fatehpur Sikri, Akbar’s Tomb, Humayun’s Tomb, India Gate, Red Fort, Jama Masjid in Old Delhi, Qutub Minar, Charminar, Golconda Fort, Mehrangarh Fort, Chittorgarh Fort, Gwalior Fort, etc.
Indian History is full of the rise and fall of many kingdoms and empires. Monuments built y the kings and they perform of every period throw light on the past history of India.
these monuments exhibit the glory of India and are part of our cultural heritage. Almost all states of India boast of some or the other important historical monuments.
Taj Mahal is one of the most famous and beautiful buildings of the world. Taj Mahal was build by Emperor Shah Jahan as the tomb for his wife Mumtaz Mahal. It matchless beauty draws visitors from all parts of the world. TS 4 Free Solved Assignment
Red fort is one of those monuments which enhance the grace of Delhi. Red fort was also built by shah Jahan the Mughal emperor.
The architecture of this building has a splendid impact of red stone and marble works. it has delicate carving on every possible surface.
Qutub Miner’s also a significant historical monument. The construction of Qutub Minar was started by Qutub-ud-din Aibek in twelfth century.
But it was completed by his successor Iltutmnish. the Minar rises over 230 feet. The walls of the Minar are intricately carved and inscribed with verses from the Holly Quran.
It is often viewed as a symbol of the military might of the Turko-Afghan dynasty.
Hyderabad is famous for its charming minarets Charminar. The city is often identified with the majestic Charminaar which stands at the center of the old city.
It was built by Muhammad quil Shah. Charminar with its enormous size and majestic splendor attracts a number of visitors.
There are a number of such monuments that are not only historically famous but also have religious significance. TS 4 Free Solved Assignment
Puri is well known for a twelfth century temple called Jagannath erected in honour of the Hindu god Vishnu.
Golden Temple of Amritsar is also known as Darbar Sahib. It is a great pilgrimage center of the Sikhs.
The holy temple was completed under the direct control and supervision of Guru Arjan Dev. It’s foundation stone was laid by a renowned Muslim divine Main Mir.
The Guru intended to keep the temple open to people of all castes creeds and faith a. so it was given four door women each direction, it has a lire pool around it.
Q 8 Give a brief description of clay works made in Kashmir and Gujarat.
Ans:Clay works made in Kashmir and Gujarat: In Kashmir. Special glazed pottery is made in Srinagar. The use of deep green, blue and brawn colors is prevalent. Tableware of all shapes and uses has a large variety.
In this region other impact centers are Ladakh and Jammu Large storage jars of Jammu are famous. All articles of daily use, images and icons for Buddhist monasteries are made in bright colors, in Ladakh. TS 4 Free Solved Assignment
In Gujarat, especially Kutch region is renowned for its earthenware. Toys, festival objects, ritual pots, and figures are made here.
The unique feature is the pale creamy color and richness of decoration Of the two distinctive types of pottery available in Ladakh,
one comprises of large images and icons painted in bright colours which are made for Buddhist monasteries while the other comprises of pottery artifacts like oil lamps, tea kettles, kitchen stoves, and barley wine pots.
The clay is molded by hand with simple tools made of wood, leather and stone. The local barley beer is stored in a Zama which is a wide vessel that is narrow at the neck and wide at the mouth.
One of the most fancied items is a large tea kettle complete with spout, lid, handle and a brazier.
The crafts persons of Latah are engaged in the preparation of statues for Buddhists monasteries like the ones at Thickset and Hemis. Masks of clay using cloth, flour, waste paper and glue are also made here. TS 4 Free Solved Assignment
Glazed pottery known as Dal Gate pottery is unique to Kashmir. Originally glazed tiles in deep green, blue, brown and ochre were made.
This craft has further bifurcated to table ware and vases made in red, green and blue glazes. The most famous centre is the town of Chirar-e-Sharif near the Nund Rishi shrine.
Clay craft is the art of making various things out of clay.
Potters uses the fertile clay found near the lake or rivers. Clay craft is deeply in blood of Gujarat’s ancient tradition. Gujarat is famous for its Teracotta and Contemporary mud work clay craft.
In this craft, potters mold wet clay in different patterns, designs, shapes and sizes, resulting into a fine piece of art. They make utensils, vessels and earthen pots, mud mirrors, show pieces, etc out of clay.
Khavda Pottery craft, Kutch:
Khavda pottery craft of Kutch is the most ancient clay craft of Gujarat. This art is world famous for its designs, patterns and craft.
Since Indus valley civilization, the khavda pottery is being practiced in regions of Kutch Gujarat. TS 4 Free Solved Assignment
Khavda is a village in Bhuj district of Gujarat famous for making of earthen pots. Potters uses wet clay from the acre (lake) called as “Bann ki Mitti”.
They work closely with the natural resources. This clay is shaped in various sizes and structures in the potter’s wheel. Then, women’s paint those shaped products with red, black or white clay based paints to give them a beautiful look.
The reason of being its reddish in colour is because of Geru (a unique soil). Later, they bake it in a furnace using available fuels of dry wood or cow dung.
People use Khadva pottery not only in the kitchen household but also in various ceremonies of marriage birth and death. TS 4 Free Solved Assignment
The art of khavda pottery is diminishing day by day. Earlier there were 10 families making this pottery out of which only 2 families are remaining.
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