Relevance of Social Case Work in Counselling
MSW 14 Free Solved Assignment
MSW 14 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022
1) Trace the origin and development of casework
ANS: Although social work as a profession is a product of the twentieth century, it is as old as humans as a helping activity.
Charity and philanthropy have long been associated with religious, educational, and personality-building activities, as well as the alleviation of poverty. Helping took on a professional form in the nineteenth century.
The exact genesis of social case work, on the other hand, is unknown. Its evolution may be traced thanks to a number of milestones.
The professional method of case work began in America in 1843, when the Association for Improving the Conditions of the Poor (AICP) was founded, which addressed poverty problems one at a time.
AICP’s mission was to visit the impoverished in their homes, counsel them, and help them. The Charity Organisation Society (COS) was founded in 1877 and began giving personalised help to the poor through volunteers known as “Friendly Visitors.”
Friendly Visitor’s activities resulted in the development of scientific charity and the sowing of the seeds of social case work. MSW 14 Free Solved Assignment
By the turn of the century, schools of social work had emerged, and visitors in training got education from experienced social workers on methods of investigation, diagnosis, and therapy.
Mary Richmond and Frances H. McKlean founded the first family welfare society in 1905, which grew out of the COS movement. Mary Richmond’s book, Social Diagnosis which, was published in 1917 is considered as a first book in case work.
It outlined a process for assisting clients by examining and resolving their issues in a systematic manner.
Case work in the early twentieth century was characterised by social conditions external to the individual.
If the environment could not be changed, it was thought that the individual should be removed from it, even if it meant dividing families.
An essential milestone in the evolution of social case work was a change in emphasis from external sociological issues to the individual’s conscious social attitudes.
Problems were viewed as the result of real-life events such as rejection and neglect. Psychoanalytical and psychological notions were discovered to be extremely effective in case work movement by these case workers. MSW 14 Free Solved Assignment
This was the mental hygiene and psychiatric era of social work. After World War I, the psychosocial component of the problem solving method in social case work was focused.
The social and economic needs of the great depression refocused sociological and reality considerations for social work.
The problem solving method applied in social case work now-a-days marks a shift from traditional approach. In India, social service as a helping activity has existed in some form or another throughout history.
In 1936, the Sir Dorabji Tata Graduate School of Social Work was established to provide training to persons with a university degree who were interested in a career in social service.
With the founding of the Sir Dorabji Tata Graduate School of Social Work, social work education was transformed into a full-time, career-oriented programme.
Since 1946, Case Work has been included in the academic programme as both a theoretical course and a way of practise.
Other social work practises were added into the curriculum. New perspectives, ideas, and theories have improved and expanded social work as a profession and as an academic curriculum over time. MSW 14 Free Solved Assignment
Case Work is still taught in social work schools and is utilised as a practise of social work in various organisations.
As a result, case work, in the narrow sense of a helping activity, has existed from the dawn of time.
However, case work as a method of assisting people through a one-on-one interaction began in the United States in the second decade of the twentieth century to assist the impoverished.
People in distress and those who are unable to help themselves have been the focus of attention in this development.
The case work of the pre-professional period depended very much on the qualities of the heart of the helper – warmth, generosity, kindness and to be of service to others.
But modern social case work as a professional method requires besides qualities of the heart, sound knowledge and skills.
Q2. Describe the importance of documentation and recording in social casework
ANS: Social work documentation, like any good writing, is a skill that is built. It is a required professional social work function, a permanent record of client service provision.
Social workers often have a negative response to documentation—it is the bane of many professionals existence.MSW 14 Free Solved Assignment
Secondly, what is the importance of documentation? Documentation help ensure consent and expectations. It helps to tell the narrative for decisions made, and how yourself or the client responded to different situations.
In this same manor, it is important to record information that can help support the proper treatment plan and the reasoning for such services. Purpose and Functions of Case Recording and Documentation
The field primarily looks at documentation’s function as a diagnostic, assessment, planning, and intervention instrument although in recent times, records perform several other functions as well.
Kagle (1984) has defined social work records in terms of their focus, scope, purpose and functions. MSW 14 Free Solved Assignment
Focus of records is to individualize and typify the client, the need, the situation, and the service transaction; Scope includes linking goals, plans, and activities to the assessment of the client need-situation and to the resources available; and Purpose is to facilitate the delivery of services to or on behalf of the client;
Research for practice improvement and theory building: Aggregated records or case records taken singly provide important qualitative data for summative (for example, arriving at collective description of client attributes, problems or services required by the clients) and formative (for evaluating practice effectiveness and areas for improvement, undertaking qualitative analysis of the interviews, observations, and interventions) research.
Records provide essential data for broader service programme evaluations. In early years of professional development, data from case records were used for building social work theories.
Organising thoughts and information and facilitating recall: The process of recording helps the practitioner to organize and crystallize his thoughts about the client situation, hunches about what needs to be done and likely plans of action.
The worker gathers a great deal of data regarding the client’s position and the problem surroundings. This data must be structured and analysed in order to provide professional assistance. MSW 14 Free Solved Assignment
Despite the abundance of data, it is very common for some critical information to be absent. The act of recording aids in the identification of such gaps and encourages additional investigation.
In addition, documenting worker activities and client answers aids the worker’s memory of everything that happened during the client-worker interaction or at various stages of the helping process.
Documenting the activities undertaken and services rendered to the client or on his behalf. This documentation helps in client’s securing reimbursements (if applicable), in demonstrating adherence to procedural guidelines provided by organizations or funding agencies.
Records, if maintained regularly, demonstrate activity and movement in the helping process and facilitate decision-making by the social case worker Assessment and Planning: Clear and comprehensive documentation of all case related facts and circumstances is essential for assessment and service planning related decisions.
Recording information is seen as one of the essential skills of assessment process. Careful and thoughtful information collection ensures that social workers have an adequate foundation for their reasoning and intervention plans.
Performing an assessment of the client’s condition and ongoing therapy. The client’s examination, treatment, and change in condition, as well as the impact of services on the client, are all documented in the records. MSW 14 Free Solved Assignment
The importance of measurable outcomes and service effectiveness in social case work cannot be overstated. Data and information collected during the aiding process are at the heart of them.
3) Answer any two of the following questions in about 300 words each:
b) Highlight the trends in social case work practice in India.
ANS: Practitioners of social case work in India have a unique perspective on the notion of case work. They believe that social case work can only be successful in a democratic society. Democracy connotes freedom and self-fulfillment in the framework of social case work.
Self fulfillment and self-expression go hand in hand in the Indian setting with the concept of conformance to the group norm.
It is considered that a person does not have the right to express himself/herself or she is capable of taking. MSW 14 Free Solved Assignment
In Indian society, an individual is more or less bound to his or her original group as a participating member, His/her group teaches him/her how he/she should restrain himself/herself and what characteristics he/she should suppress in order to be acceptable to other members.
He/she can be rejected or ridiculed by his/her group if he/she does not conform to the social norms. In other words, in Indian context, the client will not have the right to individualism or the right to self determination.
Indian tradition does not primarily seem to subscribe to the concept of right. The idea of a duty to one’s fellow humans has existed for millennia.
In his/her interactions with the rest of society, the Indian scheme stresses his/her responsibilities – dharma – by which he/she is to insure his/her own growth, as opposed to his/her western counterpart, who emphasises his/her rights.
Although they are synonymous, right emphasises power and luxuries for the physical self, whereas duty emphasises responsibilities owed to all conscious beings.
As previously said, the emphasis on right is limited to the physical self’s comforts. In the practise of social case work, it is frequently seen that the clients’ requirements are not restricted to their material desires.MSW 14 Free Solved Assignment
If that were the case, perhaps, this emphasis on rights would have served the purpose. But it has been observed in the case work practice that material benefits alone can not ensure human happiness.
It can only create conditions for man’s happiness; but it can not ensure that man shall be happy or the person’s wishes will be really fulfilled.
Happiness is found to be secured when material luxuries are coupled with emotional requirements being met. However, rights cannot assure that a client’s emotional needs are met.
Only through focusing on the sense of duty can emotional demands be addressed. For example, in the event of a cancer patient, one can guarantee him or her all rights to a good medical facility but not his or her family’s affection as a matter of right.
d) Explain the scope of social casework in the field of healthcare.
ANS: In the field of health, social case work is one of the areas in which case workers apply their knowledge and skills to the psychological, emotional, and social well-being of individuals and their families, as well as assisting patients and their families or carers who may be having difficulties during their hospital stay.
The physical/psychological health and well-being of a person, as well as their recovery, are influenced by their social background and support network.
The basic core of self, ego, can be shattered by disease, and the sufferer may believe that his body has betrayed him. MSW 14 Free Solved Assignment
When disease strikes, feelings of punishment, low self-esteem, hopelessness, and worthlessness are all common.
They are stressed, traumatised, fearful of death, and have suicide thoughts.
Biopsychosocial-spiritual Perspective The biopsychosocial spiritual perspective acknowledges that health care services must consider our physical or medical aspects (bio); our emotional or psychological aspects (psycho);
our sociocultural, sociopolitical, and socioeconomic issues (social), and how people find meaning in their lives (spiritual) (spiritual). This strategy is based on the strengths-based approach to social work practise
Strengths perspective :
The strengths perspective recognises an individual’s strengths and skills to cope with issues, and it is part of the foundation of social work theory and practise to be aware of and exploit the client’s strengths. MSW 14 Free Solved Assignment
In social work practise, the strengths perspective is demonstrated in our role of increasing personal strengths and resources, assisting clients in solving interpersonal and environmental challenges, and assisting clients in mobilising for change.
The strengths viewpoint assists clients in resolving or “working through” a current problem by drawing on their past successful choices and behaviours, abilities, and insights.
Medical Model v/s Wellness Model :
Medical model looks at illness as a problem located at the patient and the ultimate authority of cure is vested with the medical practitioner.
This is based on a deficit model and the assessment elicits disabilities, distress, dysfunction and dependency.
Strengths, successes and effective coping strategies are seldom taken into account. The attempt is to cure the clinical illness and little emphasis is given to the client’s social environment. MSW 14 Free Solved Assignment
This view of health is contrary to the social work values of emphasizing strengths and empowerment
4) Answer any four of the following questions in about 150 words each:
a) What are the similarities between case work and counselling?
ANS: Counselling is one of the techniques of social case work, which is used to prepare the client to participate in the treatment plan. It means that there are certain similarities in case work and counselling and these include:
Similar objectives: The purpose of social case work is to help an individual client to solve his psycho-social problems in such a way that he becomes capable of dealing with these problems at present and also may solve in future if such problems arise.
Counselling aims at enabling individuals to solve the present problems, to prepare themselves for future tasks and to attain a higher degree of efficiency in dealing with his problems. MSW 14 Free Solved Assignment
Similar type of clients: In case work and counselling client is a man, women, or child, anyone who finds himself or is found to be, in need of help in some aspect of his socialemotional living, shelter, the need be for tangible provisions or counselling.
Similar type of problems: The problems within the purview of social case work are those that vitally affect or are affected by person’s social functioning.
In case work client sees his problems as lying in some interacting relationship between himself and some other persons or between himself and his environment.
Help is provided to the client for some readjustment of the self in relation to the demands and expectations of the social role he plays.
Help is also directed to the readjustment of some parts of his social environment. If the client finds that his inner problems exert such pressure over his problems of social functioning, he may need counselling.MSW 14 Free Solved Assignment
Relationship: The relationship is the medium in case work as well as in counselling through which help is provided to the client.
It is the channel of the entire case work process and counselling process through which the mobilization of the capacities of the client becomes possible. It is planned throughout in interviewing, study, diagnosis and treatment.
Worth and Dignity of the Individual: Case Work and counselling treat the client as an individual who has right to get hope and reorganize as a person of worth and dignity. He has every right to make his choice and decisions himself
Common principles: Social case work and counselling, both believe in the individualization of all clients irrespective of their similarities in the problems.
Both accept the client as he is and provide opportunities for self-expression. Case Worker and counselor do not impose their own judgment to the clients.
Client has every right to determine his own path for his easy recovery from malfunctioning
c) Enumerate the limitations of principle of confidentiality.
ANS: Conflict within the client: An apparent conflict may exist between the client’s right to preserve own secret and another of his/her rights and duties.
The solution of this conflict requires evaluation of the rights without any exaggeration. The presumption should always be that the right to confidentiality remains dormant until clear evidence to the contrary appears. MSW 14 Free Solved Assignment
Conflict with the rights of another individual: At times, preservation of the client’s secret may harm the rights of an innocent person.
E.g. client may confess about motives to kidnap someone. In this case, if the case worker decides to stick to the principle of confidentiality, it would mean putting an innocent person’s life in danger and causing unnecessary misery.
Case Worker thus has to evaluate objectively and take a decision.
Conflict with the rights of the social worker: Occasionally by keeping the client’s secret, the worker may forfeit own personal rights, which may be more important than the client.
The worker can not be expected to surrender own rights in the performance of professional duty.MSW 14 Free Solved Assignment
Conflict with the rights of the social agency: Every agency has got its own set of goals, programmes, target groups and services, Incase an extreme situation arises where by keeping the client’s secret, a right of the agency would be violated and the agency would be forced to operate contrary to its function; the agency would not be bound to preserve client’s secret.
Conflict with the rights of the society as a whole: Each person has the right to maintain peace. harmony, promoting common good and welfare of people.
The general principle is that the obligation of the entrusted secret ceases when the preservation of the secret would constitute a real and serious damage to the common good
d) Enlist the various steps in diagnosis.
ANS: The following steps are taken while diagnosing a problem
- The worker begins to focus on problematic behaviours. He begins with the survey of both functional and disfunctional behaviours in his environment. He clarifies various complains and problems in terms of excesses and deficits He eraluates the client’s personal strengths as well as of his environment
2. He targets the specified behaviours. This involves an attempt of breaking down complex behaviours into their component parts.MSW 14 Free Solved Assignment
3. Baseline data are collected to specify those events that appear to be currently controlling the problematic behaviours.
4. The collected information is summarized in an attempt to anticipate any major problem in intervention and as a way of beginning to establish objective for intervention
5. Selecting priorities for intervention is the final step of the diagnosis. Concentration on one problem at one time makes intervention process more manageable and allows both client and worker to channel their energies into one area.
It is the best way of handling and proper use of available resources
e) Define community casework.
ANS:To promote successful change, the practitioner must give the client with a detailed definition of the planned kind of community work (Brager and Specht, 1973).
The community practitioner must use abilities from all three areas of the social work profession to effectively execute any of the community participation models.
The community worker is special in that he or she juggles all three levels of the job on a regular basis. .MSW 14 Free Solved Assignment
A brief description of how each of the three components of the social work profession is employed by the community worker will help to elucidate and clarify the unique nature of the community worker.
Case work in the community is an inter-group process that seeks to help communities to understand and assess the existing problems and needs and to appropriate the available resources to bring about solutions that will strengthen the local community and enrich the life of its members.
According to Zastrow (1978) It’s a method for motivating and assisting a local community to assess, plan, and coordinate its efforts to meet the community’s health, welfare, and recreation needs.
“The social work intervention process prepares the community to identify and address its common problems in a cooperative and skilled manner.”
It is primarily used to provide
(1) opportunities for the community or its sections to mobilise resources to address or prevent social problems; MSW 14 Free Solved Assignment
(2) means for meaningful interactions between different sections of the community; and
(3) welfare planning services to the community through the development of social welfare plans, influence on welfare policies, and mobilisation of adequate funds from the voluntary and public sectors.
5) Write short notes on any five of the following questions in about 100 words each:
a) Principle of individualization
Ans: At the foundation of social work practice is a belief in the uniqueness of the individual and his or her intrinsic value.
Each individual’s nature is capable of integrating and directing its own forces in a manner distinct from that of any other individual’s nature.
The social worker regards each client’s problem as unique and works with the client to find the most satisfactory way for him or her to deal with his or her personal problem circumstance.
This principle reminds the social worker that when interacting with the client, he or she is not dealing with an inanimate object or a lower entity.
Because the client was unable to find a solution to his or her problem, he or she should not be regarded as a person devoid of dignity, worth, or value.
This is a common response the client receives from the community. As a result, the client believes he or she is a worthless human being and develops a negative self-image.
As a loving and assisting professional, the social worker should feel that the client is an individual with dignity, worth, and respect, and that given the correct environment and encouragement,MSW 14 Free Solved Assignment
he or she has the potential to emerge from his or her unwanted position with dignity and respect.
Furthermore, the social worker should always keep in mind that each client is unique and distinct from other clients experiencing a similar problem,
as each person responds and reacts differently to the same stimuli and enters or exits different problem situations in different ways.
b) Skills and techniques of helping
ans: During the process of case work, case worker use different skills and techniques to help the client.
According to Timms (1964), techniques can be referred to a body of numerous and complicated operations or to a more or less standardized procedures to attain a particular and limited objectives.
Case Work techniques are the procedures of helping the client. Mathew (1992) described them as wherewithal through which the client gets the experience of being helped.
The techniques like listening, observation, interviewing, home-visit etc are included within the framework of relationship. MSW 14 Free Solved Assignment
They allow the worker to have ideas and facts about client, his situation, feelings and emotions as well.
During the process, case worker applies techniques in skillful manner to fulfill the purpose of helping relationship.
Skills refer to the proficiency in procedures of helping that have been developed through the years and which can be used deliberately aiming at specific goals.
Upadhay (2003), described skill as the capacity to perform a task or act in such a way that the objectives are realized effectively and within the shortest possible time.
c) Counselling as a technique of case work
Ans: Counseling is one-on-one assistance aimed at solving a problem that a person is unable to solve on his or her own and hence seeks the assistance of a skilled individual whose expertise and experience are then applied in an attempt to address the problem.
As previously said, case work treatment include not only providing activities and services to the client, but also assisting them in removing obstacles or irritants from their environment.
The latter could be accomplished with the assistance of counselling. Case work is a primary type of social work that aims to assist people in efficiently dealing with their social problems.
Counselling is indeed a ‘helping relationship through which changes are brought or suitable choices are made that otherwise are difficult to be handled by the person concerned.
It is to remember that both case work and counselling seeks to help people to solve their psychosocial problems and resume back social functioning In both case work and counselling, the relationship is the means through which the client is helped.
It is the channel that begins with the preparation of the client’s social history and continues via interviews, study, diagnosis, and treatment.
Casework and counselling both believe in the individual’s worth and dignity, as well as common working concepts.
f) Process recording
ans: A process recording is almost a verbatim written record of an interaction with a client. It is a narrative reporting of all that happened during a contact with the client, including the worker’s feelings and thinking about what has happened.
Process recording is most often used when working with individuals and families.
Recording is done on an ongoing basis; done regularly as the case moves, based on chronologically linked material.
It’s a great way to improve your introspective and critical thinking skills, which are important for a good social case worker.
Reflective practise is essential for connecting theory and practise. In practise, students/practitioners are confronted with complicated and multidimensional client problems/situations.
The ability to attain efficacy in the social work process requires reflection, analysis, and reasonable assessment of these factors.
“Moving beyond the acquisition of new knowledge and insight, into questioning of current assumptions, values, and viewpoints” is what critical reflection entails,
g) Family therapy
Ans: Family therapy can employ techniques and exercises from cognitive therapy, behavior therapy, interpersonal therapy, or other types of individual therapy.
Like with other types of treatment, the techniques employed will depend on the specific problems the client or clients present with Behavioral or emotional problems in children are common reasons to visit a family therapist.
A child’s problems do not exist in a vacuum; they exist, and will likely need to be addressed within the context of the family (Herkov, 2016).
It should be noted that in family therapy or counseling, the term “family” does not necessarily mean blood relatives.
In this context, “family” is anyone who plays a long-term supportive role in one’s life, which may not mean blood relations or family members in the same household”
BPAC 134 FREE SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2021-22