Origin and Development of Social Work
MSW 01 Free Solved Assignment
MSW 01 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022
Q. 1. Write about the historical development of Community work in India and also discuss the place of community work in social work profession.
Ans. Historical Development of Community Work in India: In the 1950s, a massive governmentprogramme of community development in rural areas was launched.
The objectives of these programmes were to develop local initiatives, particularly in the areas of education, health and agriculture development, as per the community needs.
The focus was to motivate people to express their needs and to avail themselves of resources available.
Mukherji explains that in community development the effons of people and governmental are mited to improve the social, economic and cultural conditions of communities, to integrate these communities with the life of the nation and to contribute to the nation’s development.
The objectives of community organization are
(1) to take care of all the sections of the people
(2) to mobilize them to achieve the desired goal
(3) to take special care of the underprivileged, and
(4) to take care of the whole development process.
Besides the social workers, a number of stakeholders are involved in the process of community work in rural areas. MSW 01 Free Solved Assignment
They include health workers, education experts, agriculturists, scientists, adminis-trators and field workers.
The community work in India has remained largely rural. A large number of NGOs are now working in education, infrastructure development, healthcare and children and women welfare programmes.
The community work in India is welfare-oriented.
Kramer and Specht define community organization as a method of intervention in which a professional change agent helps a community action system comprising individuals, groups or organizations to involve in planned collective action to cope with special problems within the democratic system.
Two major concerns are:
(a) The interactional process in the system: It includes identifying, recruiting and working with members and developing organizational and interpersonal relationships among them; and
(b) The technical tasks: It includes identifying problem areas, analyzing causes, formulating plans, developing strategies and mobilizing resources.
MG Ross defines community organization as a process in which a community identifies its needs or objectives, finds the resources to meet these needs or objectives, takes action and develops cooperative and collaborative attitudes and practices in the community
There are many definitions on community organization. The following four major ideas are reflected in these definitions: MSW 01 Free Solved Assignment
(1) Cooperation, collaboration and integration among various stakeholders.
(2) Fulfilling the needs and balancing needs and resources.
(3) Community organization deals with programme relationships.
(4) A working relationship between the democratic process and specialism.
Place of Community Work in Social Work Profession :
Community work has been a part of social work. In the West, community work has included community care, promoting care in the community, enabling service users and careers to take part in planning, monitoring and evaluating community care services.
Community social work has gone beyond community care. It has featured within other professional settings, including housing and planning.
Besides, community work has been carried out by volunteers and unpaid activists within communities. There was also debate whether community work should be defined as a professional activity at all. MSW 01 Free Solved Assignment
Q. 2. Discuss about the International social work values and ethics.
Ans. International Social Work Values and Ethics: The International Federation of Social Workers (IFSW) has worked on ethical guidance since its founding in 1958 at the International Conference on Social Welfare in Munich.
In 1976, it provided the first document, The Ethics of Social Work: Principles and Standards. It promoted ethical debate and reflection among organizations and providers in member countries.
The objectives are to prepare basic principles that could be adapted across settings, identify ethical dilemmas in social work practice and making recommendations for dealing with them.
In 1994, it declared that social work has universal application because it originates from humanitarian, religious and democratic ideals. MSW 01 Free Solved Assignment
In 2004, this document was replaced by the Ethics in Social Work, Statement of Principles. It was prepare after a joint conference with the International Association of Schools of Social Work held in Adelaide, Australia.
The new statement retains the goals mentioned in the earlier document and added that “some ethical challenges and problems facing social workers are specific to particular countries; others are common.” The IFSW/IASSW statement of principles identified the key problem areas.
(1) Social worker’s loyalty often faces conflicting interests.
(ii) Social worker functions as both helpers and controllers.
(iiI) Social workers face conflicting situation while protecting the interests of the people with whom they work and societal demands.
(iv) Resources are limited. MSW 01 Free Solved Assignment
(v) Human Rights and Human Dignity: Social workers have to respect the right to self-determination, promote the right to participation, treat each person as a whole, and identify and develop strengths.
(vi) Social Justice: Social workers have to challengenegativediscrimination, recognizediversity, distribute resources equitably,challenge unjust policies and practices and work in solidarity.
The Statement is a guidance on professional conduct. It encourages behaviour consistent with the IFSW/IASSW statement and the ethical code of the specific countries.
In the beginning there were no formal values and ethics that social workers had to follow. In the late 1800s and early 1900s in the US, charity and social movements started.
During this period the urban areas faced the problems of poverty, child maltreatment and delinquency, poor working conditions of immigrants, former slaves and people of colour.
The inhumane conditions such as poor houses, mental hospitals and jails were highlighted by activists like Dorothea Dix. Charitable organizations were set up to deal with these social problems. MSW 01 Free Solved Assignment
People who were working for these organizations were not trained and worked as per their own beliefs.
The need for teaching social workers scientific principles arose when anecdotes about charity workers judging and acting insensitively towards clients started to trouble agency administrators.
The social work curricula included the purpose and objectives of social work based on the values of respect, equality and social justice.
The Delegate Conference of the American Association of Social Workers adopted a formal code of ethics in 1947. It was revised in 1999. Later this was adopted by nations across the world.
Social work’s identity has been commonly characterized as ambiguous-Its role in the promotion of social justice questioned and its effectiveness lacking evidence.
At the same time, there are others who argue that social work is a victim of an inhuman political and economical system which systematically structures an unjust society to undermine human rights. MSW 01 Free Solved Assignment
Ironically, social work as a part of the political mechanism is obligated to contribute to securing these.
Ethical awareness, as a professional and/or personal skill, is thought to enable social workers to appropriately answer the question “who receives the benefit of social work practice” as a mechanism to evaluate practice, and defend social work’s humanitarian character.
In addition, people who need social work services are often among some of the most vulnerable in society.
This is one of the main reasons that social workers must be sensitive to the ways that they provide their services. Social workers’ decisions often have far-reaching consequences for people’s lives.
Therefore, social work practice must be guided by transparent, understandable principles.
In this sense, social work education should be approached in an ethical, reflective and value based manner so as to ensure that people are not exploited, manipulated or made more widerable by social workers actions.MSW 01 Free Solved Assignment
Consequently, social workers must be able to develop a competence in value based and ethical practice that includes values as a core element of their practice.
However, multiple ethical barriers or obligations create dilemmas in social workers efforts to pursue their professional purposes.
Ethical dilemmas reflect the complexity of the social work profession in terms of several factors such as its purposes and the multiple loyalties of social workers.
Q. 3. Answer any two of the following questions
A) Discuss the place of Case Work in social work profession.
Ans. The individual comes first. Individual is thus the basic unit of the society. Individual’s satisfaction leads to formation of peaceful society.
Social case work as method of social work helps individual to solve his problem so that he perform in better way. Social work has developed a body of knowledge, which include methods and tools, and terminology of its own.
The aim of social work profession is the social betterment of the society thus it meets the highest need of self-actualization.MSW 01 Free Solved Assignment
As method of social work, social case work aims at helping individual to solve his problem in the society to perform in better way and to enhance his capabilities.
Case work demands a dual orientation: orientation in human psychology and orientation in knowing cultural force of the society.
To meet the objectives, social work has identified a set of methods to cater to mass requirements, community needs, group needs and individual needs. Social case work method addresses all these needs.
Richmond says case work is recognizable by its aim of social betterment and its method of differential treatment.
It is concerned with the release of resource in the immediate environment and capacities in the individual. It is a retailer and not a wholesaler.MSW 01 Free Solved Assignment
This method addresses to adjustments of individuals and the solutions that the meaning of these cases have far reaching significance for the society.
In case work situations, the unit personality has the power to socialize the community. In case work, the differences and unlikeness must be considered in forming the pattern and changing the pattern.
Individual adjustments and the solutions have far reaching significance. Social workers have developed different approaches to meet the socio-economic needs.
Individual faces many problems while performing his role and duties. A person is also influenced by biological, psychological and environmental factors which make every individual unique.
He has his own capacities and abilities, attitudes, beliefs and values, feelings and thinking and his approach to deal with various problems of life.
Individual problems cause stress, affect his family and community life.
Social case work method resolves such problems by restoring, maintaining or improving his social functioning using the knowledge of behaviour, communication and relationship skills and the available resources. MSW 01 Free Solved Assignment
The case worker helps an individual to enable him to function in his various social roles.
(d) What do you understand by the term ‘Social Justice’? Elaborate.
Ans. Aristotle believed justice as a “virtue of the soul distributing that which each person deserved”. Cicero thought it originated from the divine law of eternal and immutable morality, and it makes people duty bound.
The system of justice varies as it depends on the values and norms prevailing in the society. These systems take two approaches:protective and promotive.
Protective is safeguarding people against abuse and exploitation. Promotive creates conditions to ensure equality, freedom, fraternity and provide opportunities to weaker sections.MSW 01 Free Solved Assignment
Justice is used in two senses: the abstract and the concrete. Abstract is a code of conduct and the concrete means the implementation of existing laws.
Justice brings a sense of duty and concern for others. It also creates and sustains trust and confidence among people. It creates an atmosphere of peace and tranquility. It thus optimizes the personal and social functioning.
Social justic Bmplies theliaaa bfl just distribution of benefits to build a just sadidty. Social justice ensures equalization of opportunities to weaker and vulnerable sections of society.
It rectifies injustice in personal relations of people and removes imbalances in the political, economic and social life of people Justice Krishna Iyer says social justice assures every member of society Hair deal.
The concept covers distribution of means, benefits and burdens and biological, social, economic and cultural development of people in a society.
Article 38 of the Constitution of India refers to social, economic and political justice to promote the welfare of the people.MSW 01 Free Solved Assignment
The following are the specific objectives of social justice:
(1) Establish the rule of law.
(2) Ensure equality of opportunity.
(3) Provide special opportunities to weaker sections.
(4) Ensure equal benefits to all.
(5) Prevent exploitation of weaker sections.
(6) Protect and preserve the religion and culture of minorities.
Social justice has evolved wherever discrimination, abuse and exploitation existed. In the United States, social justice evolved to provide special opportunities for the development of Blacks and the native Red Indians.
In India, social justice evolved to provide special privileges to Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. MSW 01 Free Solved Assignment
Q. 4. Write short notes on any four of the following
(a) Comment on the emergence of social work in ANY one of the Asian countries.
Ans. Indonesia: The country has 23,84,52,952 people in 2004. It is fourth largest in the world after China, India and the United States. It gained independence on August 17, 1945. It accommodates Muslims (88%), Protestant (5%), Roman Catholic (3%), Hindu (2%), Buddhist (1%) and others (1%).
It has about 350 ethno linguistic groups. The country’s GDP was $172.9 billion in 2002.
Its adult literacy rate ranges between 88.5 and 90.2 per cent, a birth rate of 21.1 per 1000 live births, 6.26 death rate, 46 infant mortality rate (in 1999), 59.99 under five mortality rate (in 1999), life expectancy rate 68.8 years for men and 71.8 years for women.
In Indonesia also, social work emerged as response to various social problems.
Many non-profit organizations such as Yayasan Pembinaan Anak-Anak Cacat and Ministry of Social Affairs started social welfare programmes to overcome various social problems. Social workers in Indonesia can be categorized into three types:
(a) Voluntary social workers. They work under NGO even as they do not possess any educational background in social work;MSW 01 Free Solved Assignment
(b) Functional social workers. They are civil servants appointed as social work practitioners in different social service agencies under the government departments;
(c) Professional social workers. They are Professional Social Workers. They are educationally qualified.
In 1957, when training programme in social work was started in Bandung it was recognized as an occupation.
Two vocational training programmes: one-year ‘Preliminary Course for Social Personnel Level A’ and two years ‘Higher Course for Skilled Social Workers’ were designed to train employees of the Ministry of Social Affairs.
School of Social Welfare was set up in Bandung in 1964. It provided undergraduate and graduate programmes in social work. MSW 01 Free Solved Assignment
About 33 public and private universities now offer undergraduate programmes in social work or social welfare.
Four public universities – University of Indonesia, Bandung School of Social Welfare, Bogor Institute of Agriculture and State Islamic University of Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta-offer master programmes in social work.
(b) What are the five characteristics of “Voluntary Action’?
Ans. Voluntary action is done voluntarily to help others out of compassion or concern and they are not compensated with wages. The characteristics of voluntary actions are:
(i) It means helping others in all possible ways
(ii) No expectation in reum of these actions.
(iii) Feeling of social concern and urge to help others.
(iv) It beliefs in the virtye of service to the needy.
(v) It gives importance to one’s duty over rights.
Shramdan, which is derived from Shram (manual labour) and Dan (donation), or voluntary manual labour is labeled as social work. MSW 01 Free Solved Assignment
It promotes the collective good. Shramdan however is different from social work. It is different in methods and techniques.
Shramdan means manual labour to get concrete work done. They philosophy is that it is the duty of every one to contribute their labour for the well-being of the community. It does not require specialized knowledge and technical skills.
According to American social reformer Abraham Flexner, social work profession has six attributes:
(i) it is an intellectual operation and large responsibility;
(ii) it is based on science and learning;
(iii) knowledge is applied for a practical and definite conclusion;
(iv) it has an educationally communicable method;
(v) it has tendency to self-organize, and
(vi) it is a helping profession with altruistic motives.
(c) While conducting social work research what are the ethical safeguards that needs to be considered?
Ans. Ethics and Social Work Research: An understanding of the ethics of research is important for social workers. MSW 01 Free Solved Assignment
Emphasis has been given on the need for researchers to put safeguards into their research to prevent ethical problems from taking place.
The policy statement on ethical principles and guidelines for the protection of human subjects of biomedical and behavioural research in 1979 is a step in this direction.
The Department of Health and Human Services has released the document called the Belmont Report.
In Social Work research, the crucial ethical safeguards are:
(b) informed consent;
(c) monitoring the effects of a study on the participants and providing help if required;
(d) involving participants in decision making on the study;
(e) selecting researchers without any bias.
(a) Confidentiality: Researcher has to protect the privacy of all participants. he should not reveal the identity of participants outside the research team. Researchers change the names of their respondents to conceal the identity of participants.
(b) Informed Consent: Before the starting of the research process, the informed consent is sought from the participants.Informed consent document covers the objectives of the study,
researcher’s qualifications and organizational affiliation, assurance of confidentiality, expectations of the participants, identification of any possible benefits from the participation; MSW 01 Free Solved Assignment
identification of any probable negative effects the study on the respondents, the name of person who can be called to reply the queries of participants, and a reminder that participants can stop taking part at any time.
(c) Protection of the respondents is a main concern of the researcher. The researcher has to be careful if the participants are vulnerable or can face any harm, physical or psychological
(d) Involving the participants in research at all of the steps of the study provides protection. The Participatory Action Research involves participants at all steps of the study.
(e) The findings of the study should not be misrepresented and other actions should not compromise the integrity of the study.
The study be objective. Private IM Ited
Future Directions: Considerable research has been conducted in social work, yet they have shortcomings. They overlap and lack good methodology and technique.
Ramachandran pointed out in magorowlems that social work research has faced in India.
They are: (a)shortage of funds. (b) inadequate research staff lack of research facilities, (d) faculty members have load of teaching, (e) absence of research inceptives, lack of research training (g) obstacles to communipation and utilization of research, and
(h) absence of machinery for research planning and coordination. The ninth problem cited by the committee was the youth of the profession’ itself.
Research and documentation in social work has been building up in the past two decades.
More importance has been given to the rigours of research and the kind of research design, tools of data collection, measurement techniques and procedures of data processing and analysis.MSW 01 Free Solved Assignment
(e) In your own words explain what Social Work means to you.
Ans. Social work is a profession practised all over the world, and its fundamental principles are well established. The following are some key principles that modern social work practice have adopted:
(1) Social work has focused on the needs, interests and wellbeing of the child, aged and the poor.
(ii) The social worker aims to work with people to define together the outcomes they are seeking and their preferred means to achieve them.
(iii) Part of the social worker’s contribution is to maintain a view of the person in the round, recognizing the physical, intellectual, psychological and spiritual dimensions of their well-being, and the importance of their family, neighbourhood and community relationships.
(iv) Social workers work with people to identify the barriers and obstacles in the way of achieving their desired outcomes, and to find ways of removing, avoiding or overcoming the obstacles. MSW 01 Free Solved Assignment
(v) As part of increasing children’s and adults access to life-chances, personal development, choice and independence, social workers aim to share with people a recognition of risk to themselves and others, and understanding of how it can be managed
(vi) Social workers seek to help people find their own solutions to problems, build on their strengths, draw on and develop their personal and social assets, and avoid becoming over-dependent on formal support structures.
(vii) Social workers seek in their practice to safeguard and maximise people’s human and civil rights, promote their social inclusion and enable them to exercise their responsibilities as citizens.
Social work as a profession seeks to help and empower vulnerable groups in society such as women, persons with disabilities, children and the elderly as well as people living with HIV/AIDS. MSW 01 Free Solved Assignment
According to the International Federation of Social Workers and the International Association of Schools of Social Work, the social work profession promotes social change, problem solving in human relationships and the empowerment and liberation of people to enhance well-being.
Utilizing theories of human behaviour and social systems, social work intervenes at the points where people interact with their environments. Principles of human rights and social justice are fundamental to social work.
The objectives of social work are:
1) To eradicate poverty, oppression and social injustice.
(ii) To help in improve the social functioning and interactions among individuals, families, organizations and communities. MSW 01 Free Solved Assignment
(iii) To formulate and implement various policies, programmes and services to meet basic needs and help in the development of human capacities.
(iv) To work for improving social and economic justice. ..
(v) To work on improving Social Work practice through research, Knowledge and skills and arning
(vi) To apply social work practice to attain the objectives
Social workas an intertelated system of values theory and practice. Social work aims at meeting humafneeds and developing human potential.
The motivation and justification for social work action are human rights and social justice,
It aims to eradicate poverty and to liberate oppressed people to promote social inclusion. Its values are based on equality, worth and dignity of all people.
Social work method is based on a systematic body of evidence-based knowledge drawn from research and practice evaluation. MSW 01 Free Solved Assignment
It recognizes the facts that the interaction between human beings and their environment is complex, and people have capacity to get affected by and to change the multiple influences upon them.
Social work addresses the impediments, inequities, discrimination and injustices in society. It deals with day-to-day personal and social problems as well as crises and emergencies.
It uses various skills, techniques and activities. It covers person-focused psychosocial processes to social policy, planning and development.
Its operation includes counseling, group work, clinical social work, pedagogical work and family treatment and therapy and helping people get services and resources.
Q. 5. Write short notes on any five of the following
(a) Any 3 purpose of NASW Code of Ethics.
Ans. Purpose of the NASW Code of Ethics: The core of social work includes the professional ethics. The profession has basic values, ethical principles and ethical standards.
These values, principles and standards have been set forth by the code of ethics to guide social workers how they should function. It is relevant to all social workers and students in the field. NASW Code of Conduct has six objectives:
(1) It identifies core values in social work’s mission.
(ii) It summarizes ethical principles that show core values of the profession and establishes ethical standards for social workers.MSW 01 Free Solved Assignment
(iii) It helps social workers know relevant considerations when they face ethical uncertainties.
(iv) It presents ethical standards to which the public can hold the social workers accountable.
(v) It explains the new practitioners the art mission, values, ethical principles and ethical standards they should adhere to.
(vi) It presents standards that the profession can use to assess whether social workers have adhered to unethical conduct.
The Code guides decision-making and conduct. It does not say how social workers should act in all situations.MSW 01 Free Solved Assignment
Moreover, the Code of Ethics of the NASW does not state which values, principles and standards are most important and should be given priority when they conflict.
There will be differences of opinion among social workers with regard to the ways of taking into account values, principles and standards during a conflict. Social workers should also use their knowledge while adhering to ethics.
The ethical decision-making is a process. Social workers may face situations where there will be no simple answers to resolve complex issues.
Social workers should consider all the values, principles and standards to deal with such situation.
The decisions and actions of social workers should not deviate from the Code.
Beside this Code, other sources of information about ethical thinking may be useful. Social workers can consider other relevant codes of ethics.
They should know the impact of their decision on their clients. They should know the conflicts between personal and professional values and deal with them responsibly.
Social workers should also consult the relevant literature on professional ethics and ethical decision making and seek appropriate consultation when they have any dilemma.
They may consult social work organization’s ethics committee, knowledgeable colleagues, supervisors or legal counsel. MSW 01 Free Solved Assignment
instances in which the ethical obligations may conflict with agency policies or relevant laws or regulations.
In such situations, social workers take responsible effort to resolve the conflict in a way that is consistent with the Code. Social workers can take consultation before making a decision in such situations.
The Code can be used by individuals, agencies, organizations and other related bodies such as professional liability insurance, licensing and regulatory providers, courts, agencies, government agencies and other professional organizations.
In case of its violation, there is no legal liability. Violations of the Code would be subject to a process of peer review which is separate from legal or administrative procedures.
The code of does not guarantee ethical behaviour. This code also does not resolve all ethical issues or disputes. It only sets forth values, ethical principles and ethical standards to which the professional can adhere to. MSW 01 Free Solved Assignment
(c) Deductive Research
Ans. Deductive Research: In this case, existing theories are used to design a new idea and to conceptualize it.
Data is collected and analysed to see whether it is scientifically supported or not. Deductive research also involves exploratory studies to understand how they are applicable to different population groups.
Every profession requires research about its practices if it has to remain effective and up to date.
Research is also essential to a profession’s self-respect and to its ability to maintain the positive regard of outsiders. MSW 01 Free Solved Assignment
In social work, research provides a number of tools to professionals to describe, define, measure and evaluate their work. Research is important for social work practice for the following reasons:
(a) Research provides a description of the client’s background and the complex phenomenon that influence the client’s lives.
(b) It defines the concepts used in social work in an accurate and consistent way.
(c) Research helps in measuring the needs of clients, prioritizing them and then determine how to help them.
(d) It measures the client’s progress or lack of it over time. It helps to make a decision on the effectiveness of our interventions.
(e) Importance of Case Work
Ans. Importance of Case Work: Individual faces many problems while performing his role and duties. MSW 01 Free Solved Assignment
A person is also influenced by biological, psychological and environmental factors which make every individual unique.
He has his own capacities and abilities, attitudes, beliefs and values, feelings and thinking and his approach to deal with various problems of life.
Individual problems cause stress, affect his family and community life.
Social case work method resolves such problems by restoring, maintaining or improving his social functioning using the knowledge of behaviour, communication and relationship skills and the available resources.
The case worker helps an individual to enable him to function in his various social roles.
(f) Channels for Social Action
Ans. Channels for Social Action: According to Khinduka and Coughlin, social workers can use the following three types of modes while using the method of social action:
(1) Social workers can act towards influencing social policy through and understanding the political process.MSW 01 Free Solved Assignment
(2) They can identify various stages in the action process including conducting research on problem, planning to get a solution, garnering public support, presenting the proposal to authority and enforcement of new policy.
(3) They have to mobilize group effort for accomplishing the social objectives. Some authors say four channels of social action are there for social workers: as employee, as a member of the profession, as worker and as a citizen.
According to Dunham, social workers in this method have certain limitations because of the factors such as civil service limitations, workers relationship to his agency and community pressures and the individual’s conception of What is appropriate.
Some writers hold the view that the prevailing social situation should be taken for consideration to determine the scope. MSW 01 Free Solved Assignment
(h) Social Work Research
Ans. Definition of Social Work Research Research is a critical and exhaustive investigation of something to gain more clarity and to know its advantages and disadvantages, and its strength and weaknesses.
Scientific research is based on the following principles:
(a) It follows a systematic set of procedures:
(b) all elements of bias are removed;
(c) It follows a code of ethics like integrity and neutrality in conducting research; and
(d) It is meant for public use.
Scientific research aims to test and validate existing theories and generate new theories. According to Dudley, a theory has several interrelated explanatory statements about a phenomenon.
These propositions are called hypothesis. Research studies validate these propositions
According to Dudley, scientific research has the following values and principles:
(a) It seeks to find out something that exists or is a truth.
(b) It follows a special code of ethics integrity and neutrality.
(c) It represents the concerns of all in the society its focus may be a subgroup of people.
(d) It is meant for public use. MSW 01 Free Solved Assignment
(e) it uses a methodology that limits bias.
(f) it is committed to report findings.
(g) It follows a systematic set of procedures.
Research can be broadly divided into inductive or deductive.
Inductive Research: In this type of research, data is collected about a phenomenon before it is hypothesized. Researchers may learn new things and then use the data to theorize new concepts.
Deductive Research: In this case, existing theories are used to design a new idea and to conceptualize it. Data is collected and analysed to see whether it is scientifically supported or not.
Deductive research also involves exploratory studies to understand how they are applicable to different population groups. MSW 01 Free Solved Assignment
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