Master’s in Sociology
MSOE 4 Free Solved Assignment
MSOE 4 Free Solved Assignment jan 2022
Q. 1. Define the concept of ‘Urban’. How are the urban areas in India demarcated officially? Discuss.
Ans. Concept of Urban: Before the 19th century, the word ‘urban’ was rarely used in English language. It is defined as “pertaining to city or town life’ The Latin word ‘urbs makes the word urban which is diametrically opposite to rural.
This difference is due to the fact that the delineation of urban or rural areas is dependent on political, historical, cultural, demographic and administrative criteria.
The definition of urban area or city provides us a better understanding of the process of urbanization. This definition varies from country to country and between one census and another in the same country.
For instance, at least a population of 40,000 should be there to qualify as an urban area in South Korea while in Greenland even 300 inhabitants are sufficient for a place to qualify as an urban area.MSOE 4 Free Solved Assignment
This difference is due to the fact that the delineation of urban or rural areas is dependent on political, historical, cultural, demographic and administrative criteria.
DEFINING “URBAN” IN THE INDIAN CONTEXT
The census definition of town in India was more or less the same during 1901-1951. This definition was formalized with the help of certain statistical criteria in 1961.
Bose (1974) mentions Census Superintendents have been given discretion for classifying the borderline cases of rural and urban.
The Census of 1901 included every municipality in the list of towns. Moreover, all civil lines which were not included in municipal limits and every continuous collection of houses which were permanently inhabited by not less than 5,000 persons were called towns by this Census.
However, the definition of town was not totally objective since the Census Superintendent exercised his discretion.
In 1961, Census defined towns and included all places with municipality, notified town area committee, cantonment board, corporation etc.MSOE 4 Free Solved Assignment
Its definition also included all other places which may have a population of 5,000 or 75% male working population engaged in non-agricultural work or a density of at least 400 persons per sq. km. in 1981 and 1991 Census occupations related to fishing, hunting, forestry, plantations, livestock etc. were treated as agricultural.
Earlier these were called non-agricultural activities. The Census of 2001 has followed the same definition of 1991.
SOME CATEGORIES OF TOWNS ACCORDING TO THE INDIAN CENSUS
(a) An urban area having a population of 100,000 or more is called a city.
(b) Census towns must satisfy the three criteria mentioned above (i.e. a minimum of 5,000 persons or 75% males engaged in non-agricultural activities or density of 400 persons per sq. km.)
(c) Urban Agglomeration (UA) and Outgrowth (OG).
Urban agglomerations are a continuous urban spread consisting of a town and its adjoining urban outgrowths or there may be contiguous towns with continuous urban outgrowths.
Areas like university campuses, military campuses, port towns and railway colonies which come up around a city do not qualify to be treated as towns and are treated as urban appendages and are termed as outgrowths.MSOE 4 Free Solved Assignment
Q. 3. Describe the structure of the city as given by E. W. Burgess.
Ans. Concentric Zone Model: In 1925, Burgess presented a descriptive urban land use model, which divided cities in a set of concentric circles expanding from the downtown to the suburbs.
This representation was built from Burgess’observations of a number of American cities, notably Chicago, for which he provided empirical evidence.
The model assumes a relationship between the socio-economic status (mainly income) of households and the distance from the CBD.
The further from the CBD, the better the quality of housing, but the longer the commuting time. Thus, accessing better housing is done at the expense of longer commuting times (and costs).MSOE 4 Free Solved Assignment
According to this monocentric model, a large city is divided in six concentric zones
Zone I: Central Business District (CBD) where most of the tertiary employment is located and where the urban transport infrastructure is converging, making this zone the most accessible.
Zone II: Zone of transition is the area between the factory zone and the working class zone in the concentric zone model of urban structure devised by Ernest Burgess. The zone of transition is an area of flux where the land use is changing.
Immediately adjacent to the CBD a zone where many industrial activities locate to take advantage of nearby labour and markets.
Further, most transport terminals, namely port sites and railyards, are located adjacent to the central area.
Zone III: This zone is gradually been reconverted to other uses by expanding manufacturing/industrial activities. MSOE 4 Free Solved Assignment
It contains the poorest segment of the urban population, notably first generation immigrants living, in the lowest housing conditions.
Zone IV: Residential zone dominated by the working class and those who were able to move away from the previous zone (often second generation immigrants).
This zone has the advantage of being located near the major zones of employment (I and II) and thus represents a low cost location for the working class.
Zone V: Represents higher quality housing linked with longer commuting costs.
Zone VI: Mainly high class and expensive housing in a rural, suburbanized, setting. The commuting costs are the highest. Prior to mass diffusion of the automobile (1930s), most of these settlements were located next to rail stations.
According to Burgess, urban growth is a process of expansion and reconversion of land uses, with a tendency of each inner zone to expand in the outer zone.
On the above figure, Zone II (Factory zone) is expanding towards Zone IV (Working class zone), creating a transition zone With reconvefsion of land use.
Although the Burgess model is simple and elegant, it has drawn numerous criticisms:
The model is too simple and limited in historical and cultural applications up to the 1950s. It is a product of its time.MSOE 4 Free Solved Assignment
The model was developed when American cities were growing very fast in demographic terms and when motorized transportation was still uncommon as most people used public transit.
Expansion thus, involved reconversion of existing land uses. This concept cannot be applied in a contemporary (from the second half to the 20th century) context where highways have enabled urban development to escape the reconversion process and to take place directly in the suburbs.
The model was developed for American cities and has limited applicability elsewhere. It has been demonstrated that pre-industrial cities, notably in Europe, did not at all followed the concentrio circles model.
For instance, in most pre-industrial European cities, the centre was much more important than the periphery, notably in terms of social status. The Burgess concentric model is consequently partially inverted.MSOE 4 Free Solved Assignment
There were a lot of spatial differences in terms of ethnic, social and occupational Status, while there was low occurrence of the functional differences in land use patterns The concentric model assumed a spatial separation of place of work and place of residence, which was not generalized until the 20th century.
However, the Burgess model remains useful as a concept explaining concentric urban development, as a way to introduce the complexity of urban land use and to explain urban growth in American cities in the early-mid 20th century.
The Concentric Zone Model was created in 1923 by sociologist E.W. Burgess. According to this model, the city grows outward beginning with the Central Business District in the middle.
The second ring is the zone in transition where industry and poorer-quality housing is. Usually new immigrants to the city live in this zone in small quarters.
Rooming houses for single individuals are located here, too. The third ring is the zone of independent workers’ homes.
These are modest older houses occupied by the working class. The fourth ring is the zone of better residences where more spacious houses for middle-class families.
Finally, the fifth zone is the commuter’s zone. People who work in the centre choose to live in the suburbs.MSOE 4 Free Solved Assignment
Q. 4. Discuss the changing nature of family in Indian cities with suitable examples.
Ans. Continuity and change: The institution of family: There are two types of families in India the traditional joint or extended family and the nuclear family.
In the beginning, the theories of Durkheim, Tonnies and Lewis Worth about change in society from simple to complex was applied in India too wherby nuclear family was brought to be associated with industrialization and urbanization.
This logic was extended to mean that joint family is an institution of the rural social structure.
However, urban studies in India have proved that joint families are found in urban areas ass well. Sociologists such as Kapadia (1956), Gore (1968), A.M. Shah and other showed that there is no correlation between urbanization and separate’ nuclear households.
They observed a cyclical change from nuclear to joint to nuclear family over a time period.
The institution of family in India has experienced a series of changes over the 20th century. The impact of political freedom, nation building, planned economy, urbanisation and industrialisation on the Indian family occupied scholars until the 1970s,
but this interest declined somewhat in the 1980s. MSOE 4 Free Solved Assignment
While the debate on disintegration of the family, i.e., decline of joint and rise of nuclear families/households, was an analytical one, the idea of the household dimension of the family was a conceptual advance, supported by descriptions of the process of the phases of developmental process of the household.
While the household, as a unit of analysis, was based on commensality and co-residence, the jointness of the Hindu family was derived from corporate ties through common property and rituals.
Analysis of the process of household development gives a dynamic view of the institution, but it focuses more on the form and structure rather than the content of its relations…..
Women’s and feminist research since the 1970s has focussed on the relations in the family and the household in moving beyond its forms and structures.
The research on dynamic, unequal and negotiated relations in the family has questioned the family as a homogenous category for all its members, especially in the spheres of property, work, development, reproduction and violence. MSOE 4 Free Solved Assignment
Globalisation, rapid increase in the volume of national and international migration, unprecedented changes in transport, telephony, and mass communication, particularly through audio-visual media and information and communication technology:
all these and more have brought about complex ways of adaptations by social institutions, especially of family, kinship and marriage.
While India is apparently embracing the western cultural traits with open arms, it is simultaneously going through a process of returning to the cultural,including ritual, roots.
The twin processes of Sanskritisation and westernisation have impacted the lives of men and women in varying ways and in turn the form and practice of family life.
The family is assuming global, national, cosmopolitan, western, and modern forms in some quarters, while retaining some of the conventional forms in others.
Family ties, in this context, are still quite significant to its members, becoming manifest through everyday life, especially through cultural forms such as ritual, food, care, concern, contact, and communication. MSOE 4 Free Solved Assignment
Q. 8. Do you think pollution in cities in India is impacting the work output of city dwellers? Discuss.
Ans. Urbanization and urban Environment in India: In India, the urban population in absolute terms is very high but the proportion of urban population to total population is low.
Class I cities account for 65% of the total urban population and the rate of their growth is faster the average growth of population.
Million plus cities were 35 in 2001 increasing from 23 in 1991 and 12 in 1981. Mumbai (16.3 million, Chennai (6.4 million) and Bangalore (5.7 million) together consist of 50% of these large cities.
With the population explosion in India cities due to a large scale rural-urban migration, environ of cities have degraded.
This has caused water pollution problem of disposal of solid waste, scarcity of water and housing, etc. MSOE 4 Free Solved Assignment
Moreover, social environment in cities is threatened due to increasing criminal activities caused by urban poverty socio-cultural disparities, unchecked migration etc.
The population increase is exerting undue pressure on the physical and social infrastructure of the cities such as on education and health facilities, transportation, power and waters supply.
The planning and proper use of land for various purposes are necessary for a better environment of the city, the lack of it has deteriorated the city environment,
(a) Air Quality: The vehicular, industrial, domestic and thermal emissions have been polluting the air of cities. Among these motor vehicles have proved to be the biggest polluters.
Their 3-fold increase in India between 1990 and 2000 has added to the problem. Delhi and Chennai have registered higher increase than Mumbai and Kolkata.
The congestion causes more problems such as it degrades roads; decreases fuel efficiency and increases pollution.MSOE 4 Free Solved Assignment
Fossil fuels used in industries for generating energy are big pollutants of air.
(b) Water Quality: Increased human activity in urban areas and interference with the natural ecosystems has deteriorated water quality.
Both surface and underground resources of water are diminishing in our country and are getting polluted.
This situation has been caused due to wasteful consumption and neglect of conservation of water resources. Moreover, waste water enters in large quantity in Indian rivers due to urbanization and industriatsation.
(c) Solid Waste Generation: In the last one decade the management of solid waste and its disposal has become a great problem for the municipal body since the growing urbanization, industrialization and changing life style of people has increased the amount of waste.
Disposing off of big amount of waste in an environmentally safe manner has become a problem. MSOE 4 Free Solved Assignment
Non-biodegradable plastic waste is especially worrying since they choke drains, prevent grass growth and even prevent the waste packed in them.
The collection, transportation and disposing off of solid waste is done unscientifically-no treatment and landfill gas collection is used.
Because of this heavy metals get added to underground water and landfill gases escape to the atmosphere increasing green house emissions.
(d) Noise Levels: Industrial activities, vehicular traffic, musical systems, electrical appliances and loudspeaker etc., cause noise pollution and in India attention to it has been paid only recently.
The Environment Protection Act, 1986 referred a bit to noise pollution and later a notification was issued in 1989 but these measures were hardly effective in controlling noise pollution in urban areas. MSOE 4 Free Solved Assignment
In 2000, the Ministry of Environment and Forests came up with noise pollution (Regulation and Control) Rules which made State Government its implementing authority.
This authority has to ensure that the noise levels do not exceed the permissible limits and has to classify the urban areas into different zones.
The problems that are facing cities, towns, and their people are inadequate financial resources, increased poverty and a widening gap between rich and poor, unsustainable use of land, un-co-ordinated development and insecure land tenure, lack of green spaces and inadequate water supply and sanitation.
These main problems have related to many other smaller problems like, lack of jobs, spreading homelessness and expanding squatter settlements, growing insecurity and rising crime, inadequate and deteriorating building stock, services and infrastructure, lack of health and educational services, rising traffic congestion and more pollution (UN 1996).
The primary problem in the Third World is that the cities continue to grow even the city services are being narrowed. MSOE 4 Free Solved Assignment
According to GEO-2000, “inadequate provision of water, sanitation, drainage and garbage removal” means many people’s lives and health is under continous threat.
The problems on the rural areas have driven people into the cities is also a part of the problem.
Environment problem in most of the urban centres are evident. Environment-related diseases or accidents remain among the major causes of illness, injury, and premature death.
This is common in the poorer centres of urban areas. Most of these diseases are caused by pathogens in water, food, soil, or air.
Burns, scalds, and accidental fires are common in overcrowded shelters, especially where five or more persons live in a small room (Gugler 1997).
The cities have two general categories of human environmental risk: Those that directly affect health, such as pollution, and those that may not be less damaging, but operate indirectly by worsen the ecosystem that human life depends on.
The link between environment and health is evident.
Poor environment, housing and living conditions are the main reasons to the diseases and poor health. Improvements in sanitation, sewage treatment and quality of food, will prevent diseases like cholera. MSOE 4 Free Solved Assignment
The lack of these basic facilities is still general in developing countries. Because of this, diseases like tuberculosis and diarrhoea continue to be common in the developing world.
These houses of the poor are often made of temporary materials, which do not provide proper protection against temperature changes, winds or rain.
The houses are often small and overcrowded and also lack of facilities like; piped water supplies, the removal of excreta and solid wastes, drainage and roads.
Many migrants move from countryside to live with their relatives, which increase the occupation of rooms. Still this kind of co-operation is the only way for many migrants to start their new life in the city.
Q. 9. Discuss role of media in contemporary urban governance with suitable illustrations.
Ans. Media in Contemporary Urban Governance: Citizen’s overall public life is affected by the media and a great impact is made in various policy decisions if media is aware about its role in a democratic country like India.
With the help of media, people have exerted their power at various occasions. This role would be more effective if media’s reach extends fairly well to rural areas instead its concentration in urban areas. MSOE 4 Free Solved Assignment
In recent times, the growth of Indian language press, internet, cable networks satellite information, the spread of information and the face of media has changed.
However, a new “crisis’ has appeared with the commercialization and commodification of media. Now one who pays can access media and message.
Today, the vertical link can be established by the media at the world level but the horizontal spread of news to increase communication between groups, gender and communities is still far from satisfactory.
This would increase the divide between information haves and have-nots.
There are three types of media in India-officially owned, privately owned (reformist variety) and privately owned (radical changers). The official media blindly supports the policies of the government.
The reformist variety of media is privately owned and shares the fundamental democratic values and is critical about the policies and activities of the government.
It asks for reviews and reforms in governance and advocates modernity and rationality in public life. The radical media demands fundamental changes in the rules of governance.
ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF MEDIA :
People’s access to information has increased in recent times and they are discovering in governance. People are themselves and to participate in governance. People are trying to lea which can be facilitated by the media. MSOE 4 Free Solved Assignment
However, in today’s context we cannot expect media to become a mission towards the goal of social transformation in any big measure. The newspapers do have created a ‘public sphere? where the public can share its ideas.
Indian media has played an important role as a watchdog of the society by exposing criminal negligence of decision-makers, reporting corruption, hunger and injustice done in society.
Today, the urban poor including women and dalits and other marginalised sections are using media increasingly to raise their voices.
Media should encourage art, science and literature but it is focusing on astrology, rebirths, religious myths, beliefs and aliens.
Now days almost every news channel telecast astrological programmes where an astrologer or some baba is sitting and predicting about deaths, marriages and relationships.
In the place of live telecast of superstitious programmes media should telecast scientific development taking place and how technology is helping us in day to day life. This kind of telecast will assist in human resource development.
As a developing nation India is lacking behind in many aspects like technology, research development, and social and economic development and human resource development.
There is great need of intelligent journalists who can help in removing social evils like caste system, communalism, poverty, superstition etc.MSOE 4 Free Solved Assignment
It should not devote maximum time on discussing cricket and cricketers rather it should be utilize on the development of rational thinking of the masses. The main focus of media should be on the development and upliftment of the society.
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