Sociology of Education
MSOE 1 Free Solved Assignment
MSOE 1 Free Solved Assignment july 2021 & jan 2022
Q. 1. Critically examine the issue of positive discrimination and affirmative action in the context of education in India.
Ans. Evolution of The Policy Positive Discrimination and Affirmative Action in India: Like many other Constitutions and anti-discrimination legislations the Constitution of india does not contemplate affirmative action/ reservation and special treatment as a general principle of operation.
With a view to making justice-social, economic and political justice effectively available to all the Constitution of India makes special provisions for certain members of society.
The IC contains several provisions for the protection and amelioration of the lot of the SCs, the STs and the OBCs.
The problem with the easte system is that the bigher caste communities feel discriminated against by the government’s policy of reserving positions for the OBCs.
The situation exists where in many cases a large number of members belonging to the higher castes contend for the small number of places reserved for them, while the members of the backward classes do not have to compete at all because of the large number of reserved places for them compared with the small number of candidates.
This reservation system in favour of the backward classes seems to be leading to a situation of unfair reverse discrimination. MSOE 1 Free Solved Assignment
There are always constant efforts are taken to minimize discrimination in India. It all started from the very beginning. As has been noted by numerous scholars of British rule in India, the physical presence of the British in India was not significant.
Yet, for almost two centuries, the British were able to rule two-thirds of the sub-continent directly, and exercise considerable leverage over the Princely States that accounted for the remaining one-third.
While the strategy of divide and conquer was used most effectively, an important aspect of British rule in India was the psychological indoctrination of an elite layer within Indian society who were artfully tutored into becoming model British subjects.
This English-educated layer of Indian society was encouraged in absorbing values and notions about themselves and their land of birth that would be conducive to the British occupation of India, and furthering British goals of looting India’s physical wealth and exploiting its labour.
In 1835, Thomas Macaulay articulated the goals of British colonial imperialism most succinctly: “We must do our best to form a class who may be interpreters between us and the millions whom we govern, a class of persons Indian in blood and colour, but English in taste, in opinions, words and intellect.” MSOE 1 Free Solved Assignment
As the architect of Colonial Britain’s Educational Policy in India, Thomas Macaulay was to set the tone for what educated Indians were going to learn about themselves, their civilization, and their view of Britain and the world around them.
An arch-racist, Thomas Macaulay had nothing, but scornful disdain for Indian history and civilization.
In his famous minute of 1835, he wrote that he had never found one among them (speaking of Orientalists, an opposing political faction) who could deny that a single shelf of a good European library was worth the whole native literature of India and Arabia.”
There are changes to the Constitution of India in 1919, whereby Indians obtained greater control in local and some provincial matters such as health, education, and agriculture.
The Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms’ were reforms introduced by the British Government in India to introduce self-governing institutions gradually to India.
The reforms take their name from Edwin Samuel Montagu, the Secretary of State for India during the latter parts of World War I and Lord Chelmsford.
Due to its result Indians obtained greater control in local and some provincial matters such as health, education, and agriculture, while British administrators still controlled finance and law and order. MSOE 1 Free Solved Assignment
According to the Education Commission 1964-66, the important role of education in the national development and in building up a truly democratic society the government considered it necessary to survey and examine the entire field of education in order to realize a well balanced, integrated and adequate system of national education capable of making a powerful contribution to all aspects of national life.
To achieve these objectives speedily, the Government of India in October 1964, set up an Education Commission under Resolution of July 14, 1964
The Commission in particular was to advise the government on the national pattern of education and on the general policies for the development of education at all stages-ranging from the primary to post-graduate stage and in all its aspects besides examining a host of educational problems in their social and economic context.
The Commission was, however, not to examine legal and medical education.
After independence the Government of India always want to promote the marginalized section of the society. MSOE 1 Free Solved Assignment
The role in higher education, because it is higher and the quality of education does make difference to the country in the long run, must be stopped.
Let us not just look at today and take pride over the outsourcing of our brains; think instead of years from now when the country would need a greater pool of talent performing optimally
Every citizen is entitled to the best possible basic education. Reservation in that domain therefore, might be justified, though the economic criteria should have been preferred over caste-based quota system.
Primary education for all still remains a distant goal since it is not available to everyone despite its provision a fundamental right.
Coming straight to the point and raising the issue of reservations, there are many people who raise their own voices in their own way.
When this system was first raised during the Ambedkar times, the questions that rose were what, how and why. MSOE 1 Free Solved Assignment
Untouchability, the practice of this method was criticized by many. The superiority in power of some castes and the isolation of the lower castes were not digested by many.
This segregation and untouchability was prevalent in Northern India. The backward classes were suppressed and were not even let to raise their voices even in small gatherings.
This really pinched many and it was due to the domination of some of the castes in India that made the drafting committee come to a conclusion and made them include this policy in the Constitution.
This policy led the government to allocate some quota to the people of the backward castes and made them get into the fray, thereby lending a helping hand.
This policy really changed the life of many. This reservation method i people to compete among the castes of their own for any place or berth in the field interested.
Castes include Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, Backward Castes and many more. All these people were truly and very much benefited with this policy as they were able to compete with the fast-changing world. MSOE 1 Free Solved Assignment
Lawyers, Doctors, Inspectors, name any top professions of the country and you find these men who came up in life only with these reservations.
Q. 4. Critically discuss the innovative initiatives towards education at the grass roots with particular reference to the Hoshangabad Science Teaching Programme.
Ans. Distinctions between educating and socializing have been made a number of ways, and the two have also been treated by some people more or less as synonyms.
Usually, the distinctions hold socialization to be the process of preparing someone to be a competent social agent within a particular society, and education to be something in addition to this, which might include being able to reflect critically on one’s particular society or might include a range of more or less refined cultural attainments whose value to the individual might seem clear, but whose value to society at large is less clear.
Underlying most of the distinctions is an implication though it has not perhaps been put so starkly – that anything which may reasonably be called socializing has implicit in it the impulse and tendency to make people more alike, and the contrasting impulse and tendency in education are to make people more distinct. MSOE 1 Free Solved Assignment
Whether one considers the distinction important to make or not seems connected to what one encompasses within one’s idea of society.”
If one’s idea of society is so encompassing that all aspects of all members of society’s lives and their meanings are included within it then education will likely be seen as only a part of a more general socializing process or as a synonym for socialization.
If one’s idea of society includes mainly a set of economic, industrial, legal, political, commercial transactions and a set of relationships determined by them, yet holds distinct a cultural world of knowledge, understanding, and appreciation that provides particular pleasures which transcend the relationships and transactions of particular societies at particular times, then one will likely want to distinguish initiation into “society” by “socialization” and initiation into the cultural realm by “education.”
One may say perhaps that the importance or otherwise of the distinction turns on one’s response to what has been called the “problem of the culture-roundedness of meaning”.
Socializing and educating have been distinguished in a variety of ways, sometimes quite casually and vaguely. MSOE 1 Free Solved Assignment
To try to uncover the main grounds for the distinction it may be useful to begin with the strong distinction suggested above: Socializing activities are those whose aim is to make people more alike; educating aims to make people more distinct.
The first great socializer, then, is learning a language. Those who share a language share a considerable part of their view of the world, which is encoded at a level of presupposition in the terms, distinctions, grammatical structure given in that language.
Teaching people to be functionally literate is, in this form of the distinction, to socialize, in that it teaches conventions which are shared by everyone who aims to communicate by writing.
Teaching to write with style, talk with eloquence, and read with critical awareness is, then, to educate.
Such things stress individual distinctness from the basic conformities which make communication possible; they stress distinctness from the current and conventional forms.
A homogeneity in conventional forms of expression serves social utility; there is less complexity, less ambiguity, less likelihood of misunderstandings and also less richness and diversity. MSOE 1 Free Solved Assignment
Writing with elegance and reading with discrimination is not a matter of social utility. It is, however, a matter of educational importance.
In schools, then, we might expect all activities to have both socializing and educating aspects – the degree of which will vary from activity to activity.
In wood work or metal work, for example, learning to use tools is a matter of socializing. Learning to use them with elegance, with individual style, and seeking there through an aesthetic quality in one’s work above and beyond what utility requires, is an educational matter.
In learning, say, Greek there is a level of learning conventions of letters and basic expression which involve a socialization to that language, but the aim of fluency and subtlety in understanding a different view of life and the world is an educational matter.
Usually, in schools the distinction can be made more easily and clearly.
Those activities which are engaged in so that people can get on more easily in society at large–can get jobs, can fulfil the basic responsibilities of citizenship, parenthood, and so on – will tend to be mainly a matter of socialization. MSOE 1 Free Solved Assignment
Those activities which lead to personal cultivation will tend to be mainly educational. We may also distinguish between educating and socializing activities by the grounds on which we justify their place in the curriculum.
Socializing activities are justified on grounds of social utility, educational activities on the grounds of cultivation of individuals.
Both are worthwhile. The former are worthwhile because they are the homogenizing activities that Durkheim pointed out were necessary to keep a society working the latter are worthwhile for the refined pleasures they provide us individually.
Q. 6. What is multicultural education. Discuss its relevance in contemporary society.
Ans. Multicultural education is an emerging discipline that aims to provide educational opportunities to learners from diverse ethnic, cultural groups and social class.
It seeks to help students acquire skills and positive attitude to negotiate, communicate and interact with individuals from diverse cultures to create a moral and civic community.
There are primarily the following features of the multicultural education:
First, it holds that the public is already cultural. Its business is carried out in English, not French, not German, not Spanish; its institutions are shaped by the traditions of some groups and not others, and its educational and employment benefits are distributed unequally according to factors of ethnicity, race, and social class.
Unlike pluralists, multiculturalists do not envisage even the possibility of a culturally neutral public sphere. MSOE 1 Free Solved Assignment
Their ideal of cultural fairness is not to maintain a wall of separation between culture and public, but to assure that no group dominates the public sphere in a way that serves to exclude from it the bearers of other cultural forms.
Second, whereas pluralism allows cultural identity to flourish, the multicultural ideal encourages it to do so. In other words, benign neglect is not sufficient for the multiculturalism.
Nor is it adequate to exhibit cultural diversity simply to teach lessons about the inclusive and benign character of the American nation that is, as a means to multiculturalism seeks to give expression to the experiences of cultural groups, not from the point of view of some abstraction called the American nation,”
but from the point of view of the members of different racial, and ethnic groups, or from the view of people with different sexual orientations.MSOE 1 Free Solved Assignment
Third, whereas freedom of association and equal opportunity are the dominant principles informing pluralism, affiliation and cultural recognition are the principles that inform multiculturalism.
Multiculturalism views individuals as part of collectivities that provide meaning to their lives, and it seeks ways to support these collectivities.
We also learn this fact that multicultural education is really essential in the society. Following are the points which show the importance of multicultural education in the society:
Some of these long-term benefits are as follows:
1). Multicultural education increases productivity because a variety of mental resources are available for completing the same tasks and it promotes cognitive and moral growth among all people.MSOE 1 Free Solved Assignment
2). Multicultural education increases creative problem-solving skills through the different perspectives applied to same problems to reach solutions.
3). Multicultural education increases positive relationships through achievement of common goals, respect, appreciation and commitment to equality among the intellectuals at institutions of higher education.
4). Multicultural education decreases stereotyping and prejudice through direct contact and inter actions among diverse individuals.
5). Multicultural education renews vitality of society through the richness of the different cultures of its members and fosters development of a broader and more sophisticated view of the world.
Q. 9. Critically examine the policy framework for educational reforms in India.
Ans. Educational Policies: National policies are evolved through a mechanism of extensive consultations, in which all the states and Union Territories actively participate. Periodically, the Central/State Governments appoint commissions and committees to examine various aspects of education.
In addition, countrywide debate takes place on various educational issues. The recommendations of various commissions, committees and national seminars, and the consensus that emerges during these national debates, form the basis for India’s education policies. MSOE 1 Free Solved Assignment
During the post-independence period, a major concern of the Government of India and of the states was education as a factor vital to national development.
In this context, India’s educational reconstruction problems have been periodically reviewed by several commissions and committees.
Their deliberations, recommendations and reports have formed the basis for the 1968 National Policy on Education (NPE) and the National Policy on Education Resolution of 1986.
Some of the essential central legislations having a bearing on the subjects allotted to the Department of Secondary and Higher Education are:
The University Grants Commission Act, 1956: An Act to make provision for the co-ordination and determination of standards in Universities and for that purpose, to establish a University Grants Commission.
The All India Council for Technical Education Act, 1987: An Act to provide for the establishment of an All India Council for Technical Education with a view to the proper planning and coordinated development of the technical education system throughout the country, MSOE 1 Free Solved Assignment
the promotion of qualitative improvement of such education in relation to planned quantitative growth and the regulation and proper maintenance of norms and standards in the technical education system and for matters connected therewith.
The National Council of Teacher Education Act, 1993: This Act is related with teacher education” means programmers of education, research or training of persons for equipping them to teach at pre-primary, primary, secondary and senior secondary stages in schools, and includes non-formal education, part-time education, adult education and correspondence education.
The National Council for Minority Educational Institutions Act, 2004: An Act to constitute a National Commission for Minority Educational Institutions and to provide for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.
The Copyright Act, 1957: An Act to amend and consolidate the law relating to copyright.
The Apprentices Act, 1961: The Apprentices Act, 1961 was enacted to regulate and control the programme of training of apprentices and for matters connected therewith.
The term ‘apprentice means “a person who is undergoing apprenticeship training in pursuance of a contract of apprenticeship”. MSOE 1 Free Solved Assignment
While ‘apprenticeship training means “a course of training in any industry or establishment undergone in pursuance of a contract of apprenticeship and under prescribed terms and conditions which may be different for different categories of apprentices.”
The Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act,1995: An Act to give effect to the Proclamation on the Full Participation and Equality of the People with Disabilities in the Asian and Pacific Region.
Now we will learn about some of the major policies on Education
National Policies on Education :-
Before 1976, education was the exclusive responsibility of the States. The Constitutional Amendment of 1976, which included education in the Concurrent List, was a far-reaching step. MSOE 1 Free Solved Assignment
The substantive, financial and administrative implication required a new sharing of responsibility between the Union Government and the States.
While the role and responsibility of the States in education remained largely unchanged, the Union Government accepted a larger responsibility of reinforcing the national and integrated character of education, maintaining quality and standards including those of the teaching profession at all levels, and the study and monitoring of the educational requirements of the country.
The Central Government continues to play a leading role in the evolution and monitoring of educational policies and programmes, the most notable of which are the National Policy on Education (NPE), 1986 and the Programme of Action (POA), 1986 as updated in 1992.
The modified policy envisages a National System of Education to bring about uniformity in education, making adult education programmes a mass movement, providing universal access, retention and quality in elementary education,
special emphasis on the education of girls, the establishment of pace-setting schools like Navodaya Vidyalayas in each district, rationalization of secondary education, synthesis of knowledge and interdisciplinary research in higher education,
starting more Open Universities in the States, strengthening of the All India Council of Technical Education, encouraging sports, physical education, Yoga and adoption of an effective evaluation method, etc. MSOE 1 Free Solved Assignment
Besides, a decentralized management structure had also been suggested to ensure popular participation in education.
The POA lays down a detailed strategy for the implementation of the various policy parameters by the implementing agencies.
National Policy on Education, 1968 :-
The National Policy of 1968 marked a significant step in the history of education in post-Independence India. It aimed to promote national progress, a sense of common citizenship and culture, and to strengthen national integration.
It laid stress on the need for a radical reconstruction of the education system, to improve its quality at all stages, and gave greater attention to science and technology,
the cultivation of moral values and closer relationship between education and the life of the people. MSOE 1 Free Solved Assignment
Since the adoption of the 1968 policy, there has been considerable expansion in educational facilities all over the country at all levels.
More than 90 per cent of the country’s rural habitations now have schooling facilities within a radius of one kilometre. There has been sizeable augmentation of facilities at other stages also.
Perhaps the most notable development has been the acceptance of a common structure of education throughout the country and the introduction of the 10+2+3 system by most States.
In the school curricula, in addition to laying down a common scheme of studies for boys and girls, science and mathematics were incorporated as compulsory subjects and work experience assigned a place of importance. MSOE 1 Free Solved Assignment
National Policy of Education, 1968 :-
The country has reached a stage in its economic and technical development when a major effort must be made to derive the maximum benefit from the assets already created and to ensure that the fruits of change reach all sections. Education is the highway to that goal.
With this aim in view, the Government of India amounced in January 1985 that a new Education Policy would be formulated for the country.
A comprehensive appraisal of the existing educational scene was made followed by a countrywide debate. The views and suggestions received from different quarters were carefully studied.
Having announced that a new policy was in development in January, 1985, the Government of Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi introduced a new National Policy on Education in May, 1986. MSOE 1 Free Solved Assignment
The new policy called for “special emphasis on the removal of disparities and to equalise educational opportunity, especially for Indian women, Scheduled Tribes (ST) and the Scheduled Caste (SC) communities.
To achieve these, the policy called for expanding scholarships, adult education, recruiting more teachers from the SCs, incentives for poor families to send their children to school regularly, development of new institutions and providing housing and services.
The NPE called for a “child-centered approach” in primary education, and launched “Operation Blackboard” to improve primary schools nationwide.
The policy expanded the open university system with the Indira Gandhi National Open University, which had been created in 1985.
The policy also called for the creation of the “rural university” model, based on the philosophy of Indian leader Mahatma Gandhi, to promote economic and social development at the grassroot level in rural India. MSOE 1 Free Solved Assignment
Programme of Action (POA, 1992) :-
Programme of Action (1992) lays down the objectives and features of Indian education policy. It includes:
• Development of international co-operation and peaceful coexistence through education.
• Promotion of equality. It could be achieved by providing equal access and equal condition of success to children.
• A common educational structure (10+2+3) for the whole of India.
• Education for women’s equality. The Indian education should be used as a tool to change the status of women in the society.
Now we discover that there are some backdrops in NPE, 1986. Let us discuss the policies that emerged following the formulation of NPE, 1986 and POA, 1992.
The Essence and Role of Education —
In our national perception, education is essentially for all. This is fundamental to our all-round development, material and spiritual. MSOE 1 Free Solved Assignment
Education has an acculturating role. It refines sensitivities and perceptions that contribute to national cohesion,
a scientific temper and independence of mind and spirit-thus, furthering the goals of socialism, secularism and democracy enshrined in our Constitution.
Education develops manpower for different levels of the economy. It is also the substrate on which research and development flourish, being the ultimate guarantee of national self-reliance.
In sum, education is a unique investment in the present and the future. This cardinal principle is the key to the National Policy on Education.
The National System of Education —
The concept of a National System of Education implies that, up to a given level, all students, irrespective of caste, creed, location or sex, have access to education of a comparable quality.
To achieve this, the Government will initiate appropriately funded programmes. Effective measures will be taken in the direction of the Common School System recommended in the 1968 Policy. MSOE 1 Free Solved Assignment
The National System of Education will be based on a national curricular framework which contains a common core along with other components that are flexible.
The common core will include the history of India’s freedom movement, the constitutional obligations and other content essential to nurture national identity.
These elements will cut across subject areas and will be designed to promote values such as India’s common cultural heritage, egalitarianism, democracy and secularism, equality of the sexes, protection of the environment, removal of social barriers, and observance of the small family norm and inculcation of the scientific temper.
All educational programmes will be carried on in strict conformity with secular values.
Education for Equality —
The new policy will lay special emphasis on the removal of disparities and to equalise educational opportunity by attending to the specific needs of those who have been denied equality so far.MSOE 1 Free Solved Assignment
Under this Act education will be used as an agent of basic change in the status of woman. In order to neutralize the accumulated distortions of the past, there will be a well-conceived edge in favour of women.
The National Education System will play a positive, interventionist role in the empowerment of women.
It will foster the development of new values through redesigned curricula, textbooks, the training and orientation of teachers, decision-makers and administrators, and the active involvement of educational institutions.
This will be an act of faith and social engineering.
Women’s studies will be promoted as a part of various courses and educational institutions encouraged to take up active programmes to further women’s development.
Reorganization of Education at Different Stages —
Early Childhood Care and Education: The National Policy on Children specially emphasises investment in the development of the young child, particularly children from sections of the population in which first-generation learners predominate.
Recognizing the holistic nature of child development, viz., nutrition, health and social, mental, physical, moral and emotional development. MSOE 1 Free Solved Assignment
Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) will receive high priority and be suitably integrated with the Integrated Child Development Services programme, wherever possible.
Day-care centres will be provided as a support service for universalisation of primary education, to enable girls engaged in taking care of siblings to attend school and as a support service for working women belonging to poorer sections.
Elementary Education: The new thrust in elementary education will emphasise three aspects
(i) universal access and enrolment,
(ii) universal retention of children upto 14 years of age; and
(iii) a substantial improvement in the quality of education to enable all children to achieve essential levels of learning.
Non-Formal Education: The Non-Formal Education Programme, meant for school dropouts, for children from habitations without schools, working children and girls who cannot attend whole-day schools, will be strengthened and enlarged.
Modern technological aids will be used to improve the learning environment of NFE centres.
Talented and dedicated young men and women from the local community will be chosen to serve as instructors, and particular attention paid to their training.
All necessary measures will be taken to ensure that the quality of non-formal education is comparable with the formal education. MSOE 1 Free Solved Assignment
Steps will be taken to facilitate lateral entry into the formal system of children passing out of the non-formal system.
A Resolve: The New Education Policy will give the highest priority to solving the problem of children dropping out of school and will adopt an array of meticulously formulated strategies based on micro-planing and applied at the grass root level all over the country, to ensure children’s retention at school.
This effort will be fully coordinated with the network of non-formal education. It shall be ensured that free and compulsory education of satisfactory quality is provided to all children upto 14 years of age before we enter the 21st century.
A national mission will be launched for the achievement of this goal.
Secondary Education: Secondary education begins to expose students to the differentiated roles of science, the humanities and social sciences.
This is also an appropriate stage to provide children with a sense of history and national perspective and give them opportunities to understand their constitutional duties and rights as citizens.
Access to secondary education will be widened with emphasis on enrollment of girls, SCs and STs, particularly in science, commerce and vocational streams.
Boards of Secondary Education will be reorganized and vested with autonomy so that their ability to improve the quality of secondary education is enhanced.
Effort will be made to provide computer literacy in as many secondary level institutions as possible so that the children are equipped with necessary computer skills to be effective in the emerging technological world.MSOE 1 Free Solved Assignment
A proper understanding of the work ethos and of the values of a humane and composite culture will be brought about through appropriately formulated curricula.
Vocationalization through specialized institutions or through the refashioning of secondary education will, at this stage, provide valuable manpower for economic growth.
Pace-Setting Schools: Pace-setting residential schools, Navodaya Vidyalayas, intended to serve this purpose have been established in most parts of the country on a given pattern, but with full scope for innovation and experimentation.
Their broad aim will continue to be to serve the objective of excellence coupled with equity and social justice (with reservation for the rural areas, SCs and STs),
to promote national integration by providing opportunities to talented children from different parts of the country, to live and learn together, to develop their full potential, and, most importantly, to become catalysts of a nation-wide programme of school improvement.
Vocationalization: The introduction of systematic, well planned and rigorously implemented programmes of vocational education is crucial in the proposed educational reorganization.MSOE 1 Free Solved Assignment
These elements are meant to develop a healthy attitude amongst students towards work and life, to enhance individual employability, to reduce the mismatch between the demand and supply of skilled manpower, and to provide an alternative for those intending to pursue higher education without particular interest or purpose.
Efforts will be made to provide children at the higher secondary level with generic vocational courses which cut-across several occupational fields and which are not occupation specific.
Vocational education will also be a distinct stream, intended to prepare students for identified occupations spanning several areas of activity.
These courses will ordinarily be provided after the secondary stage, but keeping the scheme flexible, they may also be made available after Class VIII.
Higher Education: Higher education provides people with an opportunity to reflect on the critical social, economic, cultural, moral and spiritual issues facing humanity.
It contributes to national development through dissemination of specialized knowledge and skills du is therefore a crucial factor for survival.
Being at the apex of the educational pyramid, it has also a key role in producing teachers for the education system.MSOE 1 Free Solved Assignment
Open University and Distance Learning: The open learning system has been initiated in order to augment opportunities for higher education, as an instrument of democratizing education and to make it a life-long process.
The flexibility and innovativeness of the open learning system are particularly suited to the diverse requirements of the citizens of our country, including those who had joined the vocational stream.
Delinking Degrees from Jobs: A beginning will be made in delinking degrees from jobs in selected areas. The proposal cannot be applied to occupation-specific courses like Engineering, Medicine, Law, Teaching, etc.
Similarly, the services of specialists with academic qualifications in the humanities, social sciences, sciences, etc. will continue to be required in various job positions.
Delinking will be applied in services for which a university degree need not be a necessary qualification.MSOE 1 Free Solved Assignment
Its implementation will lead to a re-fashioning of job-specific courses and afford greater justice to those candidates who, despite being equipped for a given job, are unable to get it because of an unnecessary preference for graduate candidates.
Rural University: The new pattern of the Rural University will be consolidated and developed on the lines of Mahatma Gandhi’s revolutionary ideas on education so as to take up the challenges of micro-planning at grassroots levels for the transformation of rural areas. Institutions and programmes of Gandhian basic education will be supported.
Technical and Management Education: Although the two streams of technical and management education are functioning separately, it is essential to look at them together, in view of their close relationship and complementary concerns.
The reorganization of Technical and Management Education should take into account the anticipated scenario by the turn of the century, with specific reference to the likely changes in the economy, social environment, production and management processes, the rapid expansion of knowledge and the great advances in Science and Technology.
In order to increase the relevance of management education, particularly in the non-corporate and under-managed sectors, the management education system will study and document the Indian experience and create a body of knowledge and specific educational programmes suited to these sectors.MSOE 1 Free Solved Assignment
Making the System Work: It is obvious that these and many other new tasks of education cannot be performed in a state of disorder.
Education needs to be managed in an atmosphere of utmost intellectual rigour, seriousness of purpose and, at the same time, of freedom essential for innovation and creativity.
While far-reaching changes will have to be incorporated in the quality and range of education, the process of introducing discipline into the system will have to be started, here and now, in what exists.
The country has placed boundless trust in the educational system. The people have a right to expect concrete results. The first task is to make it work. All teachers should teach and all students study.
Reorienting the Content and Process of Education
This involved the following —MSOE 1 Free Solved Assignment
The Cultural Perspective: The existing schism between the formal system of education and the country’s rich and varied cultural traditions need to be bridged.
The preoccupation with modern technologies cannot be allowed to sever our new generations from the roots in India’s history and culture.
Deculturisation, dehumanisation and alienation must be avoided at all costs. Education can and must bring about the fine synthesis between changeoriented technologies and the country’s continuity of cultural tradition.
The curricula and processes of education will be enriched by cultural content in as many, manifestations as possible. Children will be enabled to develop sensitivity to beauty, harmony and refinement.
Resource persons in the community, irrespective of their formal educational qualifications, will be invited to contribute to the cultural enrichment of education, employing both the literate and oral traditions of communication.
To sustain and carry forward the cultural tradition, the role of old masters, who train pupils through traditional modes will be supported and recognized.
Value Education: The growing concern over the erosion of essential values and an increasing cynicism in society has brought to focus the need for readjustments in the curriculum in order to make education a forceful tool for the cultivation of social and moral values.MSOE 1 Free Solved Assignment
In our culturally plural society, education should foster universal and eternal values, oriented towards the unity and integration of our people.
Such value education should help eliminate obscurantism, religious fanaticism, violence, superstition and fatalism.
Apart from this combative role, value education has a profound positive content, based on our heritage, national and universal goals and perceptions. It should lay primary emphasis on this aspect.
The Evaluation Process and Examination Reform: Assessment of performance is an integral part of any process of learning and teaching.
As part of sound educational strategy, examinations should be employed to bring about qualitative improvements in education.MSOE 1 Free Solved Assignment
The objective will be to recast the examination system so as to ensure a method of assessment that is a valid and reliable measure of student development and a powerful instrument for improving teaching and learning: in functional terms, this would mean.
• The elimination of excessive element of chance and subjectivity:
• The deemphasis of memorization;
• Continuous and comprehensive evaluation that incorporates both scholastic and non-scholastic aspects of education, spread over the total span of instructional time;
• Effective use of the evaluation process by teachers, students and parents;
• Improvement in the conduct of examination;
• The introduction of concomitant changes in instructional materials and methodology;
• Instruction of the semester system from the secondary stage in a phased manner;
•T he use of grades in place of marks. MSOE 1 Free Solved Assignment
Policies were also developed on many other issues; like books, languages, media, yoga, role of youth and science teaching
The Teacher :–
The status of the teacher reflects the socio-cultural ethos of a society; it is said that no people can rise above the level of its teachers.
The government and the community should endeavour to create conditions, which will help, motivate and inspire teachers on constructive and creative lines.
Teachers should have the freedom to innovate, to devise appropriate methods of communication and activities relevant to the needs and capabilities of and the concerns of the community.
The methods of recruiting teachers will be reorganized to ensure merit, objectivity and conformity with spatial and functional requirements.
The pay and service conditions of teachers have to be commensurate with their social and professional responsibilities and with the need to attract talent to the profession.
Efforts will be made to reach the desirable objective of uniform emoluments, service conditions and grievance removal mechanisms for teachers throughout the country.
Guidelines will be formulated to ensure objectivity in the postings and transfers of teachers. A system of teacher’s evaluation-open, participative and data-based-will be created and reasonable opportunities of promotion to higher grades provided.
Norms of accountability will be laid down with incentives for good performance and disincentives for non-performance. MSOE 1 Free Solved Assignment
Teachers will continue to play a crucial role in the formulation and implementation of educational programmes.
Teacher Education :–
Teacher education is a continuous process, and its pre-service and in-service components are inseparable. As the first step, the system of teacher education will be overhauled.
The new programmes of teacher-education will emphasize continuing education and the need for teachers to meet the thrusts envisaged in this policy.
The Management of Education :–
An overhaul of the system of planning and the management of education will receive high priority. The guiding considerations will be
• Evolving a long-term planning and management perspective of education and its integration with the country’s developmental and manpower needs;
• Decentralization and the creation of a spirit of autonomy for educational institutions;
• Giving pre-eminence to people’s involvement, including association of non-governmental agencies and voluntary effort; MSOE 1 Free Solved Assignment
• Inducting more women in the planning and management of education;
• Establishing the principle of accountability in relation to given objectives and norms.
Resources :- Resources were raised by to the extent possible by mobilizing funds from the community. They have to maintain school building and supplies of some consumables.
Review :- Implementation of the various parameters of the new policy must be reviewed every five years. Appraisals at short intervals will also be made to ascertain the progress of implementation.
The Future :- The future shape of education in India is too complex to envision with precision.
Yet, given our tradition, which has almost always put high premium on intellectual and spiritual attainment, we are bound to succeed in achieving our objectives.
The main task is to strengthen the base of the pyramid, which might come close to a billion people at the turn of the century. Equally, it is important to ensure that those at the top of the pyramid are among the best in the world.
Our cultural well springs had taken good care of both ends in the past; the skew set in with foreign domination and influence.
It should now be possible to further intensify the nation-wide effort in Human Resource Development,with education playing its multifaceted role.
The policy-planning process in education an applied framework, is a superb introduction to the policy-making process for both experienced and new planners (as well as scholars, researchers, and other administrators who will benefit from the volume’s lucid presentation).
As defined, policy represents decisions that are designed to guide (including to constrain future decisions or to initiate and guide the implementation of previous decisions.
It is this time-bound nature of policy, and of policy making, that makes it such a critical concern for the educational planner.
To a large extent, it is the planners’ decisions that will be guided or constrained and it is the planners who will have to follow the implementation guidelines established by policy.
For too long, planners have played a passive role in the policy-making process and have taken as given the set of delimitations imposed on them.
There is an urgent need for planners to play a larger role in policy-making, not as arbiters of policy decisions, but as partners in the policy-making process who can alert the decision-makers, political or administrative, to the costs and benefits (quantitative and qualitative) of alternative policy options.
The actor in policy-making is placed on the horizontal axis at one end of the spectrum is the societal personalistic mode, wherein decisions are reached by negotiation among a variety of interest groups (including government ministries, teachers’ unions, etc.),
driven by their own conception of the problem and individual values. On the other end is the organizational/bureaucratic mode wherein decisions are made within the organizational entity (i.e.. the military, the international community, etc.).
The process of policy making-from the incremental to the synoptic approach is placed on the vertical axis. These two dimensions generate a new topography.
Q. 10. Discuss the major challenges to higher education in India.
Ans. Major Issues: The higher education system in India has grown in a remarkable way, particularly in the post-independence period, to become one of the largest systems of its kind in the world. MSOE 1 Free Solved Assignment
However, the system has many issues of concern at present, like financing and management including access, equity and relevance, reorientation of programmes by laying emphasis on health consciousness,
values and ethics and quality of higher education together with the assessment of institutions and their accreditation.
These issues are important for the country, as it is now engaged in the use of higher education as a powerful tool to build a knowledge-based information society of the 21st century.
India aims to emerge as a knowledge superpower in the world. The goal is still far away even though it has made giant strides in the Information Technology (IT) sector.
It has emerged as an attractive outsourcing destination for knowledge-based goods and services in the world, but the skill-shortage and non-availability of quality manpower still remain a challenge.
All the regulatory systems have failed to maintain standards in higher education.
The expansion has largely been chaotic and unplanned and has mostly taken place in the realm of private sector and the quality of education provided by them has always remained questionable.
The reasons for the current situation are manifold. First of all is the non-existence of uniformity in curriculum and also a common examination system.
Secondly, the curriculum largely focuses on the theoretical aspects of a subject instead of equipping the students with sound practical knowledge.
There is also a lack of required funds to create and maintain the infrastructure required to impart quality education.
Due to the market forces taking away most of the talented graduates every year, there is an increasing gap between the demand and supply for quality teaching staff and research professionals.
Relevance and Quality :-
A number of measures have been taken for quality improvement. These include the development of infrastructure, curriculum, human resources and research and establishment of centres of excellence and interdisciplinary and inter institutional centres.
The scheme of academic staff colleges was started in 1986-87, under which 45 such colleges have been set-up.
These colleges conduct-orientation programmes for training new teachers and also refresher courses in various disciplines for in-service teachers to enable them to update their knowledge.
To enrich the quality of higher education, a country-wide classroom programme was launched.
Under this scheme, special films on various subjects are prepared and telecast for the benefit of students and teachers.
Twenty-one centres have been set up to produce special films, and a large number of video tapes are being produced for transmission on the national TV network. Access and Equity
Today the world economy is experiencing an unprecedented change.
New developments in science and technology, media revaluation and inter nationalization of education and the ever-expanding competitive environment are revolutionizing the education scene.
A paradigm shift has been noticed in higher education now-a-days, from national education’ to ‘global education’, from one time education for a few’ to ‘life-long education for all’, from ‘teachercentric education’ to ‘learner-centric education.
These changes make new demands and pose fresh challenges to the established education systems and practices in the country.
Because of interdependence and integration of world economy in recent years, the Indian higher education system has a new role and a challenge to provide to the nation and the world at large, skilled human power at all levels, having breadth of knowledge and confidence to effectively confront the social and economic realities.
It is worth noting that while India has the second largest system of higher education, next only to USA, the total number of students hardly represent 6 per cent of the relevant age group, i.e. 18-23,
which is much below the average of developed countries, which is about 47%. Thus, access, equity, accountability and quality should form the four guiding principles, while planning for higher education development in India in the 21st century.
Resources in Higher Education ––
Higher education in India is in deep financial strain, with escalating costs and increasing needs, on the one hand, and shrinking budgetary resources, on the other.
The share of higher education in total planned resources increased from 0.71% in the first Five Year Plan to 1.24 per cent in the fourth Five Year Plan.
But ever since, it has declined continuously to 0.53% in the seventh Five Year Plan and further down to 0.35% in the eighth Five Year Plan (199297),
though the actual expenditure has increased by more than 100 times from Rs. 140 million in the first Five Year Plan to Rs. 15.000 million in the eighth Five Year Plan at current prices, and 6.5 times in terms of real prices.
Thus, although higher education in India is characterized by massive public investment, this investment is still regarded as much below the optimum.
Recently, major efforts have been mounted for mobilization of resources and it has been recommended that while the government should make a firm commitment to higher education, institutions of higher education should make efforts to raise their own resources by raising the fee levels, encouraging private donations and by generating revenues through consultancy and other activities.
A suggestion has also been mooted for levying an educational cess. It is clearly seen that if higher education has to be maintained and developed further,
the government will have to step up measures for encouraging self-reliance while providing a much more massive investment than hitherto.
EMERGING CHALLENGES AND SEARCH FOR ALTERNATIVES
The alternatives for facing the major issues related to higher education are listed below:
Worldwide, universities continue to play a very vital and critical role in the development and evolution of societies.
Universities educate young minds and create aware and dynamic citizens. But much more than this, universities generate new ideas and encourage innovation.
A vibrant democracy like ours, wedded to the ideas of pluralism, secularism and inclusion must have universities, which not only cherish these values but also actively promote and nurture them.
Currently, higher education is drawing tremendous attention in both developing and developed countries.
In the developed countries the emphasis is on maintaining their edge in innovation and generation of knowledge.
To maintain their competitive superiority, the developed countries are investing heavily in R&D both in the private as well as the public sector.
It is worth noting that even a country like the USA, which remains the leader in Science and Technology, is investing substantially in science education at all levels to encourage its younger generation to take to science as a career so that it can maintain its leading position.
These countries with their wealth of resources will also continue to attract the best talent from all over the world to their universities and industry to maintain their competitive edge.
This one-way flow of the developing to the developed countries will only increase in the future due to the ageing demography of western societies.
At this point it is desirable to explicate the reasons why we believe that substantial public investments of the kind outlined below are urgently necessary.
At our present stage of growth, where there is increasing international pressure for knowledge based, value-added development of major areas like pharmaceuticals, drugs, biotechnology, nanoscience/technology, healthcare, genetics, information/computer technology etc., it is clear that both in terms of numbers and quality,
a vast expansion and intensification of higher level education embedded in research is essential.
This situation is different from the felt need for expansion in professional education and training, which has indeed been met in many ways during the past decade or two.
The first non-professional degree (viz. B.Sc.) by itself is, unlike professional degrees, of not much value or societal attractiveness unless it is of educationally good quality, obtained in a lively research environment, and is supplemented by a professional edge (e.g., additional skill building that adds to employability) or research experience.
We make several suggestions about how to achieve these. Of the large number of such people with a first degree, a small fraction (typically a sixth) goes on to higher degree or research; the remainder,
if well trained, add to the knowledge economy in a wide variety of ways.
Given the large numbers, their less defined employability and the long gestation period, it is universal practice to have massive public investments for ensuring their quality so that they effectively contribute to a knowledge economy.
Our country has, however, invested much less by international standards. Following the first wave af ration-building the more recent investments have been largely concentrated on relatively small, specialized and primarily research-oriented institutions.
At this stage, we need a second wave of nation-building.
If we embark on this fully, not only will there be a large number of skilled, well-trained, capable, flexible scientific knowledge workers needed both by our economy and by the world, but there will also be a remarkable flowering of research and development).
We must seize this opportunity since otherwise, in the intensely competitive, globalized environment of today: we will at best be spectators, perhaps victims, but not participants.
Emergence of Open and Distance Education :—
The history of distance learning or education through distance mode in India, goes way back when the universities started offering education through distance mode in the name of Correspondence Courses through their Directorate School of Correspondence Education.
In those days, the courses in humanities and/or in commerce were offered through correspondence and taken by those, who, owing to various reasons,
including limited number of seats in regular courses, employability, problems of access to the institutions of higher learning etc., could not get themselves enrolled in the conventional face-to-face mode ‘in-class’ programmes.
In the recent past, the demand for higher education has increased enormously throughout the country because of awareness about the significance of higher education,
whereas the system of higher education could not accommodate this ever increasing demand.
Under the circumstances, a number of institutions including deemed universities, private universities, public (government) universities and even other institutions,
which are not empowered to award degrees, have started cashing on the situation by offering distance education programmes in a large number of disciplines, ranging from humanities to engineering and management etc., and at different levels (certificate to under graduate and postgraduate degrees).
There is always a danger that some of these institutions may become ‘degree mills’ offering substandard/poor quality education, consequently eroding the credibility of degrees and other qualifications awarded through the distance mode.
This calls for a far higher degree of co-ordination among the concerned statutory authorities, primarily, UGC, AICTE and IGNOU and its authority, the Distance Education Council (DEC).
Distance mode of education has an important role for:
(i) Providing opportunity of learning to those who do not have direct access to face-to-face teaching, working persons, housewives etc.
(ii) Providing opportunity to working professionals to update their knowledge, enabling them to switchover to new disciplines and professions and enhancing their qualifications for career advancement.
(iii) Exploiting the potential of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the teaching and learning process; andMSOE 1 Free Solved Assignment
(iv) Achieving the target of 15% of GER by the end of 11th Plan and 20% by the end of 12th Five Year Plan.
In order to discharge the constitutional responsibility of determination and maintenance of the standards in Higher Education, by ensuring coordination among various statutory regulatory authorities as also to ensure the promotion of open and distance education system in the country to meet the aspirations of all cross-sections of people for higher education, the following policy in respect of distance learning is laid down:
In order to ensure proper co-ordination in regulation of standards of higher education in different disciplines through various modes (i.e., face-to-face and distance) as also to ensure credibility of degrees/diploma and certificates awarded by Indian Universities and other Education Institutes, an apex body, namely,MSOE 1 Free Solved Assignment
National Commission for Higher Education and Research shall be established in line with the recommendations of Prof. Yash Pal Committee National Knowledge Commission.
A Standing Committee on Open and Distance Education of the said Commission, shall undertake the job of co-ordination, determination and maintenance of standards of education through the distance mode. Pending establishment of this body:
(i) Only those programmes, which do not involve extensive practical course work, shall be permissible through the distance mode.
(ii) Universities/institutions shall frame ordinances/regulations/rules, as the case may be, spelling out the outline of the programmes to be offered through the distance mode indicating the number of required credits,
list of courses with assigned credits, reading references in addition to self-learning material, hours of study, contact classes at study centres, assignments, examination and evaluation process, grading etc. MSOE 1 Free Solved Assignment
(iii) DEC of IGNOU shall only assess the competence of university/institute in respect of conducting distance education programmes by a team of experts, whose report shall be placed before the Council of DEC for consideration.
(iv) The approval shall be given only after consideration by Council of DEC and not by Chairperson, DEC. For the purpose, minimum number of mandatory meetings of DEC may be prescribed.
(V) AICTE would be directed under section 20 (1) of AICTE Act, 1987 to ensure accreditation of the programmes in Computer Sciences,
Information Technology and Management purposed to be offered by an institute/ university through the distance mode, by National Board of Accreditation (NBA).
(vi) UGC and AICTE would be directed under Section 20(1) of their respective Acts to frame detailed regulations prescribing standards for various programmes/courses, offered through the distance mode under their mandate,MSOE 1 Free Solved Assignment
(vii) No university/institute, except the universities established by or under an Act of Parliament/State Legislature before 1985, shall offer any programme through the distance mode, henceforth, without approval from DEC and accreditation by NBA.
However, the universities/institutions already offering programmes in Humanities, Commerce/Business/Social Sciences/Computer Sciences and Information Technology and Manage-ment, may be allowed to continue, subject to the condition to obtain fresh approval from DEC and accreditation from NBA within one year.MSOE 1 Free Solved Assignment
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