IGNOU MSO 04 Free Solved Assignment 2022- Helpfirst

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Sociology in India

MSO 04 Free Solved Assignment

MSO 04 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022

Q 2 Describe the emergence of sociology as a discipline in India.

ANS : – The origin of sociology and social anthropology in India can be traced to the days when the British officials realized the need to understand the native society and its culture in the interest of smooth administration.

However, it was only during the twenties of the last century that steps were taken to introduce sociology and social anthropology as academic disciplines in Indian universities.

The popularity that these subjects enjoy today and their professionalization is, however, a post-independence phenomenon.

Attempts have been made by scholars from time to time to outline the historical developments, to highlight the salient trends and to identify the crucial problems of these subjects.

Sociology and social/cultural anthropology are cognate disciplines and are in fact indissoluble. MSO 04 Free Solved Assignment

However, the two disciplines have existed and functioned in a compartmentalized manner in the European continent as well as in the
United States.

This separation bears the indelible impress of western colonialism and Euro-centrism,

According to Srinivas and Panini (1973: 181), the growth of the two disciplines in India falls into three phases:

The first, covering the period between 1773-1900 AD, when their foundations were laid;

The second, 1901-1950 AD, when they become professionalized; and finally, the post-independence years, when a complex of forces, including the undertaking of planned development by the government, the increased exposure of Indian scholars to the work of their foreign colleagues, and the availability of funds, resulted in considerable research activity.

Here, three major phases in the introspection in sociology, which have been
discussed by Rege (1997) in her thematic paper on ‘Sociology in PostIndependent India’, may also be mentioned.

Phase one is characterized by the interrogations of the colonial impact on the discipline and nationalist responses to the same, phase second is marked by explorations into the initiative nature of the theoretical paradigms of the discipline and debates on strategies of indigenization.

Sociology in the Pre-Independence Period: MSO 04 Free Solved Assignment

As is clear by now that sociology had its formal beginning in 1917 at Calcutta University owing to the active interest and efforts of B.N. Seal. Later on, the subject was handled by Radhakamal Mukerjee and B.N. Sarkar.

However, sociology could not make any headway in its birthplace at Calcutta. The Department of Sociology was established in 1919 with Patrick Geddes at the helm of affair. He was joined by G.S. Ghurye and N.A. Toothi.

This was indeed a concrete step in the growth of sociology in India. Another centre of influence in sociological theory and research was at Lucknow that it introduced sociology in the Department of Economics and Sociology in 1921 with Radhakamal Mukerjee as its head.

Later, he was ably assisted by D.P. Mukerji and D.N. Majumdar. In South India, sociology made its appearance at Mysore University by the efforts of B.N. Seal and A.F. Wadia in 1928.

In the same year sociology was introduced in Osmania University at the undergraduate level. Jafar Hasan joined the department after he completed his training in Germany.

Sociology in the Post-Independence Period:

The next phase, as mentioned by Lakshmanna (1974: 45), in the growth of the subject, corresponds to the period between the attainment of independence and the acceptance of the regional language as the medium of instruction in most states of the country.

Towards the end of this period, we also witnessed the interest on the part of the Central Government to promote social science research through a formal organization established for the purpose. MSO 04 Free Solved Assignment

This phase alone experienced tremendous amount of interaction within the profession as two parallel organizations started functioning for the promotion of the profession. In Bombay, Indian Sociological Society was established and

Sociological Bulletin was issued as the official organ of the society. This helped to a large extent in creating a forum for publication of sociological literature.
First, sociology achieved greater academic status.

Not only many more universities and colleges began to teach at the postgraduate and graduate levels but the discipline itself became more focused in theoretical orientation and highly diversified in its specialization.

Secondly, sociology established its identity as discipline by separating itself from psychology, anthropology, social philosophy and social work.

Although, in some universities, still social pathology and social psychology are taught as a part of sociology courses.

In many others, a highly diversified curriculum structure in proper sociology exists including such specialization as rural and urban sociology, sociology of kinship, sociology of religion, 16 sociology of stratification, sociology of education, political sociology, medical sociology, social demography and sociology of economic development.

Thirdly, diversification followed the lines of extension of sociological approach to different areas of social life. MSO 04 Free Solved Assignment

It was related to the growing needs of development in independent India. Colonial legacy became a thing of the past and democratic processes were introduced at all levels. Developments in the Seyenties:

There have been a few reviews of developments in sociology and social anthropology since earlier times till 1970s and onwards (see, for example, the collection of essays in Unnithan, Singh et al., 1965; ICSSR, 1971, 1974, 1985; Rao, 1974; Mukherjee, 1977; Mukherjee, 1979; Singh, 1986; UGC, 1978, 1979, 1982; Lele, 1981; Oommen and Mukherjee, 1986; Dhanagare, 1993; Singhi, 1996) Of these, Ram Krishan Mukherjee’s review has been more exhaustive and substantial for the discipline as a whole.

MSO 04 Free Solved Assignment
MSO 04 Free Solved Assignment

The ICSSR trend reports covered in detail the developments in each of specializations. Rao (1982: 16-23) reviewed the developments in the seventies under three heads:

(i) areas of the interests and specialization which got crystallized;

(ii)areas of interest which has developed but not got crystallized; and

(iii) emergence of new approaches in the established areas.

Q 5 Describe the agrarian class structure in rural India.

ANS: With this background of agrarian structure, let us now analyse agrarian relations. The relations may be classified as

(a) those which are defined and enforced by law,

(b) which are customary, and

(c) which are of fluctuating character. Daniel Thorner rejected the often described classification of cultivators in rural areas in three categories: landlords, tenants, and labourers. MSO 04 Free Solved Assignment

If we analyze class structure in rural India in the post-independence period, we find four classes: the three classes in the agricultural field are of land owners, tenants, and labourers, while the fourth class is of non-agriculturists According to A.R. Desai (1959),

landowners constitute about 22 per cent, 7119 tenants about 27 per cent, agricultural labourers about 31 per cent and nonagriculturalists about 20 per cent.

A large majority of the cultivators (60%) are marginal cultivators with less than 2 hectares land, followed by small cultivators (16%) with 2 to 5 hectares land, medium cultivators (6%) with 5 to 10 hectares land, and big cultivators (18%) with more than 10 hectares land.

The available land per family in villages is less than one acre (or 0.4 ha). About 75 per cent of the total sown area is under food crops. About 35 per cent of the total produce is sold by cultivators.

In about 65 per cent of these sale transactions, commodities are sold to the trader in the village itself.

The marketing of agricultural produce in the mandis (markets) is largely in the hands of intermediaries who represent private interests and who control both credit as well as disposal of the produce. MSO 04 Free Solved Assignment

Thus, a large number of agrarian proletariat, a large number of uneconomic holders of land, and a small number of artisans and self-employed people in villages reveal a miserable economic life lived by these people.

With this background of agrarian structure, let us now analyse agrarian relations. The relations may be classified as

(a) those which are defined and enforced by law,

(b) which are customary, and

(c) which are of fluctuating character. Daniel Thorner rejected the often-described classification of cultivators in rural areas in three categories: landlords, tenants, and labourers.

This was on the ground that one and the same man can belong simultaneously to all three of these categories.

A person can himself cultivate a few acres of land he owns, give some land on rent, and in emergeney may work on other’s field as labourer.

He has analysed agrarian relations by using three specific terms: Malik for agricultural landlords, Kisan for working peasants (including tenants), and Mazdoor for agricultural labourers.

The Malik derives his agricultural income primarily (although not necessarily solely) from property rights in the soil, i.e., from a share of the produce of lands possessed by him.

The share is realised in cash as well as in kind (percentage of produce). He may give his land either to tenant(s) or may cultivate it by hiring labourers.

He may manage the hired labourers himself or through a manager. The Malik may also have subsidiary income from business, profession, etc.

The Maliks are of two types: those who are absentee landlords and those who reside in the village in which they own land Kisans are the working peasants, who may be small landowners or tenants the difference between the Malik and the small Kisan is the size of the land held.

The Kisan himself and one or more members of his family actually perform the field labour. Sometimes the income of the Kisan is so low that he himself or his family members(s) work as agricultural labourers. MSO 04 Free Solved Assignment

Mazdoors are those landless villagers who earn their livelihood primarily from working on other people’s land.

They receive wages in cash and sometimes in kind also.

When they are not able to find work in villages, they migrate to other states either for working as agricultural labourers (as Biharis migrating to Punjab) or as construction or industrial labourers.

While Daniel Thorner has analysed agrarian social structure in terms of three classes on the basis of three criteria, viz.,

(a) Income obtained from the soil (i.e., rent, own cultivation, or wages),

(b) The nature of rights (i.e., ownership, tenancy, sharecropping and norights
at all), and

(c) The extent of fieldwork actually performed (i.e., doing no work,
doingpartial work, doing total work, and doing work for others).

D.N. Dhanagre (in Desai, 1983) has suggested a different model of agrarian
classes.

He has proposed five classes: landlords, who derive income primarily from land- ownership by collecting rent from tenants, sub-tenants and share croppers; rich peasants, i.e.,

small landowners with sufficient land to support the family and who cultivate land themselves, and rich tenants who have substantial holdings and have to pay a nominal rent to their landlords; middle peasants, i.e.,

landowners of medium size holdings and tenants with substantial holdings and paying higher rent; poor peasants, i.e., MSO 04 Free Solved Assignment

(a) Land-owners with holdings insufficient to maintain a family, and therefore
forced to rent others’ land,

(b) Tenants with small holdings,

(c) Sharecroppers, and

(d) Landless labourers.

The rich peasants and the trader moneylenders exploit the poor tenants and the landless labourers so much that relations between them are always sour. The former two classes wield considerable economic, social, and political power.

The emergence of cooperative and credit societies in the villages have no doubt affected the power of the Maliks, yet they continue to be strong.

Two things are to be noted here: one, cooperative societies have not been much successful in villages, and two, private trader continues to operate successfully. People with vested interests want to maintain the status quo.

Even land reforms have not reduced the power of Maliks and moneylenders.

Unless economic, social and political progress takes place in the countryside, unless a movement is born which leads to more even distribution of productive resources, greater economic strength on the part of the smaller units leading to ability to withstand pressures from either the top cultivators’ strata or the moneylender trader classes, no great success can be achieved in improving class relations.

The problems of landless agricultural labourers are more economic than social.

We do not deny that their place in the social structure is of great importance but we hold that the problem of employment opportunities to them, and the problem of their wages are more crucial. MSO 04 Free Solved Assignment

Employment opportunity is related to the growth of agricultural economy and incentives to artisans in the villages.

In the Agricultural Labour Enquiry, an agricultural labourer was described as a person who worked as an agricultural labourer for more than one-half of the total number of days on which he actually worked during the year.

On the basis of this definition, about 30 per cent workers were identified as agricultural labourers, one-half of them being without land and the rest being in possession of a little land (say one bigha or so).

As many as 85 per cent of agricultural labourers get only casual work during times of harvesting, weeding, preparation of soil, and ploughing. Today, the S average wage of an agricultural labourer varies from Rs. 30 to Rs. 60 per day.

The extent of employment varies under different conditions in various parts of the country, the average being about 200 days.

Thus, there is work for wages for about six months in a year, total unemployment for rather more than three months, and some kind of self employment for less than three months.

In this way, their (agricultural labourers) average income is hardly about Rs. 10,000 a year. They, thus, live below the poverty line.

The Agricultural Labour Enquiry was concerned primarily with certain economic aspects but the social disabilities and low social position of the bulk of agricultural labourers are in themselves no small part of the problem. The vast majority belong to SCs, STs, and OBCs.

Some of their social handicaps might have diminished because of the 110 government’s discriminatory and reservation policies, yet their economic and social status has not much improved. They are not considered a part of social life in a village.

Q 8 What is social differentiation and how does social differentiation take place amongst the tribes in India.

ANS: social differentiation the process whereby an institutional activity becomes divided and more specialized in two or more separate institutional activities.

Differentiation is a term derived from biology to describe the specialization of functions in society in a process of social evolution. MSO 04 Free Solved Assignment

For example, the separation and specialization of the economic function of production from the institution of the family which retains the functions of reproduction and infant socialization.

In PARSONS’ (1977) model of the social system this process is described in more abstract terms such as the differentiation of the polity from the societal community.

Social differentiation is a broad concept. It is a pervasive process too. The outcome of social differentiation can be seen in two main ways- as ‘the complex of roles (and associated statuses) comprising a society’s institutions’ and as ‘the complex of roles intersecting the institutions’ (Stebbins, 1987).

Some of these roles are division of labour, social stratification, sex, gender, age, and ethnicity.

These roles operate both at the core as well as at the periphery of the institutions. The differentiated roles may be ascribed or achieved.

Ritzer et al (1979) defines social differentiation as a “hierarchical system in which inherited and socially acquired personal differences come to be the basis for accomplishing social tasks and filling social positions… (which process) is a precursor to social inequality and social stratification.” MSO 04 Free Solved Assignment

Stebbins (1987) defines social differentiation as a “broad social process in which people are distinguished from one another according to age, sex, deviant, ethnic, and social stratification roles.

Social differentiation among tribes is mainly based on descent groups, sex, and age. The pattern of social differentiation among tribes is not the same for all societies (tribes).

There are variations of social differentiation from tribe to tribe in accordance with their social system, tradition and belief systems.

A matrilineal society depicts different system than those of the systems and practices in the patrilineal and patriarchal societies.

Again, there are also variations in the mode of differentiation within both the matrilineal and patrilineal societies.

Therefore, while considering social differentiation among tribes, it does not imply a uniform pattern. In the following, we shall discuss a few forms of social differentiation among tribes, with special reference to India. MSO 04 Free Solved Assignment

Social Differentiation by Kinshin and Descent Grouns.

Kinship and descent groups are most basic and important bases of social differentiation among tribal societies.

The status of a person, its rights and duties is largely determined by the rules of the systems of kinship and descent.

The phenomenon can also be understood in terms of ascribed roles and statuses. This sense of ascribed roles and statuses is very much relevant to the traditional lives of the tribals.

Kinship refers to those that are related by blood or by marriage. In the words of Rivers (1914), kinship is a social recognition of biological tiesh The members who are related by birth or blood are known as consanguineat relatives (one’s/ ego’s cognates), while members related through marriage are known as affinal relatives (one’s/ego’s affines).

Kinship systems help people to distinguish between different categories of kin, their rights and obligations and for organizing themselves as social groups or kin groups.

Descent is a narrower term that refers to the rules of a culture that establishes affiliations with one’s parents.

Descent groups are social groups of relatives whose members/ descendants are related lineally through a common ancestor. MSO 04 Free Solved Assignment

In the other words, the status of a person is, by and large, determined by genealogical relationships. The members of a primary social group are linked by kinship.

Kinship system may be broadly classified into two categories- classificatory and descriptive (after Morgan, 1871). Classificatory system of kinship is a system of describing kinsmen by a terminology that has more than one meaning and for a varying degree of relationship.

For example, the use of the terminology, such as, ‘father mother’, ‘brother’, ‘sister’ for many people outside one’s own immediate family.

Descriptive system, on the other hand, is a system where specific terms/terminologies are used for specific relationships. For instance, the terms ‘father’, ‘mother’, ‘brother’ and ‘sister’ that is used for one’s Immediate family members only.

A moiety (French, moitie,’half’) consists of two unilineal descent groups. The Moyon Nagas of Manipur for instance has this kind of moiety system.

It is also known as ‘dual organisation’. They may be exogamous, agamous, or endogamous.

The practice is found among many Indian tribes, such as the Todas of Nilgiri Hills in Tamil Nadu, the Nagas (Ao, Anal, Moyon and Monsang, etc.) of North East region, the Tharus of Central Himalayan region, and the Bondos of Eastern region (in Orissa).

Among the Anal Nagas, the society/tribe is divided into two exogamous divisions (moieties)- mochal and moshum. MSO 04 Free Solved Assignment

The members belonging to the same moiety group cannot intermarry. They do have phratries within each moiety.

The agamous kind of moiety is found among the Ao Nagas. The two moieties of the Ao tribe- mongsen and chungli are further divided into several clans. In the level of the clan, there is a system of exogamy.

MSO 04 Free Solved Assignment
MSO 04 Free Solved Assignment

Q 9 What is migration? Can you identify some of the patterns of migration found in India? Discuss.

ANS:Migration:Human migration involves the movement of people from one place to another with intentions of settling, permanently or temporarily, at a new location (geographic region).

The movement often occurs over long distances and from one country to another, but internal migration (within a single country) is also possible, indeed, this is the dominant form of human migration globally.

Migration is often associated with better human capital at both individual and household level, and with better access to migration networks. Age is also important for both work and non-work migration. MSO 04 Free Solved Assignment

People may migrate as individuals, in family units or in large groups. There are four major forms of migration: invasion, conquest, colonization and emigration/immigration.

Persons moving from their home due to forced displacement (such as a natural disaster or civil disturbance) may be described as displaced persons or, if remaining in the home country, internally-displaced persons.

A person who seeks refuge in another country can, if the reason for leaving the home country is political, religious, or another form of persecution, make a formal application to that country where refuge is sought and is then usually described as an asylum seeker.

If this application is successful this person’s legal status becomes that of a refugee. In contemporary times, migration governance has become closely associated with state sovereignty.

States retain the power of deciding on the entry and stay of non-nationals because migration directly affects some of the defining elements of a State. patterns of migration found in India:

  1. Inter-State Migration: MSO 04 Free Solved Assignment

Inter-state migration is internal migration. When people from one state of a country move to another state in the same country for permanent settlement, it is called inter-state migration. The size of people migrating from one place to another is small in India.

In the Census of 1961, the registration of 68.6 per cent out of the total population was done at their birth place which shows that only 31.4 per cent people migrated. In the 1971 Census, this number decreased to 29.5 per cent.

Inter-state migration during 1961-71 shows that people from Uttar Pradesh, Kerala, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Nagaland, Gujarat, Jammu & Kashmir and Bihar respectively migrated.

Migration was continuously occurring in Maharashtra, Delhi, Madhya Pradesh, Assam and Gujarat.

During 1951-61 migration occurred from Jammu & Kashmir and Rajasthan, Bihar and Tamil Nadu to other states, while during 1961 – 71, migration from other states occurred into these states. MSO 04 Free Solved Assignment

Thus, during 1951-61, these states were population losing states. During 1961-71, these states came under the category of population gaining states.

The inter-state migration data reveal that the highest population (6.41 per cent) migrated from other states to West Bengal in 1961 which is an industrially developed state, while the least people migrated to Jammu & Kashmir, which is a backward state.

Similarly, the highest population (6.49 per cent) migrated to other states from Punjab; while the least population S (0.98 per cent) migrated to other states from Assam.

The inter-state migration data reveal that the highest population (6.41 per cent) migrated from other states to West Bengal in 1961 which is an industrially developed state, while the least people migrated to Jammu & Kashmir, which is a backward state.

Similarly, the highest population (6.49 per cent) migrated to other states from Punjab; while the least population (0.98 per cent) migrated to other states from Assam.

During 1971-81, there were no important changes in the trends of migration. There was no significant change even in the size of population coming in Maharashtra from other states through migration. MSO 04 Free Solved Assignment

The highest population (3.7 per cent) migrated to Maharashtra from the northern states (Bihar, Punjab, etc.).

  1. Migrants by Place of Last Residence and Sex:

In India, the migrants by place of last residence and sex are shown in Table 1. The total number of migrants were 23.21 crores in 1991 which come to around 27 per cent of the Indian population.

In sex-wise migration, the number of female migrants during 1971-91 due to socio-economic development in India, had increased by about 38 per cent.

This is because nearly 65 per cent of the migrants were enumerated in the same districts and nearly 90 per cent of the migrants were enumerated in the same state.

The table also shows the decrease in the international migration from 1971 to 1991.
In 1971 the international migration accounted for 4.9 per cent of the total population while in 1991 it accounted for only 2.6 per cent of the total population.

The data for sex-wise migration by place of last residence indicates that females outnumbered males in the short distance migration, while males outnumbered females in the long distance migration. MSO 04 Free Solved Assignment

Primitive or Early Migration :

Distinction has often been made between Early/Primitive migration and forced/ impelled migration.

Early migrations, particularly in the prehistoric and early historic times, were a sort of random movement and not a planned migration. People were moving out as a result of a kind of human wandering lust.

But they were responsible for the peopling of the continents all over the world. These movements have also contributed to the process of inter mixing of civilisations and cultures.

Q 10 Distinguish between old Social Movement and the New Social Movement.

ANS:Since last five decades, especially after the proliferation of the Black Civil
Rights Movement in the West in 1950s and 1960s, students movements in 1960s and 1970s,

Women’s Movement, anti-nuclear protests, gay rights, animal rights, minority nationalism etc. ethnic movements in 1970s and thereafter, social movements has emerged to be an area of special attention. MSO 04 Free Solved Assignment

There have been sincere efforts by the social scientists to redefine social movements from a critical and cognitive perspective.

In this effort the prevalent schemes of analysis were questioned and many of the elements were identified in these social movement and at times several marginal issues were emphasized in a new contexts.

The emergence of new forms of collective action especially in Western Europe and North America posed serious challenges to the social movement theorists to conceptualize this phenomena in terms of the prevailing discourse on social movement studies

Old Social Movements

• Class based united to fight for rights.

• Anti-colonial movements.

• Nationalist movement united people into national e.g., liberation struggle.

• Movement against & colonialism.

• Nationalist movement mobilied against rule of foreign power and dominance of foreign capital.

• Mainly concerned with struggles between haves and havenots. Key issue is reorganisation of power relations, i.e. capturing power & transferring it from powerful to powerless, e.g. Workers were mobilised towards capitalists; Women’s struggle against male domination.

•Worked under guidance & organisational framework of political parties, eg. Indian National Congress led the Indian National movement; Communist Party of China led the Chinese Revolution. MSO 04 Free Solved Assignment

• Role of political parties was central and poor people had no other effective means to get their voices heard.

• Concerned about social inequality and unequal distribution of resources important elements.

New Social Movements

• Decades after Second World War 1960s and early 1970s

• Take up not just narrow class issues but broad, universal themes, which involved a broad social group irrespective of their class.

• Vietnam were forces led by US bloody conflict.

• Paris – Vibrant student’s movement joined worker’s parties in a series of strikes protesting against the war.

• USA was experiencing a sure of social protests. Civil rights movement was led by Martin Luther King.

• Black powers movement led by Malcolm X.

• Women’s movement, environmental movement.

• No longer focus on redistribution of power rather are more concerned with improving the quality of life. eg. Right to education, clean environment.

• No longer confine themselves within political parties. Instead started joining civil society movements and forming NGOs because they are supposed to be more efficient, less corrupt and less autocratic MSO 04 Free Solved Assignment

• Globalization – reshaping people’s lines, culture, media Firms – transnational. Legal arrangements international. Therefore, many new social movements are international in scope.

• Essential elements – Identity politics, cultural anxieties and aspirations.

However, it is problematic to use organizational form as a criterion to distinguish new social movements from that of old ones.

First, there is a continuum from loose to tight organization, and, because there may be a progress within the movements towards the more formal and hierarchical end of this continuum over a period of time.

To Scott (1990), there are important continuities between the new and older social movements. MSO 04 Free Solved Assignment

“Thus the claim the new movements needs to be understood in a way which is qualitatively different from traditional approaches can not be sustained on empirical grounds alone.

It is rather through the underlying social changes the distinctiveness be identified (Ibid: 35).

A Irrespective of the distinction between the old and the new social movements we may identify the crucial roles played by social movements to develop a critic of the society.

In the process of globalisation when the state is emerging to be more and more technocratic and all-powerful the voices and views of the individual citizen against the discontent of various forms remain mostly unheard.

Again in the countries where the state represent the dominant section of the population, and the state machinery is involved in the corrupt practices, the access of the marginalised people even to the minimum need of the life remained unrealized.

Social movements provide a framework to develop a critic of the society. It brings the institutional arrangements of the society under close scrutiny.

The organising mechanisms, collective activism and the leadership of social movement provide the required space not only to develop a critic of the society but also for a transformative politics within the given structure.

It also provides the space for the emergence of plural social structure with representative civil bodies to function as watchdog in a liberal democracy.

Through this critic social movement produces a new collective identity,

Eyerman and Jamison (1991) have tried to define social movements as processes in the formation by which individuals create new kind of social identity.

To them all social life can be seen as a combination of action and construction whose meaning is deprived from the context and the understanding of the actors derive form it.

They emphasize the creative role of consciousness and cognition in human action, what they call the cognitive praxis, which transforms groups of individual into social movement. Thus the cognitive praxis gives social movement particular meaning and consciousness,

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