Sociology of Development
MSO 03 Free Solved Assignment
MSO 03 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022
Section – I
Q1. Differentiate between the terms growth, development and modernisation.
Ans. The events leading up to the Second World War and the war itself had a profound impact on political and economic structures.
The main impact was the emergence of a bi-polar world order, with the rise of a communist power, the USSR, on the one side and the United States as leader of the liberal capitalist system on the other.
The US had emerged from the war as the strongest economy, enjoying rapid growth and capital accumulation and saw itself as leader of the emerging monetary and economic system in the capitalist world
A major early objective of the US was to assist Europe’s recovery and lay the foundations of a new economic and political order, while containing the spread of communism in Western Europe.
It was felt that institutions were needed that were able to create functioning, liberal market economies and order the economic, social and political development in a post-war world.
Amongst other things, the Bretton Woods conference of 1944 saw the establishment of the International Monetary Fund, and the International Bank (IMF) for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD or World Bank). MSO 03 Free Solved Assignment
Initially, these institutions were tasked with providing the loans, credits, and investment necessary for Europe’s postwar reconstruction and preventing a backlash into depression.
As former colonies of European powers achieved independence from the 1950s onwards, these two institutions started to get more involved in broader international development.
Meanwhile, the United Nations (UN) came into existence in October 1945 with the goal of creating a wider and more permanent system of global security.
In addition to maintaining peace and security. other important objectives included developing friendly relations among countries based on respect for the principles of equal rights and self-determination of peoples; achieving worldwide co-operation to solve international economic, social, cultural, and humanitarian problems; respecting and promoting human rights, and serving as a centre where countries could co-ordinate their actions and activities toward these various ends.
To help it carry out its mandate, the UN established a number of specialised agencies, including the World Health Organization (WHO), the International Labour Organisation (ILO).
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and the International Atomic Energy Authority (IAEA).
Most of these were established around the end of the Second World War, for example, the ILO and UNESCO in 1944, WHO in 1946, and IAEA in 1957.
For much of the past half century, the World Bank and IMF on the one hand and the UN system (led by UNDP) on the other, have stood as the two main poles of the international development system.
At times, the relationship between them has been principally one of tension, with the Washington institutions emphasising market-led economic growth and the UN system championing human and social development. MSO 03 Free Solved Assignment
Arguably, however, the Millennium Development Goals represent an attempt at a consensus between them.
Development as growth and modernization: Post-war development theories were dominated by the idea of development as economic growth and material well-being.
With it came a strong focus on the state: The belief that growth and prosperity would come if the market was left on its own had been shattered by the Great Depression and mass-unemployment of the 1930s.
Furthermore, the apparent success of state planning in the early years in the USSR led to a rethinking about the role of the state in the economy. The European Recovery Programme, an aid programme for Europe, allowed reconstruction of war-damaged industries.
In most Western countries, growth picked up rapidly and was driven by the state and the industrial sector. The path of growth was assumed to be a linear one State intervention and aid would encourage savings and investment for technological innovation.
The resulting increase in productivity would absorb the workforce from low-productivity sectors agriculture) to the industrial sector and thus accelerate industrialisation and fuel growth. MSO 03 Free Solved Assignment
Progress in this model was – and to a large extent, continues to be – measured in terms of growth in the size of national economies and per capita income.
The end of colonialism and the foundation of independent nation states reinforced the notion of development as growth and modernisation.
The rapid recovery of post-war Europe had led to widespread optimism and the firm belief that the newly independent states could copy the example of Europe’s reconstruction.
Emulating modern Western societies, so it was believed, would lead developing countries out of poverty and allow them to catch up with the developed world.
It was widely assumed that development could only happen if traditional values were replaced with modern ones.
By ‘traditional’ values modernist theorists meant:
people are oriented to the past and not to the future economic, political, and legal relationships are dominated by kinship an emotional, superstitious, and fatalistic approach to the world Contrast these values with what are assumed to be modern values.
progress matters more than traditions an individual’s position in society depends on personal achievement rather than kinship ties modern people are forward looking and have a strong entrepreneurial spirit Hence, modernisation implied a change in the value system.
The West was seen as the blueprint for development and modernisation was regarded as ‘the process of change towards those types of social, economic, and political systems that have developed in Western Europe and North America’ (EisenstadN966 p.
1). Modernisation theory underpinned the idea of development as growth, with modemisation defined as a linear path towards a developed industrial society.
Economic development through industrial transformation would lead to economic growth, allowing poorer countries to catch up with industrial countries.
The resulting growth theories assumed that wealth generated through economic growth would trickle down and eventually benefit all segments of society.
Q2. Critically evaluate the historical stage perspective on modernization.
Ans. From the sociological point of view, the process of modernisation has yielded a vast amount of writing. There is no unified perspective on modernisation. We will analyse the following perspectives: MSO 03 Free Solved Assignment
a) The Ideal-Typical
b) The Diffusionist
c) The Psychological
d) The Marxist
The first three perspectives have dominated American thought and received immense support and patronage all over, especially in the nineteen fifties and
the fourth approach has emerged as a challenge to the other three approaches and offers a critique of their main tenets.
Similarly, the Marxist perspective has also contested the other four perspectives.
a) The Ideal-Typical Perspective
This approach has manifested itself in two major variants, namely:
i) The Pattern Variable Perspective
ii) Historical Stage Perspective
i) The Pattern Variable Perspective : This perspective is derived from Max Weber’s concept of “ideal Cype” which was later systematised by Talcott Parson.
According to this perspective, characteristics of development and underdevelopment must be identified and then programmes and schemes of development should be made whereby underdeveloped countries discard the pattern variables of underdevelopment and adopt those of development.
Inspired by the work of Talcott Parsons, Smelser elucidated that the modernisation process was made up of four sub-processes: MSO 03 Free Solved Assignment
i) The modernisation of technology, leading to a change from simple traditionalised techniques to the application of scientific knowledge;
ii) The commercialisation of agriculture, which is characterised by the move
from subsistence to commercial farming, leading to a specialisation in
cash-crop production and the development of wage-labour;
iii) Industrialisation, which depicts the transition from the use of human and
animal power to machine power;
iv) Urbanisation, which brings about the movement from farm and village to
the large urban centers.
These processes sometimes occur simultaneously and sometimes at different times. For example, in many colonial situations, agriculture becomes commercialised without industrialisation.
Nevertheless, these four processes affect the social structure of traditional society in similar ways.
Firstly, as a result of these changes taking place simultaneously or at different rates, traditional societies became more structurally differentiated.
For Smelser, a develoned economy and society is characterised by a highly differentiated
structure, whilst an underdeveloped one is relatively lacking in differentiation.
By “differentiation” Smelser meant the process by which more specialised and more autonomous social units were established. MSO 03 Free Solved Assignment
He saw this as occurring in several different spheres of traditional society, in the economy, the family, the political system and religious institutions.
So, structural differentiation is the process whereby one social role or organisation differentiates into two or more roles or organisations which function more effectively in the new historical circumstances.
The new social units are structurally distinct from each other, but taken together are functionally equivalent to the original unit.
Secondly, as these differentiated units merge into larger units of the modern type, new relationships, which are not based on kinship, develop.
This, Smelser calls, the process of integration. Thirdly, Smelser shows that through such differentiation, social disturbances, such as mass hysteria, outbursts of violence, religious and political movements may occur, which reflect uneven processes of change.
This can lead to conflict between the old and new orders of society.
In other words, it produces what Durkheim called “anomie” or normlessness – a state of conflicting norms in society and a culture of discontent, where people are unable to realise their aspirations and may turn to violence, crime and other anti-social behaviour or to self-destructive acts such as suicide.
As Weber also showed, at the religious level the process of secularisation causes disenchantment, fragmentation between competing or partial world views, social and private worlds become meaningless and there is a sense of despair and hopelessness.
One of the reactions to modernisation has been the emergence on fundamentalist
movements that reject modern values and preach a return to traditional ones.
ii) Historical Stage Perspective In this perspective apart from identification of the gap between characteristics of development and underdevelopment, it also specifies the intermediate stages and their characteristics. MSO 03 Free Solved Assignment
This perspective is mainly associated with Rostow and his economic model developed in 1960. Walt Rostow was an economic historian who served as an adviser to the American government.
His book, entitled The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto (1960) was pre-capitalist and neo-evolutionary in nature and derived from the idea of an earlier evolutionary theory that change and development take place according to a set of ordered sequences.
According to Rostow, the processes of change are simpler and self-sustaining. Economic growth could be achieved by following a five-stage model of growth.
He suggested that “all societies can be placed in one of five categories, or stages of economic growth”.
The first stage, The Traditional Society: The essential feature of this society
is that output is limited because of the inaccessibility of science and technology, Values are generally “fatalistic”, and political power is noncentralized.
Large number of people are employed in agriculture, which has very low productivity because of the factors mentioned above. In such a society, family and clan groupings are emphasized in the social organisation. MSO 03 Free Solved Assignment
The second stage; The Preconditions for Take-Off: This second stage of growth is one of transition. A traditional society does not move directly into the process of industrialisation; first certain preliminaries need to take place.
There are clusters of new ideas favouring economic progress arising and therefore new levels of education, entrepreneurship, and institutions capable of mobilising capital like banks, etc.
Investment increases, especially in transport, communications and raw materials, with a general direction towards commercial expansion.
But, in accordance with Rostow, traditional social structures and production techniques remain the same. There is the presence of a “dual society”.
The third stage; The Take-Off: In this stage finally the old, traditional order and resistances are overcome. New forces, which trigger economic growth, expand and dominate the society.
Agriculture is commercialised, there is a growth in productivity because that is necessary if the demand emanating from expanding urban centers is to be met.
New political groups representing new economic groups push the industrial economy to new heights. In Britain, Canada and the United States, the proximate stimulus for take-off was mainly, though not entirely, technological.
The take-off period began in Britain after 1783, in France and in United Sates around 1840, in Russia in about 1890 and in countries like India and China around 1950.
The fourth stage; The Drive to Maturity: In this stage, the growing economy drives to extend modern technology in all its economic activities. MSO 03 Free Solved Assignment
Between 10 and 20 per cent of gross domestic product is invested and the economy takes its place in the international order.
Technology becomes more complex, refined and there is a move away from heavy industry. Now production is not the outcome of social necessity but of the need of maximising profits to survive in a competitive capitalist market.
The fifth stage; Mass Consumption: In this final stage, the leading economic sectors specialise in durable consumer goods and services.
At this stage, economic growth makes sure that basic needs are satisfied and more resources are allocated for social welfare and social security.
The emergence of the welfare state is an example. Durable consumer goods and services are diffused on a mass basis.
Rostow thought of his theory as a dynamic one i.e. “that deals not only with economic factors but also with social decisions and policies of governments”.
b) The Diffusionist Perspective This approach views development as a process in which there is a diffusion of cultural elements from the developed to the underdeveloped countries.
The underlying assumption is that the underdeveloped countries cannot overcome their backwardness without assistance from the developed countries.
There is diffusion of capital, technology, knowledge, skills, institutions including values and so on. MSO 03 Free Solved Assignment
These scholars perceive this aid as a sacrifice on the part of the developed countries for the benefit of the backward and suffering underdeveloped countries.
If still a society does not reach the level of modernity and development as projected by them, then it is blamed on the inherent weaknesses present in the underdeveloped backward societies, like demographic factors, presence of traditional institutions, beliefs, values, etc.
c) The Psychological Perspective This approach is mainly associated with McClelland, Kunkel, Hagen and others.
According to McClelland as mentioned earlier in this unit, a society with a high level of achievement will produce energetic entrepreneurs who, in turn, will produce more rapid economic development.
This is because a high level of achievement among people makes them behave in ways which help them fulfill their entrepreneurial roles successfully.
Therefore, the crucial factor for economic and cultural development, according to this approach, is the presence of achievement motivation among members. This leads to planned and concentrated growth and development.
d) The Marxian Perspective This approach accepts the fundamentals of the Marxist philosophical and sociological postulates.
According to this approach, the underdevelopment of some countries and the development of others is linked to the emergence of the modern capitalist system on a global scale.
So the causes of under development and the problems arising out of this are blamed on the growth of capitalism. MSO 03 Free Solved Assignment
According to this theory, the relationship between the developed capitalist countries and the underdeveloped countries is not one of harmony and cooperation, instead there is a subtle and indirect subjugation of the latter under the guise of “aid”
It is argued that the developed world is transforming the underdeveloped societies into their neo-colonial dependencies and the entire image of “aid”, “assistance”,”support” and diffusion of skills, techniques, capital and modernised institutions and values is false and deceptive.
The aid itself is seen as the basic obstacle to overcoming backwardness.
Followers of this approach further state that the policies and schemes for development pursued by the ruling class of the advanced capitalist countries are based on a theory of development which relies on strengthening and
Therefore it is postulated that a policy of development will only be successful if it is based on achieving the reliance of the working class.
Q3. What is the relationship between Gender and Development? Discuss.
Ans. Meaning of Gender Gender is the social dimension of being male or female. Gender identity is the sense of being male or female, which most children acquire by the age of three. Gender is not being masculine or feminine.
According to the Children’s Health Encyclopaedia, “Gender identity is a person’s sense of identification with either the male or female sex, as manifested in appearance, behaviour, and other aspects of a person’s life”. MSO 03 Free Solved Assignment
The World Economic Forum explains that gender is not synonymous with women as it is commonly understood. It refers to both men and women, and to their status, relative to each other.
Relationship between Gender and Development Gender as a concept or category has emerged to understand the complexities of ‘women’s subordination in society.
The word gender does not necessarily refer to women as a group or class of society. Rather it is used as an analytical social category to study the problems of women.
The theory of development is closely related to gender because of the large scale exclusion of women from the process of development.
Margaret Synder and Mary Tadesse in their book, African Women and Development: A History, defined women and development as follows: ” Women and development is an inclusive term to signify a concept and a movement whose long term goal is the well being of society – the community of men, women and children”.
Amartya Sen has made a compelling case for the notion that societies need to see women less as passive recipient of help, and more as dynamic promoters of social transformation which is supported by the viewpoint that the education, employment and ownership rights of women have a powerful influence on their ability to control their environment and contribute to economic development.
The study of development with gender perspective needs to be understood for the reasons that follow.
• The gender perspective in development manifests the efforts towards
ensuring equitable distribution of fruits of development.
• The idea of gender as a category has emerged as an outcome of the prevalent disparity and discrimination between men and women in almost all societies:
• Study of development and gender enables us to quantify the results of development efforts and also reflects the relative share of each scgment of society which helps in devising sector specific policies and goals
Q4. Critically evaluate the liberal perspective on development.
Ans. Liberalism has provided a unique perspective on social, economic and political development.
It set out an ideology that has shaped history, and in recent times has made a major come back in the form of neo-liberalism to influence the future course of human development.
Human history, over the past two hundred years or so, has been in a sense, one of struggle between supporters of economic liberalism (committed to the principle of the ‘self regulating market and the defenders of ‘society’ (who have sought to regulate the way in which labour is engaged with capital, the exploitation of nature, and the money market).
The struggle has proliferated in the political and ideological domains. Each of the two conflicting perspectives has come out with definite concepts, theories and ideologies, and techniques to realise the respective visions of society.
The struggle over the virtues of a flexible’ labour market and the threats which they pose to livelihoods continues.
The leading perspectives on development, namely the Marxist and the Liberal, ditter on the interpretation of social inequality and the methods to secure justice for the victims of unequal economic, social and political arrangements.
The argument has built on the issue of the scope of market prices. More specifically, the question of relevance here is whether the market forces should be allowed a free reign or there should be a regulation on them.
The difference is whether development should be reduced to growth in productivity and per capita income or should it be perceived in a broader perspective in terms of empowering the common people and securing distributive justice for them.
Ideologically, liberalism has stood out in opposition to the socialist ideals over the past two centuries.
It offers us a distinctive vision of society, about freedom and free competition in the field of economic entrepreneurship, and of the role of the state in the control of production and in the promotion of free citizenship.
As a political ideology, liberalism is opposed to any form of political absolutism, be it monarchy, feudalism, militarism or communitarian.
It stands for a social and political atmosphere in which authoritarian demands are resisted and the fundamental rights of the individuals and groups, such as the right to private property, free exercise of religion, speech and association, are promoted.
The philosophical foundation of classical liberalism was shaped in the writings of David Hume, Jeremy Bentham, and John Stuart Mill.
These thinkers constructed the social contract theory based on the idea that human beings are guided by enlightened self-interest, rationality, and free choice, and the idea of free development of the individual self in a free atmosphere with minimum of state control.
Liberalism was the guiding principle enshrined in the economic doctrine of laisse z-faire, which means free promotion of entrepreneurship in production and trade, and in the social and political doctrines of liberty and democracy.
The liberal school of thought in the economic, social, and political fields is not monolithic; rather there are divergent streams of liberal thoughts, particularly on the question of individual freedom vis-à-vis the state.
Some liberals put more emphasis on economic freedom and allow greater government intervention in moral life (the political philosophy embedded in Thatcherism and Reaganism is taken as an example in this line) while others uphold the idea of minimum state intervention in all walks of life.
The latter theoretical position is often known as libertarianism. Libertarianism has its roots in the writings of the seventeenth-century English political philosopher John Locke, who emphasised the priority of individual rights to life, liberty and property, and the elimination of coercive intervention by the state, which is taken as the prime violator of liberty.
Above all, individual liberty is an identifiable marker of conservative thought (the guiding ideology of the British Conservative and American Liberal parties).
American philosopher Robert Nozick (1974) and the economist Fredrich Hayek are among the modern protagonists of libertarianism in their respective fields.
Nozick argues in favour of reducing the role of the state to a mere “protection agency” for the citizens.
Hayek (1944, 1982), holds that the ideal economic and political arrangement and interpersonal relationships are modeled on market exchanges, the role of the government is reduced to maintaining order and providing public services that involve formidable initial capital services.
The libertarian ideals have found strongest support in the United States wherein conservatism and neo-liberalism are easily blended. In essence, libertarianism calls for human action not guided by any form of determinism.
Liberal beliefs often contradict those of socialism and conservatism. Tom Paine’s radical liberalism, based on the idea of a minimum government involvement in the coonomy, is close to socialism; whereas the overriding concern of other liberals to uphold the rights of private property draws them close to conservatism.
The early liberalism of Paine and others was progressive because it aimed to liberate individuals from traditional political constraints.
They wanted government to be confined, in John Locke’s words, to the role of an ‘umpire’, which would impartially safeguard individual freedom and rights.
It was thus believed that citizens would be offered maximum opportunity to shape their own future.
Liberalism continued to be associated with progressive social trends even after the erosion of the power of the aristocracy. However, from the end of the nineteenth century, liberals began to encourage the growth of government initiatives.
Liberals now argued that individual freedom was diminished by poverty and unemployment which stemmed from uncontrolled laissez faire capitalism.
Hence the need for the government to assume a larger role in social affairs, and in the elimination of economic constraints upon personal liberty. Liberals always believed that doing away with political and economic constraints on individual behaviour would lead to moral improvement throughout society.
Individual liberation, according to this viewpoint, is the key to social progress. Individuals who lead a free and independent existence are likely to acquire virtues such as self-reliance, prudence, tolerance and respect for the rights of others.
These virtues are often described as ‘bourgeois’ since they are typically displayed by economically successful groups in capitalist society. Liberalism has been alted with the progress of the capitalist world.
Its subscribers seek to remove restraints upon the capacity of individuals to participate economic competition. They have argued that the economic independence associated with capitalist regimes also breeds a sense of moral independence.
Liberals, in this sense, can be said to favour a process of “embourgeoisment” in which everyone will eventually adopt attitudes compatible with a competitive economy.
The history of liberalism reveals a succession of strategies to extend rights which, it is judged, will secure the economic and moral independence of individuals.
The different versions of liberalism foresee a one-class society consisting of self-governing citizens. The liberal ideal of a community is where despite inequalities of wealth, self-discipline and mutual respect are upheld.
Q5. Critically evaluate the extent of digital divide in India.
Ans. A digital divide is any uneven distribution in the access to, use of, or impact of information and communications technologies between any number of distinct groups,
which can be defined based on social, geographical, or geopolitical criteria, or otherwise Political In the age of social media, political empowerment and mobilization are difficult without digital connectivity.
Governance: Transparency and accountability are dependent on digital connectivity. The digital divide affects e-governance initiatives negatively.
• Internet penetration is associated with greater social progress of a nation. Thus digital divide in a way hinders the social progress of a country.
• Rural India is suffering from information poverty due to the digital divide. It only strengthens the vicious cycle of poverty, deprivation, and backwardness.
Economic: The digital divide causes economic inequality between those who can afford the technology and those who don’t.
• The digital divide is also impacting the capacity of children to learn and develop
• Without Internet access, students can not build the required tech skills.
Facets of the great Digital Divide in India
• Education is just one area that has highlighted the digital divide between India’s rural and urban areas during the lockdown.
• The trend is evident everywhere – telemedicine, banking, e-commerce, e-governance, all of which became accessible only via the internet during the lockdown
• The divide exists despite the rise in the number of wireless subscribers in India over the past few years.
(1) Telecom facility, not digital progression
• According to a report released by the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) on June this year, the country had over 1.160 million wireless subscribers in February 2020, up from 1,010 million in February 2016.
• This is a rise of 150 million subscribers in five years or 30 million per year.
• The growth has been evenly distributed in urban and rural areas, with the number of urban subscribers increasing by 74 million (from 579 million to 643 million) and rural subscribers by 86 million (from 431 million to $17 million).
• But this growth only indicates the rise in basic telecommunication facility. (2)
The Urban-Rural Divide
• Services such as online classrooms, financial transactions and e-governance require access to the internet as well as the ability to operate internet-enabled devices like phones, tablets and computers.
• Here the urban-rural distinction is quite stark.
• According to the NSSO conducted between July 2017 and June 2018, just 4.4 rural households have a computer. against 14.4 per cent in an urban area,
• It had just 4.9 per cent rural households having access to the internet against 42 per cent households in urban areas.
• Similarly, only 13 per cent people of over five years of age in rural areas have the ability to use the internet against 37 per cent in urban areas.
(3) Regional Divide
• States too greatly differ in terms of people that have access to computers or in the know-how to use the internet.
• Himachal Pradesh leads the country in access to the internet in both, rural and urban areas.
• Uttarakhand has the most number of computers in urban areas, while Kerala has the most number of computers in rural areas.
• Overall, Kerala is the state where the difference between rural and urban areas is the least.
(4) Digital Gender Divide
• India has among the world’s highest gender gap in access to technology
• Only 21 per cent of women in India are mobile internet users, according to GSMA’s 2020 mobile gender gap report, while 42 per cent of men have access.
The report says that while 79 per cent of men own a mobile phone in the country, the number for women is 63 per cent.
• While there do economic barriers to girls’ own a mobile phone or laptop, cultural and social norms also play a major part.
• The male-female gap in mobile use often exacerbates other inequalities for women, including access to information, economic opportunities, and networking.
• The earning member of the family has to carry the phone while going out to work.
• Access to phones and the internet is not just an economic factor but also social and cultural.
• If one family has just one phone, there is a good chance that the wife or the daughter will be the last one to use it.
Q6. Write a note on ICT Revolution in India.
Ans. “Information and Communication Technology” is big revolution in Indian farming community regarding the information about Agriculture production and market linkages between farmer and Mandis.
It is great initiative which has been taken by the government of India, in 2013 the revenue of the Indian ICT sector was valued at US$ 108 billion and it is expected to reach the US$ 225 billion landmark by 2020.
The industry performance this year demonstrated the sector’s ability to innovate and deliver differently, in order to maintain the growth trajectory.
It is part of e-agriculture which is developing and applying innovative ways to use ICTS in the rural farmer or marginal farmers which helps to link them with APMC The importance of agricultural extension in providing the relevant information, technology and knowledge to the farmers and creating the enabling environment to increase production and productivity is quite clear, as mandated under the National Agricultural Extension Policy (NAEP).
In this context, ICT in Farming is used as an umbrella term encompassing of all information and communication technologies including devices, networks, mobiles, services and applications; these range from innovative Internet era technologies and sensors to other preexisting aids such as fixed telephones, televisions, radios and satellites.
The ICT concept to reduce gap between government and farmers, it is sustainable development diction which has been taken by the government of India for farmer development with the help of IT sector The ICT is mainly focusing on rural domain of India.
The ICT concept take one step ahead to our farming community regarding the distribution of correct information to get benefit which comes from Indian Government for Farmer.
The General Directorate of Extension and Agriculture Development (GDEAD) has been developing many ICT innovations in linking researchextension-education for agriculture,
which will create a common architecture for digital information aggregation and services in the context of agricultural practices involving multiple institutions and stakeholders with widely varying requirements and criteria for usefulness or effectiveness.
ICT helps farmers to increase the income in the form of distribution of correct farming information. Currently our Prime Minister Mr. Narendra Modi is talking about Farmer’s double Income,
this ICT could be the first step of Farmer’s double Income for Indian farmers. This initiative would be help full for horticulture and agriculture crop producer in the form of double income of Indian farmers.
The information and communication technology is creating job opportunities for private sector as well as Government sector for IT specialist and good Agriculture Extension officers who can work with ICT in form of rural farmer development in India,
ICT works on the farmers requirement on the better information regarding new technology, good agriculture practices, Mandi rate, fertilizer and pest control related information which ICT gives to Farmer.
Some private organization like Godrej Agrovet, Syngenta, and Techno Serve gives basic information regarding Mandi price and some information.
Some other organization which are helping to develop Indian farmers. History of ICT in India: The IT sector has helped transform India’s image to a global IT player and been a driver of higher education.
The industry is expected to reach a revenue of USD 225 billion in 2020. Today, the revenue of the sector is USD 108 billion. The distribution between the sub-sectors is that telecom services accounts for 44 % of revenue,
IT services accounts for 24 %, devices are responsible for 17 % of the revenue, while enterprise software only accounts for 7 % of total revenue but has the highest growth rate of 6, 8 %. In 2013, the overall spending grew with 4, 2 %.
However, it is expected the growth will decline to 3, 8 % in 2014. The IT sector contributed with 8% of the GDP in India, a significant increase from 1, 2% in 1998 India is a key player in the global ICT world. India’s total IT industry (including hardware) share in the global market stands at 9%.
In the IT segment, the share is 6% while in the ICTS space the share is 2%. India’s IT and BPO sector exports are expected to grow by 12-14 per cent in FY14 to touch USD 84 billion – USD 87 billion.
In 2012-13, it is estimated that IT exports reached 75 billion which was a 10% increase. The growth of ICT sector helps in growth of GDP in India,
the form of exports and imports of agriculture commodities its helps to rural farmers about the current price of near market and farmers have option about the price on which farmers easily they can compare the price of different Mandi.
There is some challenges which is affecting to ICT in farming during the poor networking and some individual problem which farmers was facing like no electricity poor connectivity with Telecom Company these are the major problems which affects the steps of ICT in India. ICT is big step which has been taken by the our government,
where farmers are getting basic information, and as all though some other sector is developing drastically and our agriculture sector how it could be the last in 21st century.
There are major challenges or risk are involved in this term but it would be good for future of Indian Farmers.
Q7. Explain the main features of globalization.
Ans. Globalization is a term used to describe the interdependence of economies, populations, and cultures.
Although the term connotes cross border trade mainly it can also refer to cross border assimilation of cultures, identities, and philosophies.
In the context of commerce and economics, globalization purely refers to a global economy, where a product created in a country can be sold across the world.
In such an economy, a customer has access to products made in their country and has access to products made in other countries.
Salient Features of Globalization Interconnected Societies: In a highly transparent economy, where all commodities are openly traded, no society exists in a silo.
Globalization and the Indian economy is a classic example to cite in this regard. The barriers to trade across countries are becoming more and more obscure. Societies and communities are becoming interconnected now more than ever.
The growth of the internet, high internet penetration, thriving e-commerce ecosystem, and growing prosperity in developing countries have contributed to this upsurge in globalization.
Economic Integration: Global production of manufactured goods and local production of goods have been integrated.
When a product is made, its parts are manufactured and supplied by various vendors, where these vendors could be from different geographies.
A streamlined manufacturing process across geographies creates uniformity and standardization of manufacturing principles and techniques.
Product quality is also consistent – this aspect enables a product to retail across countries
Global Consumerism: Growth of media, the proliferation of digitization, and an ever-expanding information era have created more awareness.
Globalization’s impact on the Indian economy and many developing countries is directly proportional to commerce’s digitization. Consumers understand what to purchase and how. They have multiple options before them.
All of this creates competition in the market. Different product manufacturers across the globe create products for the global consumer.
Global competition creates global consumerism – which in turn feeds the burgeoning globalization even more.
Global Tourism: An after-effect or side effect of globalization is global tourism. With more expendable income in the hands of the middle class in developing and developed countries, tourism has taken off.
More people are travelling across borders.
The growth of tourism creates more international trade and more demand for products that cater to an international consumer market.
Transnational Corporations: The days of nationalized corporations are slowly phasing out. In a globalized economy, corporations want to become globalized. They want to tap into a global consumer market.
Hence, global conglomerates have a global workforce in manufacturing, verification, sales, pre-sales, and post-sales.
The growth of transnational corporations or global companies has contributed to the establishment of globalization as a bare minimum for economic sustenance.
Globalization KOF Index: This index measures the social dimensions and effects of and on globalization and measures political impacts on globalization. The following set of graphs show the globalization indices of each globalization factor.
Q8. Examine the concerns of developing countries regarding trade liberalisation.
Ans. In the Uruguay Round negotiations, India agreed to reduce tariff on a large number of commodities and remove quantitative restrictions (QRs) on all, except for about 600 commodities.
For industrial products, India’s commitment was to bring down the average tariff rate from 71 per cent in the pre-Uruguay Round period to 32 per cent in the post-Uruguay Round era.
While the 1991 reforms removed QRs on most manufactured intermediate and capital goods, there was little change in the import policy for textiles and clothing. The imports of these products remained practically banned.
The situation began to change substantially in December 1994 when in separate treaties with the EU and the USA, India agreed to a comprehensive liberalisation of import policies for textiles.
This liberalisation in imports of textiles was agreed to in part as quid pro quo for the ATC (Agreement on Textiles and Clothing) to phase out the MFA quotas, and in part in exchange for increased MFA quotas in the US and EU markets.
The reform process started in 1995 with the removal of QRs imports of wool tops, synthetic fibers, textile yarn and some selected industrial fabrics.
It was also agreed that these products would be free from import licensing altogether at specified future dates (1998, 2000 or 2002), and tariff rates would be reduced to levels between 20 and 40 percent by 2000.
Turning now to other international agreements, India had used the balance of payments provision given in GATT (Article VIII (B)) to justify her routine use of QRs.
Soon after the Uruguay Round agreements became effective India’s unconstrained use of the balance of payments provision was challenged by the US, EU and other developed countries.
It became difficult for India to justify QRs on grounds of balance of payments since there was a strong current account, substantial capital inflow and large foreign exchange reserves.
In 1999-00, 2134 items were subject to QRs, of which 1589 items had QRs on imports, being maintained under the balance of payments provision.
India Switzerland and Japan for elimination of QRs on these products in a phased manner by March 31, 2003. The US, however, did not agree to this plan, and persisted in the Dispute Settlement Body.
The US won the case and India had to eliminate QRs on all commodities (except the 600 odd items mentioned above). QRs on imports were removed for 715 items in Export-Import Policy oy, 2000/01, and for another 714 items on April 1, 2001.
India’s customs tariff rates have been declining since 1991. The “peak” rate came down from 150 percent in 1991-92 to 40 percent in 1997-98.
The downward momentum was reversed the next year with the imposition of a surcharge. This momentum resumed with the reduction of the “peak” rate to 35 percent in 2001-02 and 30 percent in 2002-03.
“Peak” rate (applicable to all manufactured and mineral products except alcoholic beverages and automobiles) was reduced to 20 percent at the end of 2003-04.
It is therefore quite evident that India has drastically reduced the level of tariff, particularly industrial tariff, in the period since 1991.
Many research studies have argued that this reduction should not, however, be attributed to India’s commitment under WTO because the tariff rates have in most cases been brought down to a level well below the rates committed.
It seems reasonable to argue that the tariffreform undertaken by India in the last 14 years was mostly done at India’s own initiative (induced by the benefits expected from such reforms) and had little to do with India’s commitment under WTO.
Similarly many researchers have studied the impact of India’s trade reforms, particularly tariff reforms, on domestic industry.
It appears that tariff reforms did not lead to a general surge in imports of industrial goods adversely affecting domestic industry.
On the other hand, there is some evidence to indicate that tariff reform contributed to higher industrial productivity and better export performance.
But, these effects however, cannot be ascribed to India’s tariff commitments under WTO, since the tariff reform took place largely independent of the WTO.
MSO 02 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022
MSO 01 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022