Research Methodologies and Methods
MSO 02 Free Solved Assignment
MSO 02 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022
Q1. What is empiricism? Discuss with reference to the contribution of David Hume.
Ans. Empiricism, in philosophy, the view that all concepts originate in experience, that all concepts are about or applicable to things that can be experienced, or that all rationally acceptable beliefs or propositions are justifiable or knowable only through experience.
This broad definition accords with the derivation of the term empiricism from the ancient Greek word empeiria, “experience.”
Concepts are said to be “a posteriori” (Latin: “from the latter”) if they can be applied only on the basis of experience, and they are called “a priori” (“from the former”) if they can be applied independently of experience.
Beliefs or propositions are said to be a posteriori if they are knowable only on the basis of experience and a priori if they are knowable independently of experience (see a posteriori knowledge).
Thus, according to the second and third definitions of empiricism above, empiricism is the view that all concepts, or all rationally acceptable beliefs or propositions, are a posteriori rather than a prior.
The first two definitions of empiricism typically involve an implicit theory of meaning, according to which words are meaningful only insofar as they convey concepts.
Some empiricists have held that all concepts are either mental “copies” of items that are directly experienced or complex combinations of concepts that are themselves copies of items that are directly experienced. MSO 02 Free Solved Assignment
This view is closely linked to the notion that the conditions of application of a concept must always be specified in experiential terms.
The third definition of empiricism is a theory of knowledge, or theory of justification. It views beliefs, or at least some vital classes of belief-e.g., the belief that this object is red-as depending ultimately and necessarily on experience for their justification.
An equivalent way of stating this thesis is to say that all human knowledge is derived from experience. Empiricism regarding concepts and empiricism regarding knowledge do not strictly imply each other.
Many empiricists have admitted that there are a priori propositions but have denied that there are a priori concepts.
It is rare, however, to find a philosopher who accepts a priori concepts but denies a priori propositions.
Stressing experience, empiricism often opposes the claims of authority, intuition, imaginative conjecture, and abstract, theoretical, or systematic reasoning as sources of reliable belief.
Its most fundamental antithesis is with the latter i.e., with rationalism, also called intellectualism or apriorism.
A rationalist theory of concepts asserts that some concepts are a priori and that these concepts are innate, or part of the original structure or constitution of the mind.
A rationalist theory of knowledge, on the other hand, holds that some rationally acceptable propositions perhaps including “every thing must have a sufficient reason for its existence” (the principle of sufficient reason)—are prior. MSO 02 Free Solved Assignment
A priori propositions, according to rationalists, can arise from intellectual intuition, from the direct apprehension of self-evident truths, or from purely deductive reasoning.
David Hume, (born May 7 [April 26, Old Style), 1711, Edinburgh, Scotland—died August 25, 1776, Edinburgh), Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist known especially for his philosophical empiricism and skepticism.
Hume conceived of philosophy as the inductive, experimental science of human nature. Taking the scientific method of the English physicist Sir Isaac Newton as his model and building on the epistemology of the English philosopher John Locke, Hume tried to describe how the mind works in acquiring what is called knowledge.
He concluded that no theory of reality is possible; there can be no knowledge of anything beyond experience.
Despite the enduring impact of his theory of knowledge, Hume seems to have considered himself chiefly as a moralist.
Hume was the younger son of Joseph Hume, the modestly circumstanced laird, or lord, of Ninewells, a small estate adjoining the village of Chirnside, about nine miles distant from Berwick-upon-Tweed on the Scottish side of the border.
David’s mother, Catherine, a daughter of Sir David Falconer, president of the Scottish court of session, was in Edinburgh when he was born.
In his third year his father died. He entered Edinburgh University when he was about 12 years old and left it at 14 or 15, as was then usual.
Pressed a little later to study law (in the family tradition on both sides), he found it distasteful and instead read voraciously in the wider sphere of letters.
Because of the intensity and excitement of his intellectual discovery, he had a nervous breakdown in 1729, from which it took him a few years to recover.
In 1734, after trying his hand in a merchant’s office in Bristol, he came to the turning point of his life and retired to France for three years. MSO 02 Free Solved Assignment
Most of this time he spent at La Flèche on the Loire, in the old Anjou, studying and writing A Treatise of Human Nature.
The Treatise was Hume’s attempt to formulate a full-fledged philosophical system.
It is divided into three books: Book I, “Of the Understanding,” discusses, in order, the origin of ideas; the ideas of space and time; knowledge and probability, including the nature of causality; and the skeptical implications of those theories.
Book II, “of the Passions,” describes elaborate psychological machinery to explain the affective, or emotional, order in humans and assigns a subordinate role to reason in this mechanism.
Book III, on morals, characterizes moral goodness in terms of “feelings” of approval or disapproval that people have when they consider human behaviour in the light of agreeable or disagreeable consequences, either to themselves or to others.
Although the Treatise is Hume’s most thorough exposition of his thought, at the end of his life he vehemently repudiated it as juvenile, avowing that only his later writings presented his considered views.
The Treatise is not well constructed, in parts oversubtle, confusing because of ambiguity in important terms (especially “reason”), and marred by willful extravagance of statement and rather theatrical personal avowals. MSO 02 Free Solved Assignment
For those reasons his mature condemnation of it was perhaps not entirely misplaced. Book I, nevertheless, has been more read among academic philosophers than any other of his writings. Returning to England in 1737, he set about publishing the Treatise.
Books I and II were published in two volumes in 1739; Book III appeared the following year.
The poor reception of this, his first and very ambitious work, depressed him; he later said, in his Autobiography, that “it fell dead-born from the press, without reaching such distinction, as even to excite a murmur among the zealots.”
But his next venture, Essays, Moral and Political(1741-42), won some success. Perhaps encouraged by this, he became a candidate for the chair of moral philosophy at Edinburgh in 1744.
Objectors alleged heresy and even atheism, pointing to the Treatise as evidence (Hume’s Autobiography not with standing, the work had not gone unnoticed).
Unsuccessful, Hume left the city, where he had been living since 1740, and began a period of wandering: a sorry year near St. Albans as tutor to the mad marquess of Annandale (1745-46); a few months as secretary to Gen. James St. Clair (a member of a prominent Scottish family), with whom he saw military action during an abortive expedition to Brittany (1746); a little tarrying in London and at Ninewells; and then some further months with General St. Clair on an embassy to the courts of Vienna and Turin (1748-49).
Q2. What is ethnography? In what way does it differ from survey research?
Ans. Literally speaking, ethnography is the science of ‘ethnos’, that is, nations, people or cultures. It is a qualitative research method often used in social sciences, particularly in anthropology and sociology. MSO 02 Free Solved Assignment
It is, somewhat, a technique employed for procuring empirical data on human societies/cultures through methods like participant observation, interviews, questionnaires, etc.
However, in the biological sciences, this type of study is called a “field study or “ease report”, both of which are used as common synonymous for ethnography’ which is the scientific study of human social phenomena and communities and hence considered a branch of socio-cultural anthropology.
It practically involves fieldwork in which an ethnographer lives among the population being studied.
He tries to maintain objectivity, and works with the informants, who are particularly knowledgeable, for a considerable period of time of a year or more.
After completing fieldwork, the ethnographer writes about his or her experiences by integrating multiple disciplines such as biology to analyse available food supplies or geology to study the terrain and physical environment.
Though ethnography is visualised by many as a field of study on “other” people such as obscure native tribes of the Andaman Islands in the Arabian Sea, ethnographers can also work in the most familiar environments such as semi-nomadic lifestyles of Kurivikaran in Tamil Nadu. MSO 02 Free Solved Assignment
Ethnography is about studying the entirety of the human experience, from hunting and food-gathering tribes in India to pub-goers in metropolitan cities. People who want to pursue ethnography as a career have to study cultural anthropology.
If possible, they should make use of fieldwork opportunities in school to see whether they can enjoy doing fieldwork.
A good ethnographer is expected to be highly sociable and accommodative, rapidly picks up new languages and instantly assesses a wide range of situations.
Most importantly, ethnography is about observation and cataloging, and written communication skills are a strong asset for any one who wants to excel in this academic arena.
In general, ethnography and ethnology are considered to be the areas of interests of anthropologists who are generalists and interested in relationships between people and the physical, socio-political, personal, cultural and historical aspects of their life.
Though ethnographic studies are thought to be the prerogative of anthropologists, ethnographic research, particularly critical ethnography, has become rather popular with modern developments in the social sciences, and especially with the advent of feminism and women’s studies.
The structure and principles of ethnographic research are derived from anthropology. They determine the perspective and direct theory and models of research.
The following are the characteristics of ethnographic research.
Ethnographers make a detailed study of culture which is a system shared by groups of people who practice and experience certain patterns of behaviour, values, norms and standards. MSO 02 Free Solved Assignment
They study culture as an entity in itself; they study how folk life is established, changed or destroyed and the ways in which culture is transmitted from one generation to another generation.
Further, the researcher tries to get first-hand information more from the respondent, who knows much about the research issue.
This is important in the understanding of complex issues, ideal structures and deviations. His learning goes beyond the specific research topic and includes patterns of communication (including language), habits and cultural imperatives of the environment under investigation.
All this requires, in many cases, long-term participant observation on the part of the ethnographer.
While participating in the life of the community as a member of the group, the ethnographer acts as an instrument by involving the total personality in the research.
It is the everyday way of life, the everyday behaviour of people, etc. which is studied in ethnographic research.
The researcher does not create and investigate experimental situations. The collection of data is done by the use of various methods available in anthropological research but the main ones remain observation and formal or informal conversations.
Traditionally the emphasis is on studying a single community consisting of a small population. MSO 02 Free Solved Assignment
According to the need, a researcher can also conduct investigation on a single person with the use of life history method.
The data collected is finally given meaning by analysing and interpreting it on the basis of the functions and denotations of human deeds. This is done without much use of quantitative and statistical analysis.
Holism Ethnographers and anthropologists perceive human action in the context of the whole system, as individual actions are manifestations of cultural standards and principles of the large socio-cultural system.
Therefore, many feminists have employed critical ethnography to explain the invisibility, oppression and exploitation of women in the context of the family and society.
In-depth Studies Ethnographers are interested in making in-depth studies but not in “surface counting ” survey data.
They gather information by living for a longer period in the group they investigate and experiencing culture the way their subjects do.
Their observation is naturalistic and captures social life as it unfolds in natural situations.
Anthropologists are conventionally interested in primitive cultures, whereas sociologists and other social scientists deal with modern societies and culture.
Despite this division, ethnography as a method is still employed by anthropologists, sociologists and social scientists irrespective of their chronological orientation.
Interactive- Reactive Approach In order to study the research topic most effectively the ethnographer gathers first-hand information by employing a dynamic form of data collection and analysis that is based on flexibility, reactivity and self-correction.
This enables him to adjust the approach, design and method.
Ethnographic research is conducted towards humanistic concerns and values that throw light on the essence of culture in which people live and experiences
main characteristics and significance of comparative government.
Although the two terms ‘Comparative Politics’ and ‘Comparative Governments’ are used lightly and interchangeably, there is distinction between them.
Conventionally, the comparative study of politics stands entitled as ‘comparative government’. MSO 02 Free Solved Assignment
Comparative government includes the study of features and legal powers of political institutions existing in various states.
It is the study of state and other political institutions in terms of their legal powers, functions, and positions on a comparative basis.
Key Characteristics of comparative government are mentioned below:
• Stress upon the study of political institutions of various countries.
• Focus on the study of major constitutions of the world.
• Emphasis upon the study of powers and functions of various political institutions working in different countries.
• Formal study of the organisation and powers, description of the features of the constitutions and political institutions, and legal powers of political institutions form the basic contents of comparative government study.
• To devise a theory of ideal political institutions has been the objective.
These traits make comparative government popular area of study during the beginning of 20th century. MSO 02 Free Solved Assignment
Subsequently, Majority of political scientists greatly displeased with its narrow scope, intuitive methodology, and formal legalistic-institutional and normative approach.
These researchers then adopt comprehensiveness, realism, precision and scientific study of the processes of politics as their new goal. Their efforts came to be labelled as comparative politics.
Basically, the study of comparative politics involves mindful comparisons in studying; political experiences, institutions, behaviour and processes of major systems of government.
It comprises of the study of even extra constitutional agencies along with the study of formal governmental organs.
It is concerned with important regularities, similarities and differences in the working of political behaviour.
Consequently, comparative Politics can be defined as the subject that compare the political systems in various parts of the globe, with a view to comprehend and define the nature of politics and to devise a scientific theory of politics.
Some popular definitions of comparative politics are given below:
• According to John Blondel, comparative politics is “the study of patterns of national governments in the contemporary world”.
• M.G. Smith described that “Comparative Politics is the study of the forms of political organisations, their properties, correlations, variations and modes of change”.
• E.A Freeman stated that “Comparative Politics is comparative analysis of the various forms of govt. and diverse political institutions”. MSO 02 Free Solved Assignment
It can be established that comparative politics encompasses a comparative study of not only the institutional and mechanistic arrangements but also an empirical and scientific investigation of non-institutionalised and non-political determinants of political behaviour.
Empirical study of political processes, structures and functions shapes a major part of comparative political studies.
It is demonstrated in literature that comparative analyses and compares the political systems operating in various societies.
To do this, it takes into account all the three implications of politics that include political activity, political process and political power.
Comparative Politics is pigeonholed by numerous features. These are mentioned below:
• Analytical and empirical research . MSO 02 Free Solved Assignment
• objective study of politics: A value-free empirical study-It rejects normative
descriptive methods of comparative government
• Study of the infra- structure of politics: Comparative Politics, now analyses the actual behaviour of individuals; groups structures, sub-systems and systems in relation to environment. It studies the actual behaviour of all institutions.
•Inter-disciplinary focus: Comparative Politics focuses upon interdisciplinary approach. It studies politics with the help of other social science like psychology, sociology, anthropology and economics.
• It studies political processes in both developed and developing countries. The biased and parochial nature of traditional studies stands replaced and the study of political systems of Asia, Africa, and Latin America enjoys equal importance with the study of African and European political systems.
• Theory building as the objective: The objective of Comparative politics study is
scientific theory building.
• Adoption of ‘Political Systems
With above features, Comparative politics is emerged as a new science of politics.
It has prohibited the non-comprehensive scope, formal character, legal and institutionalised framework, normative approach and parochial nature of the traditional comparative government studies.
Q4. Discuss the participatory approach to social research.
Ans. Participatory research integrates scientific investigation with education and political action. MSO 02 Free Solved Assignment
Researchers work with members of a community to understand and resolve community problems, to empower community members, and to democratize research.
The methods of participatory research include group discussions of personal experience, interviews, surveys, and analysis of public documents.
Topics that have been investigated with this approach include community issues such as polluted water supplies and the school curriculum, employment issues such as working conditions and unionization, and theoretical issues about consent and resistance to domination.
For social scientists who question the traditions of being detached and value-free, and who seek an approach that is less hierarchical and that serves the interests of those with little power, participatory research is a valuable alternative.
Participatory research can be identified by five characteristics:
(1) participation by the people being studied;
(2) inclusion of popular knowledge;
(3) A focus on power and empowerment;
(4) Consciousness-raising and education of the participants; and
(5) political action.
A precise definition should be avoided so that each group that does participatory research can be free to develop some of its own methods. MSO 02 Free Solved Assignment
Participation in the research process by the people being studied is best viewed as a continuum that includes low levels of participation, such as asking people who are interviewed to read and comment on the transcripts of their interviews, as well as high levels of participation.
Ideally, community members have a significant degree of participation and control, and help to determine the major questions and overall design of the study.
Second, participatory research validates popular knowledge, personal experience and feelings, and artistic and spiritual expressions as useful ways of knowing.
If researchers are to work with community members as co-investigators, they must respect people’s knowledge.
Moreover, one of the rationales for community participation in research is the assumption that people understand many aspects of their situation better than outsiders do.
Practitioners have used group discussions, photography, theater, and traditional tales to draw on popular knowledge (Barndt 1980; Luttrell 1988).
A focus on power and empowerment also distinguishes most participatory research.
“The core issue in participatory research is power… the transformation of power structures and relationships as well as the empowerment of oppressed people,” states Patricia Maguire in her excellent analysis of the field (1987, p. 37).
Participatory researchers differ widely in their positions on empowerment, and include radicals who try to transform the power structure by mobilizing peasants to wrest land from the ruling class, as well as conservatives who ignore power relations and focus on limited improvements such as building a clinic or a collective irrigation system.
The fourth characteristic of participatory research consciousness-raising and education is closely related to power. MSO 02 Free Solved Assignment
Group discussions and projects typically attempt to reduce participants’ feelings of self-blame and incompetence and try to relate personal problems to unequal distributions of power in the community and the society.
Participants often become visibly more confident and effective as they speak out in discussions, learn that others share some of their experiences, and learn research skills and relevant technical information.
Finally, participatory research includes political action, especially action that cultivates “critical consciousness” and is oriented toward structural change, not toward adjusting people to oppressive environments (Brown and Tandon 1983).
Some scholars argue that “real” participatory research must include actions that radically reduce inequality and produce “social transformation.”
Research and action, from this perspective, should be guided by a general theory like Marxism to help identify the underlying causes of inequality and the best strategies for changing society. MSO 02 Free Solved Assignment
Others caution against expecting to achieve radical changes because “social transformation requires … organizing, mobilizing, struggle” as well as knowledge (Tandon 1988, p. 12).
These researchers point to the value of small collective actions in educating people about the local power structure, creating greater solidarity and feelings of power, and providing new knowledge about how power is maintained and challenged.
Many projects include little or no collective action and are limited to changing the behavior of individual participants, strengthening or “creating a community network” and “fostering critical knowledge” (Park 1978, p. 20).
In some cases, participatory research produces major changes, as exemplified by a project with residents of a small town in the state of Washington.
The town was going to be destroyed by the expansion ofa dam, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers was planning to disperse the community.
But with the assistance of Professor Russell Fox and numerous undergraduates from Evergreen State College, residents clarified their own goals for a new community, learned about the planning process, and produced a town-sponsored plan for a new town.
Their plan was accepted by the Corps of Engineers after prolonged struggle involving the courts and the U.S. Congress. MSO 02 Free Solved Assignment
The new town thrived and continued to involve the entire community in planning decisions (Comstock and Fox 1982).
A study of the working conditions of bus drivers in Leeds, England, illustrates the mixed results that are more typical of participatory research.
As a result of greater pressure at work accompanying Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher’s program of deregulation, bus drivers were experiencing increasing stress, accidents, and conflicts at home (Forrester and Ward 1989).
With the help of professors from the University of Leeds who were running an adult education program for workers, a group of eight bus drivers, selected by their local union, decided to do research that would investigate stress at work and motivate the drivers’ union to take action.
They designed and carried out a survey of a sample of drivers and their families, studied accident records, and measured physical signs of stress.
Although the report presenting their findings failed to produce the desired action by the union, the project was successful in many other ways workers’ stress became part of the agenda for the union and the national government, and the report was used by workers in other countries to document the need for improved working conditions.
The participants in the research gained research skills and knowledge about work stress, and the professors produced academic papers on work stress and participatory research.
The professors had a dual accountability (as they put it) both to the bus workers and to the university; their projects produced results that were valuable to both groups.
Q5. Explain the historical method of research in social sciences.
Ans. Historical research is the systematic collection and objective evaluation of data related to past occurrences in order to test hypotheses concerning causes, effects, or trends of those events which may help to explain present events and anticipate future events” (Gay, 1981, p. 432) MSO 02 Free Solved Assignment
According to Isaac and Michael, historical research involves reconstructing the past systematically and objectively by collecting, evaluating, verifying, and synthesizing evidence to establish facts and reach defensible conclusions, often in relation to particular hypotheses” (1981, p.44).
“True historical research, or historiography, is concerned with analyzing and interpreting the meanings of historical events.
It is the process by which a researcher is able to reach a conclusion as to probable truth of an event in the past by studying objects available for observation in the present” (Goldhor, 1972, p.98),
It may be considered, “as a scholarly attempt to discover what has happened” (Mouly, 1978, p. 157).
Historical research is the process of systematically examining past events to give an account of what has happened in the past” (Johnson, chapter 12, p.1).
The above definitions are certainly useful ones. Gay points out the role of hypotheses. Isaac and Michael emphasise the establishing of faets systematically and objectively.
Gold or uses the term ‘true historical research and refers to probable truth of an event in the past. Mouly gives a very simple definition, stressing on a scholarly attempt’.
Thus, we may conclude from above that true historical research is a process of reconstructing the past through systematically and objectively collecting, evaluating, verifying and synthesising evidence relating to the past events to establish facts and defensible conclusions, often in relation to particular hypotheses (if appropriate),
to arrive at a scholarly account of what happened in the past True historical research must be distinguished from chronology. MSO 02 Free Solved Assignment
Chronology is defined as “simply the setting down of events in the order of their occurrence, a process similar to the older concept of historical research” (Powell, 1991, p. 137).
Chronology of events is merely a first step in the process of historical research, providing data or material for latter steps.
A description of past events is not considered historical research. It serves as background for the researcher. It can be starting point for him.
A mere collection of facts including their description, does not constitute historical research. Facts can serve as a base.
Facts have to be related and a total picture drawn, to become meaningful and contiguous one.
A “True historical research, or historiography, is concerned with analyzing and interpreting the meaning of historical events.
It is a process by which a researcher is able to reach a conclusion as to the probable truth of an event in the past studying objects available for observation in the present “(Goldhor, 1972, p.98). MSO 02 Free Solved Assignment
It is a flowing, dynamic account of past events, which involves an interpretation of these events in an attempt to recapture the nuances, personalities, and ideas that influenced these events.
There are some advantages of historical research as given below:
• The research is not physically involved in the situation under study,
• No danger of experimenter-subject interaction;
• Documents are located by the researcher, data is gathered, and conclusions are drawn out of sight (Key, 1997, p.2-3);
• “Historical method is much more synthetic and eclectic in its approach than other research methods, using concepts and conclusions from many other disciplines to explore the historical record and to test the conclusions arrived at by other methodologies” (Shiflett, 1984, p. 385).
The author further adds, “Many methods used alone or in conjunction with other supporting techniques of data collection and analysis can adequately demonstrate that some particular situation or relationship between variables exist in the present.
But the persistence and permanence of these conclusions will always be questionable without historical verification” (shifted, 1984, p. 385-6); and
• Perhaps more than any other research method, historical research provides librarians with a context. It helps to establish the context in which librarians carry out their work.
Understanding the context can enable them to fulfil their functions in the society. The study of status of women in librarianship would require understanding their historical roots in society as well as in the establishment of librarianship as a profession.
Similarly, investigation into the status of university librarians in India would require establishing the context. MSO 02 Free Solved Assignment
It is only through the understanding of the history that one can appreciate the environment in which librarians take decisions or carry out their professional work.
In case, we want to find answers to questions like, why a particular service was started by a library or why the library reclassified its collection from Colon classification to Dewey decimal classification, then historical research can enable us to find the answers Sortion
Q1. Role of the State in a pandemic situation.
Ans. In the early days of the COVID-19 pandemic, President Trump considered imposing a “quarantine” on parts of New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut.
While the Twitter-verse frantically debated the constitutionality of such a move, New York Governor Andrew Cuomo equated it to “a declaration of war on the states.”
Just two weeks later, as state officials around the country began to consider waking the nation from the economic equivalent of the medically induced coma that it had been in for several weeks the President claimed for himself the authority to determine when states should “reopen” their economies, asserting that, local leaders “can’t do anything without the approval of the president of the United States When somebody is the president of the United States, the authority is total.
And that’s the way it’s got to be. It’s total.” Doubling down on this position, Vice President Mike Pence declared that “the authority of the president of the United States during national emergencies is unquestionably plenary.”
Even the country’s most pro-executive-power legal scholars rejected these statements, with Governor Cuomo once again providing the most quotable response: “We don’t have a king in this country.” MSO 02 Free Solved Assignment
These presidential claims of power, as well as Attorney General William Barr’s pronouncement that the Justice Department would “monitor state and local policies and,
if necessary, take action to correct any that potentially infringed on Americans’ constitutional rights, 7 ensured that the division of powers and responsibilities between the state and federal governments would be among the many topics of debate surrounding the United States’ response to the novel coronavirus.
Perhaps unsurprisingly, the reality is more complicated than either statements by President Trump or Governor Cuomo suggest.
As a public health matter, the primary responsibility for pandemic response lies with the states.
At the same time, multiple laws, policies, and the numerous pandemic-response plans that the federal government has developed make plain that a successful fight against an outbreak of the scale and severity of COVID-19 requires a national response, with significant responsibilities necessarily falling on the federal government.
And indeed, numerous authorities relevant to pandemic response some specific to public health, others more general emergency tools-rest with federal officials.
By many accounts, however, the federal government has not been too heavy-handed – as President Trump’s statements cited above may suggest—but rather the opposite.
State leaders have consistently pleaded for more active federal leadership more policy guidance, more material resources, more national coordination.
It thus appears that President Trump has been quick to claim power theoretically sometimes powers beyond those that he actually possesses but often reluctant to exercise it.
This paper will explore the ways in which existing law and policy envision distinct pandemic-response roles for the state and federal governments, and distinct powers to fulfill those roles.MSO 02 Free Solved Assignment
It will then turn to the United States’ coronavirus response and argue that the federal government failed to bring the full range of its powers to bear-and indeed, that it continues to do so-in ways that have undermined the states’ ability to mount an effective response.
As Ed Richards’ contribution to this special issue shows, under our federal constitutional system, the states enjoy inherent police power to regulate in the service of the public health, safety, and welfare of their people.
States thus retain a general authority to regulate that has no federal analogue.
The many pandemic response plans developed at the national level recognize that the primary responsibility for addressing domestic health emergencies rests with states and localities.
The exact contours of state pandemic-response authorities, as well as whether primary responsibility for wielding them lies with statewide or local officials, vary by state.
Nevertheless, each state possesses multiple tools to wield against infectious disease outbreaks.
Even outside the emergency context, states regularly enforce mandatory screening and vaccination rules; conduct health inspections of places of business such as restaurants and nail salons; and engage in surveillance, tracing, treatment, and notification of individuals who have been exposed to infectious diseases such as tuberculosis or HIV.
The routine exercise of these authorities fails to attract the attention devoted to pandemics like COVID-19, but they illustrate the nature of responsibilities carried out by local public health services across the country. MSO 02 Free Solved Assignment
As the COVID-19 experience has demonstrated, pandemic conditions prompt states to utilize these authorities in more intrusive ways, many of which we saw rolled out across the nation in the spring and early summer months of 2020 — social distancing requirements, curfews, business closures, travel restrictions, limits on assembly, quarantines of people or places exposed to the disease, and isolation of infected individuals.
All fifty states have declared COVID-19 a public health emergency, a step that can augment the powers of governors or local officials, often authorizing them to impose such measures by fiat.
Should the medical community succeed in developing a vaccine for the virus, we can expect many states to require inoculation, as they do in the case of other infectious diseases such as measles.
The Emergency Management Assistance Compact, which all states have implemented through legislation, also permits states to assist in emergency response efforts across state borders-for example by sending personnel or equipment to their neighbors.
To be sure, the states’ powers are not absolute.
Mandatory quarantines or isolation of individuals, for example, are generally permissible only if government officials have reason to believe that an individual actually has been exposed to an infectious disease, and the decision to quarantine or isolate is subject to procedural due process protections.
At the same time, while the emergency public health measures imposing constraints on individual liberties, such as the freedom of assembly, the right to travel, and the right to free exercise of religious practices have faced multiple legal challenges, the courts including the Supreme Court-have extended state officials significant leeway in determining what is required to address public health risks.
There is no doubt that state, local, and tribal authorities are entitled to take aggressive measures necessary to protect public health.
Thus, state governments are on the front lines in the fight against COVID-19, and it is with the states that the broadest public health authorities reside.
That said, state resources alone are inadequate to meet public health emergencies of the magnitude of COVID-19, which endanger innumerable lives, transcend both state and national borders, and inevitably overwhelm resources available at the state and local level.
The federal government therefore also has its own multi-faceted pandemic-response toolkit. Various federal government entities, as well as at least one Blue Ribbon committee, have developed emergency-response plans designed to guide pandemic response should the need arise.
Some, such as the Department of Health and Human Services’ (HHS) Pandemic Influenza Plan, originally issued in 2005 and updated most recently in 2017;
the Homeland Security Council’s National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza and its Implementation Plan; the Defense Department’s Global Campaign Plan for Pandemic Influenza; and the National Security Council’s (NSC) infectious disease Playbook, are pandemic specific. MSO 02 Free Solved Assignment
Others, like the National Blueprint for Biodefense, which is the product of a bipartisan commission made up of former lawmakers, executive-branch officials, and experts;
the Department of Homeland Security’s (DHS) National Response Framework; and HHS’s National Health Security Strategy and Implementation Plan, cover a range of possible emergency scenarios that would include pandemics.
Finally, there is a U.S. Government Pandemic Crisis Action Plan (PanCAP) adapted specifically to respond to COVID-19.
As the foregoing lists demonstrate, there is no shortage of plans issued by different entities during different presidential administrations. How those plans fit together, if at all, is less clear. Yet there are some elements common to all of them.
Without exception, each of these plans envisions an energetic role for empowering the federal government to require or prohibit particular actions, such suspected of carrying infectious diseases from entering the country.
Just as important, however, are federal agencies’ numerous non-coercive tools-powers that enable federal actions to support preparedness and response efforts, such as coordinating among government entities, vaccine and treatment research, public education efforts, and management of resources.
Q2. Role of youth in contemporary Indian society.
Ans. According to the NSS data (62nd Round, 2005-06), the unemployment rate was 5.26 for youth in the age group of 15-35years; and the work participation rate was 51.18. Youth more than any other group has to pay the social cost of globalization.
For youth, an important transition to work is to be meaningfully engaged in sorne work, and is financially independent. MSO 02 Free Solved Assignment
Employment provides time structure, social contact, activity, status, purpose and control. Unemployment results in economic implications, physiological and psychological effects.
Women’s participation in the work force is interwoven with caste, class and gender hierarchies. The stage of transition from school to work, and, hence, unemployment is viewed as a serious problem.
Migration for employment is on the rise, increased migration to urban locations, leads to overcrowding, lack of adequate infrastructure, and creation of identity issues (insider and outsider).
Such a situation has other consequences such as increase in crime, substance abuse, mental illness and so on.
Globalizationand modernization have widened the scope of work and enhancing lifestyles (especially the urban middle class).
However, many existing crafts and skills are becoming outdated or irrelevant (computer skills, artisans).
In spite of a significant rise in new vocations and careers, students still opt for jobs and careers, which have a status and standing in society.
It is also seen that self employment is the choice of many youth, and due to lack of jobs to offer, the government’s emphasis now is also on encouraging people for self-employment (l’imes of India, September 18,2000, pg.1j.
One finds that skilled workers, like carpenters, farmers, blacksmiths, prefer their children to take white collar jobs rather than carry their trades.
The number of youth involved in the task of social reconstruction is very small. Today, expectations and aspirations for a consumerist lifestyle makes youth more ambitious and aggressive in career advancement. MSO 02 Free Solved Assignment
“The youth see the private sector as modern, wealthy and professional; the civil service as highly social, classy, arrogant and corrupt; and the armed forces as macho, brave, caring, committed but leading an unsettled life.”
(The Times of India, May 27, 1995, pg.11). It is well known that in spite of constitutional and legal provisions (Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation), 1986) children and adolescents continue to be part of the work force.
There is not much data on adolescents and youth in the informal sector, such as the street youth, and this needs to be explored. The schemes offered by the Government include:
• National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA), which is an interim
arrangement to tide over a period, and ensures minimum 100 days of work.
However, this is not implemented in all districts across the country.
• Employment Guarantee Scheme (EGS);
• Aam Admi Bima Yojana – Social Safety net for unorganized people.
The World Development Report, 2007 mentions certain key issues which need to be kept in mind when managing the transition from education to work. These are:
• Starting work too early
• Breaking into the job market. “employment rates for youth are systematically higher than for older generations” MSO 02 Free Solved Assignment
• Moving to new jobs and up the skill ladder. Especially in poor countries,
young people are working very hard, but earning very little.
The family is considered the basic unit of the Indian social fabric. The primary site of regulation of behaviour was the joint family system.
This is characterized by common production and consumption; interdependence among the members with more emphasis on the family than the individual; and absolute authority of the head of the family (Verma and Saraswati, 2002).
Industrialisation, urbanisation, migration of population to cities, the spread of education, changes in the occupational structure and legal measures for the promotion of the status of women, are some of the factors affecting the family.
Thus, families have plurality of forms that are determined by class, ethnicity, geographical location and individual choice.
Youth are not only part of the family, but they are also in the process of forming their own family.
The Indian family still largely follows a system where the authority is determined by age, gender and generation status.
Decision making is by and large, still authoritative, rather than democratic or participative. Crucial decisions related to adult roles such as marriage or career are taken in consultation with or by the head of the family.
A majority of youth grows up in an atmosphere of dependence and few choices.
It is said that such a personality is dependent on others for decision making, hesitates to take independent responsibilities, and is Quick to blame others in the environment for his/her shortcomings (Gore, 1977).
Youth face a sense of anxiety between their duties’ and their individual needs.
An urban lifestyle demands greater initiative, a certain aggressiveness, a capacity to make choices, cope with tensions and take responsibility for one’s actions.
We have an increasing middle class with youth vying with each other for better education; higher salaries and work mobility, and maybe greater independence from their families.
The culture of cities breeds individualism, competition, consumerism and increases economic strains and the family unit also has to make changes and adapt to this new lifestyle. MSO 02 Free Solved Assignment
Urban areas, today, are experiencing the first generation of liberal’ parents. Husbands and wives find new equations in marriage and attempt to be more honest and ‘liberal’ with children.
They have fewer expectations from their children, who are now mainly receivers rather than givers-a trait of a consumerist society. One could expect a more ‘self-centered’ group of youth with a different value system in the years to come.
A study commissioned by the Hindustan Times (January 26,2003) in five metros (Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore, Kolkata, and Chandigarh) and one rural area, of young Indians in the age group of 16 to 24 years, showed that young Indians think very highly of their parents and see them as role models.
Thirty percent of the urban youth voted for their parents when asked whom they considered their role model.
Thus, the family continues to be a major transmitter of values, culture, behavior for the youth.
Next to the family as an informal system for inculcating education for life and living, the formal education system is a major socializing agent in the life of children and youth.
As per the 2001 census, the all India literacy rate for youth in the age group of 15-34 years is only 60.37%, out of which male is 81.05% and females 71.03%.
Progress among females is more than among males; and progress in rural areas is much more than in urban areas (Saraswati, 2007).
The level of higher education is also determined by the size of institutional capacity of the higher education system in the country. The size is determined by:
• Number of educational institutions- universities and colleges;
• Number of teachers and number of students.
From 1950 to 2008, the number of universities have increased from 20 to about 431; colleges from 500 to 20,677, and teachers from 15,000 to nearly 5.05 lakhs.
The number of students have increased from 1 lakh to over 116.12 lakhs. (UGC, 2008).
Access to Higher Education
The access to higher education is measured in terms of Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) which is a ratio of persons enrolled in higher educational institutions to total populationof the persons in age group of 18 to 23 years. MSO 02 Free Solved Assignment
While the enrolment rate at the aggregate level is about 11% in 2006-07, it varies significantly across the states and districts.
The GER is much lower in states of Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, M.P, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Rajasthan Sikkim, Tripura, and Jharkhand (UGC, 2008)
Education facilities are virtually a monopoly of urban cities and, therefore, a larger proportion of college students are urbanites.
However, there are an! increasing number of rural youth joining under graduate urban colleges and hence, most colleges have a mix of urban and rural youth.
More colleges have also been started in district towns thus enabling more youth to avail of higher education.MSO 02 Free Solved Assignment
The quality of education received at the primary, secondary and tertiary levels differ tremendously and the standards are just not comparable.
Even though college education is becoming more accessible, the system itself contributes to class stratification due to differential access to higher education.
Gender and location also determine access to higher education.
Increasing competition and the poor quality of education has led to corrupt practices like capitation fees, mass copying and buying of marks. Some factors which force youth to drop out of education and training:
• Migration and displacement due to manmade disasters (evictions due to
development projects, riots, war) MSO 02 Free Solved Assignment
• Natural disasters (tsunami, earthquakes)
Seasonal migration due to nature of occupation of family self (landless
labourers, construction workers).
Some of the factors which determine the quality of higher education are the
curriculum and methodology (level of creativity, competence, problem solving skills); scope for development of interpersonal relationships, autonomy, identity and purpose.
Lifeskills education is increasingly been introduced at the University levels to enable youth to build resilience and cope with the demands of modern society.
This has been defined by the WHO as the abilities for adaptive and positive behaviour that enable individuals to deal effectively with the demand and changes of everyday life’.
It includes, personal skills, learning skills, awareness of the world; livelihood skills (UNESCO).MSO 02 Free Solved Assignment
Q3. Significance of online education in India.
Ans. Online education is the growing face of the education system in India.
Since the New Education Policy (NEP) came in 2020, many changes have been made in the education system that included online education as well but with a new set of rules comes many drawbacks. MSO 02 Free Solved Assignment
According to UNESCO, since the outbreak of COVID-19 began, 1.37 billion students in 138 countries all around the globe have been affected by the closure of schools and universities.
Nearly 60.2 million school teachers and university lecturers are no longer held in the classroom.
Since the whole country is under lockdown, e-education is the best and the only option left.
University faculties are setting up accounts on online video conferencing platforms such as Zoom, Skype, Google Classroom, Meet, among others to engage with students.
This new media holds out the possibility of on-demand access to the content at any given time or on any digital platform but this turns challenging for both administration and the students.
Digital media today is the blend between the classical and conventional way of learning like books and notebooks and digital software like eBooks and pdf.
Even though online education has many bad aspects, there are many good aspects too. Due to the global pandemic, online education has fallen into the most basic level- schools and colleges. MSO 02 Free Solved Assignment
For the students who have long-distance commutes, they find it a more flexible and easier option as education is reaching them and not vice versa.
For the working groups who wish to continue their education or learn something new, online education is a good option for them.
It is more flexible, can adjust to their existing schedules and they can complete the assignments without sacrificing hours from their existing jobs or important chores of their household. MSO 02 Free Solved Assignment
Comparing to the expenses of colleges, online education is more affordable and is helpful for the aspirants who wish to go to college but couldn’t. Also, they can continue earning while gaining the education they needed.
Some key benefits of online education are listed below:
• Saving extra expenses- with the implementation of online education, we will be able to save the expenses of travel, lodging, and boarding and these fee reductions will mean lower fees for the online classes.
• No limitation- in contrast to physical classrooms, digital classrooms don’t have limitations.
• Flexibility- In physical classrooms, there’s a limitation to the local population of the students but if we talk about digital classrooms, faculties will be able to address not just the local population but also the global population.
Even in terms of faculty, we will not be contined and will be able to hire an expert professional from around theglobe.MSO 02 Free Solved Assignment
• Nature friendly- by going digital, we are actually doing the earth a favor. Trees are used in the construction of paper, so if there would be less production of textbooks, the number of cutting down of trees will significantly decrease.
• Time saver– traditional methods of teaching includes years of studies and months of waiting for the final examination results but with the digital implementation of the classes we are getting the content on spot, can give examinations with the ease of sitting at home, and can get the results instantly (or within few days) on our smartphones and laptops which is less stressful and saves a lot of time. MSO 02 Free Solved Assignment
MSOE 2 FREE SOLVED ASSIGNMENT