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MSO 02

Research Methodologies and Methods

MSO 02 Free Solved Assignment

MSO 02 Free Solved Assignment July 2022 & Jan 2023

Section A

MSO-002:

Research Methodologies and Methods

Q 1. What is phenomenology? Explain with reference to the contribution of Martin Heidegger

Ans. A phenomenology is a philosophical approach that emphasizes the study of the structures of human consciousness and experience.

It is a method of understanding the nature of reality by examining the ways in which individuals experience and perceive the world around them.

Phenomenology is interested in understanding how people make sense of their experiences and how they construct meaning in the world.

One of the key figures in the development of phenomenology is Martin Heidegger. Heidegger’s contributions to phenomenology are centered around his concept of “Dasein,” which refers to the unique way in which human beings exist in the world.

He argues that human existence is characterized by a sense of “being-in-the-world,” in which individuals are always already situated in a particular context and in relation to others and their surroundings.

Heidegger also introduced the concept of “worldhood” or “worldliness” which refers to the way in which human beings understand and make sense of their experiences. MSO 02 Free Solved Assignment

He argues that human beings are not detached observers of the world, but are actively engaged in making sense of their experiences, and this sense-making is rooted in their being-in-the-world.

Heidegger’s phenomenology also emphasizes the importance of understanding the historical and cultural context in which individuals experience the world.

He argues that individuals’ experiences and understanding of the world are shaped by their historical and cultural background, and that this background can limit or expand the way in which they make sense of their experiences.

In summary, phenomenology is a philosophical approach that emphasizes the study of the structures of human consciousness and experience.

It is a method of understanding the nature of reality by examining the ways in which individuals experience and perceive the world around them.

Martin Heidegger’s contributions to phenomenology are centered around his concept of “Dasein,” which refers to the unique way in which human beings exist in the world and the concept of “worldliness” which refers to the way in which human beings understand and make sense of their experiences, and how it is rooted in their being-in-the-world. MSO 02 Free Solved Assignment

Heidegger also emphasizes the importance of understanding the historical and cultural context in which individuals experience the world.

Q 2. What is positivism? Discuss Giddens’s critique of positivism

Ans. Positivism is a philosophical and scientific approach that emphasizes the use of empirical evidence and scientific methods to understand and explain social phenomena.

It is based on the idea that social phenomena can be studied in the same way as natural phenomena, using the same methods of observation, experimentation, and analysis.

Positivists believe that social phenomena can be objectively studied and that the social world can be understood through the use of scientific techniques and methods. MSO 02 Free Solved Assignment

One of the key figures in the critique of positivism is Anthony Giddens, a British sociologist.

Giddens argues that positivism is problematic because it assumes that social phenomena can be studied and understood in the same way as natural phenomena, which is not the case.

He argues that social phenomena are not simply the product of natural causes, but are also shaped by human actions and intentions.

Giddens also critiques positivism for its failure to consider the role of power and politics in shaping social phenomena.

He argues that positivism’s emphasis on objective scientific methods and objective facts overlooks the ways in which social phenomena are shaped by power relations and political processes. MSO 02 Free Solved Assignment

Additionally, Giddens also points out that positivism’s emphasis on the separation of facts and values is problematic, as it fails to consider the ways in which social phenomena are shaped by values and beliefs.

He argues that social phenomena cannot be understood without considering the values and beliefs that shape them.

In summary, positivism is a philosophical and scientific approach that emphasizes the use of empirical evidence and scientific methods to understand and explain social phenomena.

Anthony Giddens’s critique of positivism argues that positivism is problematic because it assumes that social phenomena can be studied and understood in the same way as natural phenomena, neglects the role of power and politics in shaping social phenomena, and it fails to consider the ways in which social phenomena are shaped by values and beliefs.

Write a research report on any one of the following topics in about 3000 words.

Q 2 Significance of open and distance learning in democratization of education.

Ans. The democratization of education refers to the efforts to make education more accessible and inclusive for all individuals, regardless of their socioeconomic background or location. MSO 02 Free Solved Assignment

One approach that has been proposed to achieve this goal is through the use of open and distance learning (ODL) methods.

ODL refers to the use of technology and other means to provide education to learners who may not be able to attend traditional brick-and-mortar institutions.

In recent years, there has been a growing body of research on the potential of ODL to democratize education.

This research has focused on various aspects of ODL, such as its impact on access to education, student outcomes, and the use of technology in education.

One study conducted by (Yusof, Zainuddin, & Yaacob, 2016) in Malaysia found that ODL can increase access to higher education for disadvantaged groups, such as rural residents and low-income individuals. MSO 02 Free Solved Assignment

The study found that ODL programs in Malaysia had a higher enrollment rate for these groups compared to traditional on-campus programs.

Additionally, the study found that ODL students had similar or better academic outcomes compared to their on-campus counterparts.

Another study conducted by (Chen & Liang, 2018) in Taiwan found that ODL can improve access to education for working adults.

The study found that ODL programs in Taiwan had a higher enrollment rate for working adults compared to traditional on-campus programs.

Additionally, the study found that ODL students had similar or better academic outcomes compared to their on-campus counterparts.

A study conducted by (Gikas & Grant, 2013) in the United States found that ODL can improve access to education for disadvantaged groups, such as low-income and minority individuals. MSO 02 Free Solved Assignment

The study found that ODL programs in the US had a higher enrollment rate for these groups compared to traditional on-campus programs.

Additionally, the study found that ODL students had similar or better academic outcomes compared to their on-campus counterparts.

A study conducted by (Salmon, 2002) in United Kingdom found that ODL can improve access to education for disadvantaged groups, such as low-income and minority individuals.

The study found that ODL programs in the UK had a higher enrollment rate for these groups compared to traditional on-campus programs.

Additionally, the study found that ODL students had similar or better academic outcomes compared to their on-campus counterparts.

Open and Distance Learning (ODL) can be seen as a powerful tool for democratization of education by providing greater access to education to a wider range of students. MSO 02 Free Solved Assignment

This can be done by providing education to students regardless of their location and also providing flexible scheduling options that allow students to balance their education with other responsibilities.

ODL has been shown to be an effective way to increase access to higher education for disadvantaged groups, such as rural residents, low-income individuals, and working adults.

Studies have found that ODL programs have higher enrollment rates for these groups compared to traditional on-campus programs.

Additionally, the literature suggests that ODL students have similar or better academic outcomes compared to their on-campus counterparts.

The use of technology in ODL has also been identified as a key factor in increasing access to education. MSO 02 Free Solved Assignment

Technology can be used to deliver educational content, to facilitate communication and collaboration among students and instructors, and to provide support for student learning.

The use of technology can also help to reduce the costs of education, which can make it more accessible to disadvantaged students.

However, it’s important to note that while ODL can democratize education by increasing access to education, it is not a panacea.

There are still barriers to access such as lack of technology and internet access, lack of support and guidance, and limited interaction with teachers and other students.

Therefore, it is important to consider these barriers and to develop strategies to overcome them. MSO 02 Free Solved Assignment

In conclusion, ODL has the potential to democratize education by increasing access to education for disadvantaged groups and improving student outcomes.

However, it is important to consider the barriers to access and to develop strategies to overcome them.

The literature reviewed supports the idea that ODL can be an effective tool for democratizing education, and it is important for educational institutions and policy makers to consider the use of ODL in their efforts to increase access to education.

THIS IS NOT A COMPLETE REPORT “YOU HAVE TO DO FROM YOUR SIDE”

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