Management of Marketing Communication and Advertising
MS 68 Free Solved Assignment
Q 1 (a) What do you understand by the term marketing communication? Explain the communication model that describes how communication travels from the firm to the consumers and the factors that affect the way the consumer perceive the message.
Ans:– Marketing communication is a fundamental and complex part of a company’s marketing efforts. Loosely defined, MarCom can be described as all the messages and media you deploy to communicate with the market.
Marketing communication includes advertising, direct marketing, branding, packaging, your online presence, printed materials, PR activities, sales presentations, sponsorships, trade show appearances and more.
Basic marketing communication concepts and provides the foundation for rest of the series Positioning—discusses the ins and outs and importance of claiming the most attractive position in your customer’s mind
Your marketing message—provides the framework for planning your marketing message throughout the technology adoption lifecycle (TALC)
Marketing communication for tech startups—describes the process and methods to develop word-of-mouth marketing in the marketplace
Marketing communications: Reaching early adopters of technology products—focuses on how (and why) you should tailor your message for technology enthusiasts and visionaries
Successful market communication across the Chasm and in the Bowling Alley—explains the tactics that will help you cross the Chasm MS 68 Free Solved Assignment
For most of history, advertisers talked to consumers—the traditional communications model was a one-way street. It was pretty simple, really: The source (such as an advertising agency) created a message (the advertisement) and selected the medium (newspaper, TV, outdoor, etc.) that carried it to the receiver (the consumer).
The consumer may have given feedback to the source about the message (typically only indirectly, namely by buying the advertised product or service or not)—and of course she may have ignored it,
just as people often do today—but the line of communication was clearly drawn. The producer called the shots and the message was univocal (one voice).
Flash forward to a more dynamic—and chaotic—picture. Today, advertising messages come from many sources simultaneously through different media that target different receivers (consumers, business partners, stockholders, even government officials).
At the same time, receivers talk with one another and they may initiate their own communication with the sender, whether that organization wants to hear it or not.
The updated communications model is interactive, nonlinear, and multivocal (many voices). In addition, consumers now may choose to opt out of listening to a particular message—they often get to decide which messages they see or hear, and when.
In the old days, opting out meant getting up to make a sandwich when a TV commercial came on, but today many of us have a lot more control to determine what messages will appear for us to consider in the first place.MS 68 Free Solved Assignment
For marketers, this permission marketing strategy makes sense (even though some may be indignant that they’re losing control over the situation).
The rationale is very simple: A message is more likely to persuade consumers who have agreed to listen to it in the first place.
Who communicates the message (the source) has a big impact on whether a receiver will accept the message.
You’re a lot more likely to download the latest Rihanna cut if your buddy recommends it than if you get the same advice from your kindly old uncle (unless he happens to be Jay-Z).
The power of source effects, in fact, underlies the millions that celebrities make when they agree to endorse products. Obviously, advertisers feel it’s worth the substantial expense to pay a movie star or athlete to associate themselves with a certain brand’s message.
Indeed, the pairing of a well-known person with a product is hardly new: Mark Twain’s image appeared on packages of flour and cigars in the late 1800s, while Buffalo Bill Cody hawked Kickapoo Indian Oil and Elvis was the face of Southern Maid Doughnuts.
What makes an effective source? The important characteristics are credibility and attractiveness.MS 68 Free Solved Assignment
Source Credibility :
Source credibility means that consumers perceive the source (the spokesperson) as an expert who is objective and trustworthy (“I’m not a doctor, but I play one on TV”).
A credible source will provide information on competing products, not just one product, to help the consumer make a more informed choice.
We also see the impact of credibility in Web sites like eBay or Wikipedia and numerous blogs, where readers rate the quality of others’ submissions to enable the entire audience to judge whose posts are worth reading.
Source Attractiveness :
Source attractiveness refers to the source’s perceived social value, not just his or her physical appearance.
High social value comes partly from physical attractiveness but also from personality, social status, or similarity to the receiver. MS 68 Free Solved Assignment
We like to listen to people who are like us, which is why “typical” consumers are effective when they endorse everyday products.
(b) Write a brief on your understanding of the Rural media scene.
Ans:- The North and West Zones have a higher percentage of farmers than the all-India percentage.
The South Zone has a high percentage of labourers and the North the lowest. In Kerala, the percentage of farmers is only 3 per cent and that of these “not working”, 67 per cent.
The percentage of farmers is lower than the percentage of labourers in all areas except the West where they are equal.
If we look at the population dispersion according to the population strata, then we notice that the South zone has a very high percentage of rural people living in villages with a population strata greater than 5,000.
All other zones have a lower percentage of people living in villages with a population greater than 5,000 than the all-India percentage.
In the North, East and West zones the percentages of people living in the population centres below 1,000 is on the higher side.
Kerala has the highest percentage of people living in villages with a population greater than 5,000, whereas Himachal Pradesh has no village with a population greater than 5,000.
While deciding the media options in order to reach rural areas, media performance needs to be considered. Where TV exposure is high, radio exposure is low.
For example, in the North and the West the difference between the exposure levels of TV and radio is high, whereas in the South the difference is relatively small.
Only in the East is the exposure to radio higher than the exposure to TV (though marginally).MS 68 Free Solved Assignment
TV undoubtedly is the single medium, which has a high exposure level in all the zones. Its exposure levels are relatively higher in the North and West. This may be due to the fact that most of the programmes are in Hindi.
Interestingly, the National Network alone has a very high penetration level ranging between 98 per cent and 100 per cent in all the areas viz., North, South, East and West.
Other channels like Metro (10 per cent), etc. have a very low penetration level. Moreover farmers and “not working” categories have a high viewership compared to the other categories of the rural audience.
The print medium is the most important option for communication. The print medium has been receiving a major chunk of the media spend.
It has a high exposure level in urban areas but its exposure level in rural areas is low. Its low exposure levels in rural areas can be attributed to low literacy rate, language barriers, etc.
The exposure to the print medium is relatively low as compared to TV or radio exposures. Only 13% of the rural population is exposed to any publication. Only the South has a high level of exposure. MS 68 Free Solved Assignment
This is due to the high literacy rate in the South, especially in Kerala. On an all-India basis, exposure to “any Hindi publication” is the highest. This is mainly due to very high exposure of’ any Hindi publication in the North.
Individual states cannot be dealt with at the same time with some common publications. A publication in Andhra Pradesh would have a very low or a zero readership in Tamil Nadu.
But in the Northern states, two or more states can be targeted at the same time with some common publications, e.g., Punjab Kesari has a readership of 58 per cent in Haryana and Chandigarh, 51 per cent in Himachal Pradesh and 20 per cent in Punjab.
This is due to the common language, Hindi. Other hindi publications also play an important role. Radio has an all India exposure level of 43 per cent.
Among the available radio channels the Primary channel has the hightest listenership on an all India basis. Vividh Bharati also has a high listenership. Only in the North is the listenership of the Primary channel low.
The South has the highest listeners hip of the Primary channel. In the North alone the listenership of Vividh Bharti is higher than of Primary channel.
The Sri Lanka Broadcasting Corporation has a presence in the listnership with the highest listenership in the South.MS 68 Free Solved Assignment
(a) Discuss the elements of promotion mix and their impact with suitable examples.
Ans:- Marketing communication (promotion) comprises several elements. Figure 4 represents the configuration:
Advertising: The American Marketing Association defines advertising as: “any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods or services by an identified sponsor.”
The key words are
nonpersonal' andpaid by an identified sponsor’. Thus, in .an advertisement, instead of communicating with customers face-to-face companies that advertise, ordinarily use a mass medium, television, newspapers, radio, hoardings etc.
These messages, when they appear, identify clearly who has paid for them.
The cost of advertising may appear very high, when judged in absolute terms. However, it is one of the cheapest when calculated in terms of cost per unit in reach and `’frequency’. Besides being cost effective, advertising often attracts customers for its creativity.
Many children and housewives in India are reported to have enjoyed more the TV Commercials preceding the programmes than the programmes themselves.
The ultimate benefit, of advertising lies in the fact that it allows perfect reproduction of the desired message and thus, enjoys the maximum degree of control over the message.
Publicity: Publicity is formally defined as `any form of non-paid commercially significant news or editorial comment about ideas, products and institutions.
Personal Selling: Unlike advertising, personal selling involves a one-to-one relationship with a customer. It is `the oral presentation of a tangible and intangible product by a seller to a prospect for the purpose of completing an exchange’.
The apparent benefit of personal selling is that it allows salespersons to judge the reaction of customers to their sales presentations and thus, gives an opportunity to vary the message for better understanding. MS 68 Free Solved Assignment
It is, however, expensive as compared to advertising and other means of marketing communication. It is generally believed that it is not particularly suited to the mass-distributed consumer products.
Sales Promotion: Sales promotion includes a wide variety of tools and, thus, has been defined in several different ways.
Perhaps, one of the better definition of sales promotion is: “a direct inducement which offers an extra value and incentive for the product to the salesforce, distributors, or the ultimate consumers” (J.F. Luich & W.L. Ziegler `Sales Promotion’ and Modem Merchandising, NY McGraw Hill, 1968, p.4).
Sales promotion methods are useful means of stimulating a quick and immediate response from consumers. Coupons, music cassettes, free products and free demonstrations and just a few examples of many-forms that sales promotion may take.
Packaging: Packaging has become increasingly important as a promotional tool. Especially in consumer products, marketers have discovered the value of packaging as a fascinating communication in India, with the introduction of new packaging technology.
The markets are almost revolutionalized. The poly packing is one illustration of this trend. Marketers have gone to the extent of designing their communication message around new and innovative packaging (Dalda Refined Oil;. MS 68 Free Solved Assignment
Cosmetic and Sanitary products; Pan Masala etc). The value of packaging lies not merely in protecting the product but in retaining and promoting the product. Service industry too has begun to use packaging as a promotion.
(b) What do you understand by the term message design in the communication framework? Bring out its importance in strategy development/formulation.
Ans:- Message design is the process of connecting insights about the priority audience with key information the audience needs to know in order to make the change the program desires.
Successful, well-designed messages are simple, memorable, easily understood, culturally appropriate and meaningful to the audience. Their design stems from a clear creative brief that outlines what the communication intervention aims to achieve.
In social and behavior change communication (SBCC), a message is a statement containing key points of information that a program wants to communicate to an audience to encourage behavior change.
In order to be effective, a message needs to a) include a clear call to action and b) address the behavioral determinant of interest.
A message to a key audience, therefore, typically reflects 1) a desired action (which should be small/doable) from the audience and 2) the key promise or benefit if they perform the action.MS 68 Free Solved Assignment
The key message often has supporting information associated with it.
Gather Background Documents
Before designing program messages, think about the information needed to support the process.
Gather the data relevant to the health issue and audience, including the situation analysis, audience analysis and creative brief, plus samples of other messages and materials on the same topic from within and outside of the intervention area.
Identify Members of the Creative Team
Build a creative team from project staff, creative professionals, content specialists, writers and communication professionals, and members of the priority audience, if possible.
The team should be kept relatively small and focused since inviting too many participants to a creative design process can make it difficult to focus and gain consensus.
Organize a Design Workshop
A design workshop helps foster creativity as the creative team works collaboratively to develop the best messages for the priority audience.
A creative team can gather for a two- or three-day workshop away from work to encourage creativity and innovation. MS 68 Free Solved Assignment
Key stakeholders and members of the priority audience should also attend to help generate ideas. A message design workshop can be combined with a materials development workshop.
Identify a facilitator who can lead the workshop and keep the group focused on the topic, and also energized and excited.
Organize the logistics of holding the workshop outside of the office setting.
If an external creative agency or creative professionals will be responsible for producing program materials, identify them prior to the start of the creative workshop, so they can participate fully in the creative process.
Determine Key Message Content
Key message content is often developed as part of a communication strategy. If content has already been articulated, review it prior to drafting messages.
If it has not been developed, use the design workshop to determine core content that should be included in messages. Ask:MS 68 Free Solved Assignment
- Who is the audience and what are its needs, motivations and barriers to change?
- What action does the program want the audience to take? 3. Why should the audience take the action?
Draft Key Messages
Based on the identified message content, audience needs and barriers to behavior change, key promise and tone decided on in the creative brief, develop key messages.
Q 3 (a) Media selection, planning and scheduling are considered as strategic issues in advertising. Discuss each of these issues which makes them strategic.
Ans:- Media planning and selection are of top significance once the advertising goals and the organisation have been set.
Media planning and selection deals with media identification, identification of factors governing media and vehicle choices, laying down criteria for media selection and evaluation of each media against another, developing media-mix, resources allocation and media scheduling.
Media selection is possible when one knows about the ‘reach’ and ‘impact’ of each medium and media vehicle.
Media planning, therefore, is the study of different advertising media and media vehicles in depth that facilitates media selection and development of media-mix that is most suitable for the firm in question.MS 68 Free Solved Assignment
A Indoor advertising media: Indoor advertising media represents the use of those vehicles by the advertisers that carry the message right into the houses or indoors of the audiences.
These vehicles are: (1) Newspapers (2) Magazines (3) Radio (4) Television and Film.
The market diversities in terms of consumer preferences, competitive pressures, availability of media and the like necessitate the designing of a media-mix so as to meet the requirements of these diversities with view to maximize the message impact.
That is, there is hardly any company that is happy with only one medium or media vehicle. This media mixing is also called as ‘multimedia strategy’.
Basically, development of a media-mix is a problem of determining the optimum allocation of firm’s advertising funds.
The funds earmarked are to be so distributed over different media and media vehicles that the marginal returns from each component are equal.
In other words, the last rupee spent on any component should produce the same rupee return as the last rupee spent on other components.
This marginal or equimarginal concept of media-mix development therefore, is a matter of three broad steps namely: MS 68 Free Solved Assignment
- Media-wise collection of data of past expenditure.
2. Analysis of data so as to get reasonably accurate representations of the net returns curves for each medium, together with sales results.
3. Subsequent adjustment of budget allocation to different media so that the slopes of the several net returns curves tend to equalize.
This last step is trial and error approach in which one starts with a given feasible allocation, lest it locates profitable changes and brings changes leading to a raise in the net returns.
At a point when there are no further chances of rising net returns, one arrives at the optimum allocation of funds representing the optimum media mix.
This trial and error method is like the linear programming model of media-mix which has been developed to help the advertising executives in making media-mix choices. The best examples of this kind are: High Assay Model,
Simulation Model and Mediac Model.
Media Scheduling: Media scheduling is the very next managerial task, once the media-mix is developed. A media schedule is a timebound detail of advertisements with reference to the media selected.MS 68 Free Solved Assignment
Media schedule portrays the total audience coverage, the message frequency and the continuity of the message.
As noted earlier, coverage, reach, frequency and continuity are interrelated concepts and are to be carefully considered and weighed while developing media schedule.
Media scheduling decisions are extremely important for two reasons namely:
1. Purchases of radio and television time and news-paper and magazine space represent the largest elements of the cost in the advertising budget.
2. The success of an advertisement in achieving advertising objectives largely depends on how each show or magazine reaches the consumers in the target market segment.
Following are some of the media scheduling theories that assist the advertising executives in media schedule development.
Though these provide quantitative tools of media scheduling, an advertising manager is expected to employ his judgment because, he has failed to measure accurately all the attributes of all the media open to him.
Here, a mention is made of three theories of scheduling.
The first one is the Wave Theory, according to which the advertiser purchases time and space in different media for a relative short time and moves out of these media in ‘waves’ in the hope that the impact of his advertising will carry over from the periods of heavy concentration to those of no advertising. MS 68 Free Solved Assignment
In essence, this theory sacrifices continuity and builds-up coverage and frequency.
The second one is Media Dominance Theory according to which an advertiser buys unusually large amounts of space in one medium; after building up coverage and frequency in that medium, he shifts another medium for a short period.
Thus, it speaks of saturating one medium at a time before touching another.
The third one is Media Concentration Theory which states that the advertiser concentrates fully on only one medium than spending on different media for a short period.
This theory values continuity for longer periods. The actual applicability of these theories depends on their relative merit in a given marketing situation.
The Advertising Message: Formulation of advertising message is an integral part of media planning and selection.
The phrase ‘advertising message’ includes two basic elements namely:
1 The appeals (copy claims) that represent the central idea of the message.
2 The method of presentation (the style of execution) that is used to present the copy claims. Message formulation involves designing of the advertising copy and structuring the advertising layout so that the company’s claims (USPs) can be presented effectively before the audience for appropriate product-positioning.
Let us know in brief these concepts namely, product positioning, unique selling proposition, copy and layout.MS 68 Free Solved Assignment
The phrase ‘product-positioning’ signifies an effort to find a new segment of the market, a unique niche not tightly controlled by a competitor.
Thus, it refers to the placement of company product or products in the minds of target consumers relative to the competitive products, as having certain distinctive benefits and wantsatisfying potential.
In other words, it is an attempt to capitalize on distinctive appeal not exploited by the competitor.
Positioning represents more a state of mind or image than different ingredients or attributes; such a state of mind is derived from advertising, more than from product-planning and design.
Advertising is an instrument of positioning or repositioning a product or products of the company in the minds of the consumers by focusing their attention on ‘claims’ or ‘unique selling proposition’ or the ‘theme’ being conveyed through the message.
The Unique Selling Proposition (USP) (Theme):
Advertising theme or campaign theme is the appeal or the substance of a given advertisement message. It is the key-note concept that gets the message in a challenging manner across the prospects.MS 68 Free Solved Assignment
It is that central idea around which the campaign is built. It is the ‘big selling idea’ known as unique selling proposition or the USP. The USP is the heart of advertising campaign.
It is an offer that an advertiser makes to his consumers which is unique in relation to the competing offer or offers and promises to deliver a certain distinctive benefit or benefits or a package of satisfaction.
It is conveyed through the copy or the artwork or both. The underlying idea behind the USP is that it differentiates qualities of a product or a service.
It means that each campaign should promise the prospect a specific benefit based on the USP and particularly one that is not offered by the competitors.
The selling proposition or the appeal or the claim must entice the prospects to gain new customers for the product or the service.
A good campaign theme is one that aims at any basic buying motive, attracts the right group of prospects, ties in logically with the product and its qualities and is capable of being used in multiple media.
(b) Explain the important considerations in the organisation and management of consumer trade promotions.
Ans:- Consumer promotions are those incentive schemes which aim at encouraging the product/service usage at the consumer level.MS 68 Free Solved Assignment
You might recall that some of such schemes are over-the-counter give a ways, price-offs, quantity-offs, sampling, inpackage premium, banded premiums, container premiums, self-liquidating premiums, coupons, personality premiums, refund offers, trading stamps, contests and lucky draws.
Besides choosing an innovative and creative scheme. which is compatible with the sales promotion goals set, it may be noted that the success of the scheme rests equally on how well these are organised and implemented.
Marketing is a set of activities related to creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for others.
In business, the function of marketing is to bring value to customers, whom the business seeks to identify, satisfy, and retain.
This chapter will emphasize the role of marketing in business, but many of the concepts will apply to non-profit organizations, advocacy campaigns, and other activities aimed at influencing perceptions and behavior.
The Art of the Exchange
In marketing, the act of obtaining a desired object from someone by offering something of value in return is called the exchange process.
The exchange involves: MS 68 Free Solved Assignment
the customer (or buyer): a person or organization with a want or need who is willing to give money or some other personal resource to address this need
the product: a physical good, a service, experience or idea designed to fill the customer’s want or need the provider (or seller): the company or organization offering a need-satisfying thing, which may be a product, service, experience or idea
the transaction: the terms around which both parties agree to trade value-for-value (most often, money for product)
Individuals on both sides of the exchange try to maximize rewards and minimize costs in transactions, in order to gain the most profitable outcomes. Ideally, everyone achieves a satisfactory level of reward.
Marketing creates a bundle of goods and services that the company offers at a price to its customers. The bundle consists of a tangible good, an intangible service or benefit, and the price of the offering.
When you compare one car to another, for example, you can evaluate each of these dimensions—the tangible, the intangible, and the price—separately.
However, you can’t buy one manufacturer’s car, another manufacturer’s service, and a third manufacturer’s price when you actually make a choice. Together, the three make up a single firm’s offer or bundle.MS 68 Free Solved Assignment
Marketing is also responsible for the entire environment in which this exchange of value takes place.
Marketing identifies customers, their needs, and how much value they place on getting those needs addressed.
Marketing informs the design of the product to ensure it meets customer needs and provides value proportional to what it costs.
Marketing is responsible for communicating with customers about products, explaining who is offering them and why they are desirable.
Marketing is also responsible for listening to customers and communicating back to the provider about how well they are satisfying customer needs and opportunities for improvement.
Marketing shapes the location and terms of the transaction, as well as the experience customers have after the product is delivered.
Marketing Creates Value for Customers
According to the influential economist and Harvard Business School professor Theodore Levitt, the purpose of all business is to “find and keep customers.”
Marketing is instrumental in helping businesses achieve this purpose and is much more than just advertising and selling products and collecting money.
Marketing generates value by creating connections between people and products, customers and companies.MS 68 Free Solved Assignment
How does this happen? Boiled down to its essence, the role of marketing is to identify, satisfy, and retain customers.
Before you can create anything of value, first you must identify a want or need that you can address, as well as the prospective customers who possess this want or need.
Q 4 (a) Discuss the various functions and structure of an advertising agency.
Ans:- Though advertising agencies may follow the departmental structure or the Group System as a structure, the broad functions remain essentially the same.
The functions of an agency are broadly broken up as follows:
- Account Services
- Creative Services
- Media Services
- Administration and Accounts
(b) What do you understand by “positioning” in the context of advertising agencies? Explain the various positioning alternatives avfunitailable for advertising agencies with suitable examples.
Ans:- Message is the idea, or other information that the marketer wishes to convey to the consumer emphasising the importance of message design.
Ogilvy said, “my original magic lantern started with the assertion that positioning and promise were more than half the battle.” True.
But spotting the uniqueness or association of the product that will help the advertiser, win a place in the consumer’s mind isn’t easy. MS 68 Free Solved Assignment
An excellent example of brand positioning is Maggi instant noodles; In the book Brand Positioning, the author Subrato Sengupta writes.
The above example helps us in understanding positioning, the key word to modernday advertising. Position of a product is what the consumer thinks about it.
And not what the marketer feels about his product. Identifying and applying consumer’s true mental perceptions of the product in your communication is what message design is all about.
While designing the message for a certain product, seeking answers to the following seven questions will generate a lot of insight. These will begin a chain of more questions and further probing, that might be undertaken, if necessary.
The purpose of all business communication is to add value. Man is a social being. His existence forms the basis of – society.
All value that he receives, therefore, has an impact on society. This is the area of concern here. While proposing the societal marketing concept Kotler states
“In recent years, some have questioned whether the marketing concept is an appropriate philosophy in an age of environmental deterioration, resource shortages, explosive population growth, world hunger and poverty, and neglected social services.
Are companies that do an excellent job of satisfying consumer wants necessarily acting in the best long-run interests of consumers and society?
The marketing concept sidesteps the potential conflicts among consumer wants, consumer interests, and long-run societal welfare.” How can the societal marketing concept work? The answer to this question is explored here.MS 68 Free Solved Assignment
Civilisations that are built on a focussed concern that the additional `value’ a customer receives should also imply values added for society are destined to last longer.
Cooperation is the basis of not only a social structure but also its value creation and delivery structure.
When specialisation and division of labour form the basis of social systems, co-operation becomes an imperative. This cooperation should result in compatibility between the creation and delivery of value for the individual and society.
Such compatibility is important for long-term mutually supportive functioning of society. This approach will automatically build a focussed concern for environmental, ethical and other issues in the creation and delivery of value.
Thus the competitive response of a firm, so long as it is within the framework of shared values of society will continue to add value to both the individual and society. In the absence of such an approach many legal and ethical issues emerge.
There is also a rising concern for ethical issues in research, growth and use of knowledge for production of goods and services as well as their marketing and communication which stimulates needs.
These concerns can only be adequately met through communication of society’s shared values to all participants in the value creation and delivery processes.
Shared values showed from the basis of value creation and delivery. Communication then, at the level of the 4th C, should try and move the shared values of the firm, cluster, industry, nation and customer closer to the shared values of society.
Information, in today’s world, is power. MS 68 Free Solved Assignment
The role of technology is going to make access to information much easier. However technology offers no solution on the nature of use of the power.
With rapid growth of information and knowledge the dimensions of use of power will increase. For example, so much information on consumer likings may be available that the dangers of intrusion into privacy of citizens become real.
Self-restraint based on shared values can be the only guiding light in using such power in every area from genetic research to consumer research.
What is the necessary determinant of Shared Values? Broadly speaking, it can be easily identified as a desire for `wisdom realisation’.
This desire addresses the highest order needs of individuals and takes a holistic view of man and society’s interaction
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