Marketing of Services
MS 65 Solved Free Assignment 2022
MS 65 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022
Q 1. Discuss the international scenario of role played by services sector in national economies. Do you feel India is following the trend displayed by developed economies in this regard? Discuss the theories of motivation, and types of motivational conflict.
Ans:- Services are extensively used by people day to day in all aspects of life. From education to entertainment, finance to fast food, travel to telephone, advertisement to amusement parks, market research to maintenance services, and retailing to recreation and so on.
Today services are increasingly being used by corporate as well as household sector.
The explosive growth in this sector started in the 20th century, especially after the end of World War II. MS 65 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Due to large scale destruction during the war lot of economic activities, had to be carried out to bring the war tom economies back to strength.
This resulted in a number of new projects fuelling the demand for financial services.
Today households as well as firms are demanding more services as well as services of increasing quality and sophistication.
In addition to these factors, globalization has resulted in growth of service sector as well.
Globalization of economies has led to an increased demand for communication, travel and information services. MS 65 Solved Free Assignment 2022
This has been fuelled by the rapid changes brought by new information technology,Globalization has also made increased and new demands on legal and other professional services. MS 65 Free Solved Assignment
Also, HOP increased specialization has led to greater reliance on specialist service providers at international level e.g., advertising and market research.
It is quite obvious from Figure 2.1 that while the role of agriculture has been reclucing in the economics of industrial societies, that of service sector has been increasing at a fast pace.
As the economies shift from developing to developed stage they will show more and more shift towards services.
The tremendous growth of service sector has resulted in its increased importance to the world economies.
As early as in 1948, US service sector contributed 54% of GDP, and with the increasing trend in the use of services it now generates 80% of the GDP.
Service sector dominates the economies of other developed nations as well. As countries develop, the role of agriculture in the economy declines and that of services rises.
Highly developed countries all have more than 50% of GDP and employment derived from services.MS 65 Solved Free Assignment 2022
A particular characteristic of the development of service employment over time is that it is less sensitive to business cycle fluctuations than other types of employment.
The service sector comprises 80% of US employment, up from 55% in 1950. Most of the absolute growth in number of jobs in US in recent years is in service sector.
According to University of Michigan study, a 1/3 cut in global barriers to trade in services would increase US annual income by $150 billion ($ 2,100 per American family of four).
Total elimination of barriers in services would raise US annual income gain by over $ 450 billion ($ 6,380 per family of four).
Apart from US, leaders of major global service industry associations representing the EU, Australia, Hong Kong, and Japan called for urgent progress in the multilateral liberalization of trade in services.MS 65 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Trade in services also benefits developing countries greatly.
The infrastructure of modern and growing economies and the gains made from liberalizing trade in services and agriculture are enhanced with open service sectors.
The benefits of a modem services sector reverberate across an entire economy, touching every product, idea and consumer.
Modernizing services can help developing countries jump start the economic growth necessary for reducing poverty.MS 65 Free Solved Assignment
The service sector is the fastest growing part of the economy in many developing counbies, with the World Bank reporting that services account for 54 per cent of their GDP
The share of services in the country’s GDP was 56.1% in 2002-03 (RE), up from the 51.5% recorded in 1998-99 and 36% in 1980-81.
In contrast, the industrial sector’s share in GDP has declined from 25.38 per cent to 21.8 per cent in 1990-91 and 2002-03 respectively.
The agricultural sector’s share has fallen from 30.93 per cent to 22.1 per cent in the respective years.MS 65 Solved Free Assignment 2022
The growth in the services sector has averaged 8.5 per cent during the period 1994-2000.
Dr. Manmohan Singh, the then Union Finance Minister, in his budget speech for the year 1994-95 introduced the new concept of Service Tax.
The number of services being taxed has increased from 3 in 1994-95 to 51 in 2002-03.
The corresponding increase in revenues from services tax has been from Rs. 410 crores to 4,125 crores. The details of service tax in India have been given in Appendix at the end of this unit.
The rise in the service sector’s share in GDP marks a structural shift in the Indian economy and takes it closer to the fundamentals of a developed economy.
If the service sector bypasses the industrial sector, economic growth can be distorted.
Service sector growth must be supported by proportionate growth of the industrial sector; otherwise the service sector grown will not be sustainable
It is true that, in India, the service sector’s contribution in GDP has sharply risen and that of industry has fallen. MS 65 Solved Free Assignment 2022
But, it is equally true that the industrial sector too has grown, and grown quite impressively through the 1990s (except in 1998-99).
Three times between 1993-94 and 1998-99, industry surpassed the growth rate of GDP.
Thus, the service sector has grown at a higher rate than industry which too has grown more or less in tandem. The rise of the service sector therefore does not distort the economy.
Approach/avoidance describes the response of an employee whose desire for the higher salary of a promotion is ASB countered by reluctance to take on more responsibility or to change hours. MS 65 Solved Free Assignment 2022
The employee is motivated but can’t take the next step to move forward.
Unless the promised reward increases beyond the desire to avoid the change, the employee may remain caught in a dilemma and unable to act.
When confronted with two equally attractive choices, the employee may be caught in an approach/approach conflict.
Unless she can find some reason to choose one situation over the other, she may be unable to move forward. MS 65 Solved Free Assignment 2022
A choice between seniority in one position or being a more junior member of a department working on a project of great interest to her in another slot exemplifies this type of conflict. MS 65 Free Solved Assignment
Some sort of additional reason is needed to help her to take the next step to get out of the conflict.
By applying principles of motivational conflict theory to find a resolution, an employer or manager can use company resources to his best advantage.
Supply the employee with what she needs to make a decision in the company’s favor. The solution may take other forms than financial remuneration.
In the types of motivational conflicts examples above, the first employee may be willing to take on the greater workload if his work schedule can allow him to spend less time on the commute by traveling off-peak hours or telecommuting one day a week.
The second one might decide to stay where her seniority will best benefit the company if she can consult on the interesting project.
Realizing that no job is less desirable than the other two options may help employees agree to work longer hours without an increase in pay.
Q2. What are the basic differences between pricing of goods and pricing of services? Does characteristics of services influence their pricing? Discuss.
A) Pricing and Service Characteristics In determining the prices of services, the one characteristic which has great impact is their perishability and the fact that fluctuations in demand cannot be met through inventory.
Hotels and airlines offering low rates in off-season are examples of how pricing strategy can be used to offset the perishable characteristics of services.
Another characteristic of services that creates a problem in price determination is the high content of the intangible component.
The higher the intangibility, the more difficult it is to calculate cost and greater the tendency towards nonuniform services, such as fees of doctors, management consultants, lawyers. MS 65 Free Solved Assignment
In such cases, the price may sometimes be settled through negotiation between the buyer and seller.
On the other hand, in services such as dry cleaning, the tangible component is higher, and the service provided is homogeneous.
It is casier to calculate the cost on a unit basis and have a uniform pricing policy In general, the more unique a service the greater the freedom to fix the price at any level.
Often the price may be fixed according to the customer’s ability to pay. In such cases price may be used as an indicator of quality
The third characteristic to be kept in mind while determining prices is that in many services, the prices are subject to regulations, either by the government or by trade associations.
Bank charges, electricity and water rates, fare for rail and air transport in India are controlled by the government.
In many other cases, the trade or industry association may regulate prices in order to avoid undercutting and to maintain quality standards.
Interational air fares are regulated by international agreement of airlines, sea freight fares may be regulated by shipping conferences.
In all such cases, the producer has no freedom to determine his own price.
The two methods which a service organisation may use to determine prices are
cost-based pricing and market-oriented pricing.
In the former, the price may be regulated by the government or industry association on the basis of the cost incurred by the most efficient unit.
Such a pricing strategy is effective in restricting entry and aiming at minimum profit targets. MS 65 Free Solved Assignment
The market-oriented pricing may either be a result of the competition or customer-oriented.
In case of competition-oriented pricing, the price may be fixed at the level which the competitor is charging, or fixed lower to increase market share.
Customeroriented pricing varies according the to customer’s ability to pay
B) Role of Non-monetary Costs Non-monetary costs refer to the sacrifices perceived by the consumers, other than monetary costs, when buying and using a service.
Many a times the non monetary costs may become even more important than monetary costs.
The nonmonetary costs can be broadly divided into the following categories.
I) Time Costs: Because services are inseparable, most of them would require
direct participation of the consumer i.e. they involve time.
The time required by a consumer would include actual time of interaction with the service provider as well as the waiting time.
Therefore, the consumer is not only spending his money but also sacrificing his time.
At times the consumer may be required to travel to a service which may involve time as well as additional monetary cost.
II) Search Costs: These involve the efforts put in by the consumer in
searching information, finding out alternatives and evaluating them.
Typically search costs are far greater in case of services as compared to goods. There are a number of reasons for this.MS 65 Free Solved Assignment
Services being rich in experience and credence qualities are rarely displayed on shelves in service outlets for customers to evaluate them.
Also in many services it is difficult to know the price in advance.
III) Psychie Costs: These include fear of not understanding or fear of rejection
or fear of uncertainty.
For example, while applying for a bank loan the customer has a fear of the loan application being rejected.
At times, customer may find the service product difficult to understand like various options in life insurance or difficult to use like ATMs, on line trading etc.
As marketers you should not concentrate just on monetary costs alone as consumer make decisions based on monetary as well as non-monetary costs.
In fact by reducing non-monetary costs, it may be possible for you to increase monetary price.
C) Pricing Strategies The pricing strategies that may be used to sell services are:
a) Differential or flexible pricing:
b) Discount pricing:
c) Diversionary pricing
d) Guaranteed pricing;
e) High price maintenance pricing;
f) Loss leader pricing:
g) Offset pricing; and
h) Price bundling
a) Differential or Flexible Pricing is used to reduce the ‘perishability’
characteristic of services and iron out the fluctuations in demand
Differential price implies charging different prices according to
1)customer’s ability to pay differentials (as in professional services of
management consultant, lawyers):
2) price time differentials (used in hotels, airlines, telephones where there
is the concept of season and off season and peak hours); and
3) place differential used in rent of property-theatre seat pricing (balcony tickets are more expensive than front row seats) and houses in better located colonies command high rent. MS 65 Free Solved Assignment
b) Discount Pricing refers to the practice of offering a commission or
discount to intermediates such as advertising agencies, stock brokers, property dealers for rendering a service.
It may also be used as a promotional device to encourage use during low-demand time slots or to encourage customers to try a new service (such as an introductory
c) Diversionary Pricing refers to a low price which is quoted for a basic
service to attract customers.
A restaurant may offer a basic meal at a low price but one which includes no soft drink or sweet dish.
Once the customer is attracted because of the initial low price he may be tempted to buy a drink or an ice-cream or an additional dish.
Thus he may end up buying more than just the basic meal.
d) Guaranteed Pricing refers to pricing strategy in which payment is to be
made only after the results are achieved Employment agencies charge their fee only when a person actually gets a job,
a property dealer charges his commission only after the deal is actually transacted.
Q 3 Using SERVQUAL scale, create a questionnaire for a service firm that you patronize or are familiar With
Ans. The most widely-used measure for service quality has been the ‘SERVQUAL measure of Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry,
according to which customer assessment of service quality results from a comparison of service expectations and actual performance.
The SERVQUAL scale was first published in 1988 and has undergone numerous improvements and revisions since then.
This scale was developed and validated using service providers in four service sectors: retail banking, credit cards, securities brokerage and product repair and maintenance.
The developers of the scale acknowledge that the five service quality dimensions are general dimensions that relate to most of the services.
It measures the service quality on the five service quality dimensions discussed earlier in this unit viz. Reliability, Responsiveness, Assurance, Empathy and Tangibles.
Reliability largely concerns whether the outcome of service delivery was as promised.
The other four dimensions relate to the process of service delivery or how the service was delivered.MS 65 Free Solved Assignment
Servqual scores are expressed as the difference between expectations and perceptions i.e. it measures the gap between the service that consumer think should be provided and what they think actually has been provided.
Respondents complete a series of scale, which measure their expectations on five service quality dimensions and subsequently, they are asked to record their perceptions of that company’s performance on those same dimension.
When perceived performance ratings are lower than expectations this is sign of poor quality: the reverse indicates good quality.
The SERVQUAL scale can be used
1) To detennine a company’s service quality along each of the five service
ii) To find out relative importance of service quality dimensions as considered by the customer,
iii) To compute overall weighted SERVQUAL score, which takes into account the relative importance of cach dimension as well.
iv) To track customers’ expectations and perceptions over time
v) To compare a company’s SERVQUAL score against those of competitors.
As mentioned earlier the SERVQUAL instrument has been used with modifications in a number of studies.
Though it is a widely used instrument, some researchers have also identified problems in using the instrument as well as the gap theory methodology.
Cronin & Taylor suggest that instead of measuring expectations and perceptions, measurement of performance alone would be enough for measuring service quality.
They have suggested that the performance based scale developed (SERVPERF) is efficient in comparison with the SERVQUAL scale as it reduces by 50% the number of items that must be measured,
The restaurant….. MS 65 Free Solved Assignment
1) has visually attractive parking areas and building exteriors.
2) has a visually attractive dining area
3)has staff members who are clean, neat, and appropriately dressed
4) has a dtcor in keeping with its image and price range
5) has a menu that is easily readable.
6)has a visually attractive menu that reflects the restaurant’s image.
7) has a dinning area that is comfortable and easy to move around in
8) has rest rooms that are thoroughly clean
9) has dining areas that are thoroughly clean
10) has comfortable seats in the dining room,
11) serves you in time in the dining room.
12) quickly corrects anything that is wrong
13) is dependable and consistent.
14)provides an accurate guest check
15)serves your food exactly as you ordered it.
16) during busy times has employees shift to help each other maintain speed and
quality of service.
17) provides prompt and quick service.
18) gives extra effort to handle your special requests
19) has employees who can answer your questions completely
20) makes you feel comfortable and confident in your dealing with them.
Q 4. What are the implications of core, facilitating and supporting services for marketers of education? Discuss the concept of an augmented service products with the help of examples from the educational services.
Ans :- The core service is the reason for being in the market. A management institute exists because it equips people with skills and abilities to manage organisations.
Faculty expertise and the accumulated experience at the institute represent the core resource for supplying this benefit.MS 65 Free Solved Assignment
However, in order to make it possible for students to avail these services, additional services are required.
A registration and admission service, class schedules, counselling service, enabling students to make relevant specialisation choices, and library facility are required so that the students are facilitated in deriving the benefits of the core service i.e. the learning.
These services are called the facilitating services. It is important for the planners to realise that if the facilitating services are not adequately provided, the core benefit cannot be consumed.
Sometimes tangible goods are also required to avail the benefit of the core service.
Course material, in the form of books and prepared course notes, instruction manuals, computers, classrooms and class equipments are examples of facilitating goods that help access the core benefit.
The third element of service that goes to make the basic service package is the supporting services.
Like facilitating services, they are also auxiliary to the core benefit but their objective does not lie in facilitating the
use of core service, rather they are used to enhance the value of the core product and to differentiate the service offer from other comparable offers.
An efficient placement cell in the above mentioned example, high quality residential facilities, good network of exchange relationships with business organisations,
do not facilitate the learning process but add value to the service offer by adding to the utility derived from the total offer.
From a managerial viewpoint, it is important to make a distinction between facilitating and supporting services. MS 65 Free Solved Assignment
In order to effectively access the core package, the facilitating services are necessary and the service package would collapse, if the facilitating services are not provided.
The marketing strategy directive that can be developed here is that for highly intangible core service products like education, facilitating services should aspire to attain a quality level which enables them to become a competitive strength.
Supporting services which are essentially designed as a means of competition, diminish the value of the package if they are lacking.
The core benefit, learning however, can still be derived if the supporting services are deficient or absent.
The basic service package, however, is not equal to the service perceived by the consumer.
An excellent basic education package, along with its facilitating and support service elements may be made ineffective by the way students are handled or student interactions are managed. MS 65 Solved Free Assignment 2022
How the whole service offer is perceived forms an integral part of the total product.
The basic service package and the elements that go into the service perception form what has been termed as the augmented service product.
The Augmented Service Product integrates the concept of service process with the services offer.
Three distinct elements which along with the basic offer go into the creation of the augmented service product as components of the perceived service process are:
i) accessibility of the service,
ii) interactions with the service organisation,
iii) consumer participation.
Taking the example of a university, accessibility of the service would depend upon: The number and skills of the persons associated with providing the core, facilitating, and supporting service. MS 65 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Office hours, class and seminar schedules, time used for other services
Customer participation is a concept which identifies the impact the receiver of the benefit has on the service he perceives.
In the above example the student is expected to fill in various forms, exercise choices of disciplines and subject combinations and participate in the learning process through interaction and attention. MS 65 Solved Free Assignment 2022
The service rendered by the University would be dependent upon the quality of student participation in the above and allied activities.
Specifically the aspect of student participation that are relevant are :
Are students knowledgeable enough to identify their need or problem, and to exercise choice options offered by the University?
• Are they reasonably aware of the time and flexibility dimensions offered to them?
• Are they prepared and willing to share information and feed back?
• Are there any quicker and more efficient ways of motivating participation?
In planning the total educational package offer, therefore the focus of the concern is not the course alone, the package has to be seen as a total offer along with its facilitating and supporting services. MS 65 Solved Free Assignment 2022
As planners identify that consumer perceptions are also affected by inputs other than the core service, attention needs to be focused on the accessibility, interaction and consumer participation aspects as well as the basic service offer,
so that the augmented education service offering can be effectively created and positioned.
Q 5.Write short notes on following
Ans :- One of the most significant achievements of the Uruguay Round of negotiations from 1986-1993, was to broaden the scope of world trade rules to cover services.
Services negotiations were conducted on a separate track from those on goods, under the aegis of the Group for Negotiations on Services (GNS).
The resulting agreement, GATS, establishes multilateral rules and disciplines to govern international trade and investment in services.
The GATS is a comprehensive legal framework of rules and disciplines covering 161 service activities across 12 classified sectors. MS 65 Solved Free Assignment 2022
These include activities as wide ranging as telecommunications, financial, maritime, energy,business, education, environmental, and distribution services.
It excludes services supplied in the exercise of governmental functions.
The GATS has three main elements. The first is a set of general concepts, principles, and rules, which are applicable across the board to measures affecting trade in services.
Some of the key provisions include obligations concerning transparency, domestic regulation, restrictive business practices, behavior of public monopolies, and Most Favoured Nation (MFN) treatment.
The second element is a set of sector-specific or cross-sectoral commitments on national treatment and market access which are applicable to those activities listed in a country’s schedule of commitments.
The third important element TS is a series of attachments including annexes to the agreement which pertain to sectoral specificities and Ministerial Declarations regarding GATS’ implementation.
This three tier structure reflects the need to have:
(1. General principles applicable to all services to advance overall liberalization in services;
(2. National schedules to enable countries to proceed at their own pace in liberalizing services; and MS 65 Solved Free Assignment 2022
(3. Sectoral agreements to ensure that trade liberalization in some sectors is supported by the establishment of compatible regulatory regimes or modification of existing ones.
The GATS defines services trade as occurring through four modes of supply, modes as discussed earlier.
This modal breakdown addresses the complex nature of international transactions in services and the diverse forms in which services are embodied, in consumption, production, and distribution-related activities and in the form of goods, human capital, and information.
It also brings into the purview of GATS, regulatory issues concerning investment policies and immigration and labour market legislation, hitherto outside the domain of the multilateral trading system. MS 65 Solved Free Assignment 2022
b.Branding of Financial Products
Ans :- Branding, which is a major input in the marketing strategy of commercial products, can be successfully used in the marketing of financial services too.
Brand is a broad term that includes practically all means of identifying a product e.g., the LIC logo, Citibank’s “City” – schemes, Canara Bank’s “Can”-schemes.
Brand name is that part of the brand which can be verbalized e.g., Citihome, Canstar etc.
Brand mark is that part of the brand which can be recognised but is not utterable e.g. the LIC folded hands symbol, Citibank’s distinctive lettering etc. These constitute the logo of the company. MS 65 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Branding is of two types – individual branding which is one-time affair like the Reliance public issue “Khazana” or umbrella branding,
the practice of labeling more than one product with a single brand name e.g., Citibank’s “Citihome, “Citimoble”, and LIC’s “Jeevan Dhara”, “Jeevan Akshay” etc.
The concept of branding of financial products offers several advantages. Brands command customer loyalty for the product.
Each brand has a consumer franchise which can be used to its advantage.
Financial products aim to attract the investors to bring his savings into the market.
This is quite a delicate task because the investor’s money is involved. Most of the financial instruments are very similar. MS 65 Solved Free Assignment 2022
This is where the advantages of branding can be exploited. Branding can help in creating differentiation between the various financial products or public issues.
Branding can also help to create some insulation from the competitor’s promotional strategy.
A successful brand will be demanded by a consumer even if the price is slightly higher.
Trust is the key element if people are expected to part with their money. A good name evokes that trust and gives the investors confidence that their money will be safe.
Branding, especially umbrella branding, helps the consumers to decide whether to buy a product when the new product quality cannot be determined prior to purchase.
Another strong advantage of branding is that good brands help to build the company’s corporate image. MS 65 Solved Free Assignment 2022
In umbrella branding, the advertising and promotion costs of subsequent products can be reduced considerably.
This is because the brand-name recognition and preference is already there.
Branding of financial products has arrived in India in a big way. The first example of the handling of a public issue was when NTPC came out with its “Power Bonds” in 1986.
Since then, the investors have seen Reliance Petrochemical’s “Khazana”, Deepak Fertilizer’s “Mahadhan” and others. MS 65 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Most of the major issues of 1989 were branded – Bindal Agro’s “Goldmine”, Usha Rectifier’s “Usha Lakshmi”, Essar’s “Steel Bonds” and Larsen and Turbo’s “L&T Vision”. Banks too have gone in for umbrella branding in big way.
For instance, we have a series of Canara Bank’s schemes like, “Canpep”, Canstar” and “Canstock”, or, the series of Citibank’s schemes – “Citione”, “Citihome”, “Citimobile”.
Even institutions like LIC have jumped on to the branding bandwagon with their schemes like “Jeevan Dhara” and “Jeevan Akshay”.
The importance of brand name is crucial in the branding exercise. The brand name should not be a casual after thought but an initial reinforcer of the product concept.
First, it should suggest something about the product’s benefits and qualities. Secondly, it should be easy to pronounce, recognise and remember.
c. Positioning of Advertising Agency
Ans :- “Bringing the right people together and making them work effectively for a brand”. MS 65 Free Solved Assignment
This is an incomplete definition for it ignores the ‘consumer benefit’ approach or the client’s point of view. Clients have specific needs 48B when searching for agencies.
Agencies have more strengths in certain areas. Symbolisation (or positioning) is the ‘value added’ dimension agencies give to these strengths so that the client perceives them as fulfilling his specific needs. MS 65 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Positioning by Size
A client may be looking at a “big” or a “small” agency.
The positioning statement for a “big” agency includes “full infrastructural back up, many branches, the ability to think and act big, benefit of experience of handling many product categories etc.”
Positioning staement for a “small” agency includes “flexibility, personalised service and attention, innovation, quick turnaround time and ability to go that extra mile for a client and his product etc.” MS 65 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Positioning by Talent
It must be remembered here that an agency has to offer full fledged services. However its positioning may be decided by the strength it creates in one particular area.
Creative oriented : The client may be looking for agencies which are capable of delivering strikingly different creative output. This positioning can cut across the size barrier.
The “small” agency too can position itself in this slot, earning the label as “creatives hot shot” for itself. MS 65 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Clients may find strikingly different creative output very suitable in product categories where technology has matured and no distinct product advantages exist. A client may need to bank upon creative to create a “communication difference”.
Marketing input oriented : Some agencies may have strengths of having good brand thinkers. This, then, becomes the point of differentiation for the agency.
Clients, too, may look for such agencies with whom they can discuss marketing strategies.
The benefit offered by this positioning to the client is a better interpretation of the marketing concept into advertising. MS 65 Free Solved Assignment
Others : Other alternatives could be based on talent in the agency. For example an agency may be able to offer good “servicing input”, another may have excellent “media planning” skills etc. MS 65 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Positioning by Auxiliary Services
Agencies can position themselves by offering additional services like in-house “market research” services. Further alternatives are “Direct Marketing”, “Public Relations” etc.
These package of services can help give and agency the extra edge with clients whose usage level of such services are high.
The synergy of advertising with market research or direct marketing is the consumer benefit offered by agencies choosing this positioning alternative.
NIT MS 65 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Positioning by Markets Ult is possible for an agency to position itself by markets, too. Some agencies in India specialise in “public issue” A advertising.
Their positioning in this segment is so strong that few consumer product launches are done by these agencies while the bulk of the public issues business in the country is diverted to them.
There are also some agencies whose bulk business comes through publishing “Tender Notices” of public sector undertakings. This is another example of specialisation by markets.
It is possible for agencies to specialise in industrial products advertising or retail advertising.MS 65 Solved Free Assignment 2022
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