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MS 29

International Human Resource Management

MS 29 Free Solved Assignment

MS 29 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022

1 Differentiate between Domestic Vs International HRM and discuss how work force diversity helps in the growth of organisation.

Ans:- Difference between Domestic and International HRM-Explained! In an organization, if the HRM is concerned only with the interests of domestic employees, it can be termed as domestic HRM or simply HRM.

On the other hand, if the HRM takes care of interests of global employees along with domestic employees, it is termed as International Human Resources Management (IHRM).

All the domestic HRM practices, such as recruitment, selection, training, development, appraisal, and compensation, are equally applicable to IHRM.

The basic difference lies in the application of HRM practices in both IHRM and domestic HRM. The focus of IHRM is on employees posted on international assignments/projects at various international locations. MS 29 Free Solved Assignment

The difference between IHRM and HRM is as follows:

i). IHRM addresses a wide range of activities as compared to domestic HRM.

For example, IHRM deals with activities related to international taxation, foreign currencies, exchange rates coordination, and international orientation of employees, whereas such activities are irrelevant from the perspective of HRM.

ii). IHRM is concerned with the employees who work with organizations spread in more than one nation, whereas domestic HRM is concerned with employees working in organizations, which operate in a single nation.

iii). IHRM needs greater involvement of HR manager in the personal lives of employees staying abroad.

The HR manager of a Multinational Corporation (MNC) must ensure that an employee posted abroad has understood all the major aspects of the working environment in foreign country, compensation package, and other relevant details regarding taxation and transportation.

In addition, the HR manager needs to support their families in adjusting to a different and new culture through cross-cultural training.

On the other hand, in domestic HRM, the involvement of HR manager is very limited. The managers may only be concerned with providing insun of o programs or transport facilities to the employee. MS 29 Free Solved Assignment

iv. IHRM aims to provide more exposure to employees as an international assignment offers varied learning opportunities as compared to a local assignment that is the area of concern for domestic HRM. However, IHRM also involves high risk and cost.

v. IHRM has to deal with more external factors as compared to domestic HRM. For example, in IHRM, the HR managers may have to deal with ministers, political figures, and government regulations of the foreign countries.

However, in domestic HRM, the HR managers normally do not face such types of issues and problems.

There has been an increase in the importance of IHRM due to the following reasons:

i). Availability of Quality Workforce – Refers to the fact that the success of a global business depends on the quality of workforce and how it is effectively managed and utilized.

ii). Minimizing Failures – Refers to reducing employee incompetence. If there is a failure on the part of the employee in international assignment, it results in heavy costs, such as relocation costs and reputation of the organization.

iii) Globalization – Refers to increasing the number of global organizations. As more and more organizations are entering in the global market, it has become necessary that strategies related to IHRM should be implemented properly.

iv) Effective Management – Refers to improving the management style and practices in an organization to enhance the performance of employees that are new to the international assignments.

Therefore, the performance of employees on international assignments needs careful supervision. MS 29 Free Solved Assignment

vi) Gaining Competitive Advantage – Refers to achieving an edge over rivals by using a key skill, strategy, or plan. An organization gains competitive advantage in the foreign countries, if an efficient IHRM system is in place.

Difference Between Domestic and International HRM – 6 Points of Difference Comparison:

1 IHRM operates beyond national borders while domestic HRM operates within the borders.

2 Domestic HRM is concerned with managing employees belonging to one nation and IHRM is concerned with managing employees belonging to many nations (home country, host country and third country employees).

3 IHRM is subject to more stringent international rules & regulations as opposed to domestic HRM.

Comparison:

1 IHRM operates beyond national borders while domestic HRM operates within the borders.

2 Domestic HRM is concerned with managing employees belonging to one nation and IHRM is concerned with managing employees belonging to many nations (home country, host country and third country employees).

3 IHRM is subject to more stringent international rules & regulations as opposed to domestic HRM.

4 Domestic HRM is concerned with managing limited number of HRM activities at national level and IHRM is concerned with managing additional activities such as expatriate management.

5 Domestic HRM is less complicated due to less influence from the external environment. IHRM is very complicated as it is affected by external factors such as cultural distance and institutional factors.

6 IHRM is much more complex, involves more risk, and comparatively challenging than domestic HRM. MS 29 Free Solved Assignment

Domestic HRM Practices:

1 Domestic HRM is the process of procuring allocating and effectively utilizing the human resources in local countries so as to gain competitive advantage in local or national market.

2 Managers may have to deal with ministers, political figures, and government regulations of the foreign countries. However, in domestic HRM, the HR managers normally do not face such types of issues and problems.

MS 29 Free Solved Assignment
MS 29 Free Solved Assignment

There has been an increase in the importance of IHRM due to the following reasons:
i. Availability of Quality Workforce – This refers to the fact that the success of a global business depends on the quality of the workforce and how it is effectively managed and utilized.

ii. Minimizing Failures – Refers to reducing employee incompetence. If there is a failure on the part of the employee in an international assignment, it results in heavy costs, such as relocation costs and the reputation of the organization.

iii. Globalization – Refers to increasing the number of global organizations. As more and more organizations are entering in the global market, it has become necessary that strategies related to IHRM should be implemented properly.

iv. Effective Management – Refers to improving the management style and practices in an organization to enhance the performance of employees that are new to the international assignments.

Domestic HRM Practices:

1 Domestic HRM is the process of procuring, allocating and effectively utilizing the human resources in local countries so as to gain competitive advantage in local or national market.

2 It is concerned with planning, recruitment, selection, training, motivation, and performance appraisal, promotions/transfer and career development of human resource in the home country.

3 In simple words, it involves HRM practices to manage the human resource in domestic country. MS 29 Free Solved Assignment

International HRM Practices:

1 The last few decades have seen vast changes in ways of doing business. Globalization has led to a lot of companies having presence in multiple locations around the globe.

These multinationals (MNCs) seek to adopt the business practices of their host countries while retaining the culture of their parent countries.

2 International HRM involves management of human resource (i.e. organization’s employees) in three countries i.e. the parent country where company is actually originated; the host country where branch of the parent country is located; and other countries from where the organization may source labor,finance or research and development.

3 HR managers need to integrate HR policies and practices across a number of subsidiaries spread in several countries.

At the same time, they also have to make these policies and practices sufficiently flexible to allow for differences in different countries.

4 MNCs are also required to adapt to legal, economic and administrative policies in host countries.

Since MNCS mostly employ people from host countries, fulfilling requirements of these employees require adoption of different HR approach.

5 MNCs also have to deal with the emigration formalities of employees who relocate from the parent country to the new country. MS 29 Free Solved Assignment

Difference between Domestic and International HRM

The issue in international HRM is to analyze what type of international HR strategy should be adopted so that it meets the requirements of global business strategy of a firm.

In the case of domestic business, HR Strategy should be adopted in accordance with the requirements of a firm’s business strategy.

Same is the case with a global firm. However, global business strategy differs from domestic business strategy and, consequently, HR strategy.

Therefore, in order to all lyze global business strategy international HR strategy linkage, let us go through global business strategy and international HR strategy.

IHRM requires a much broader perspective, encompasses a greater scope of activities and is subject to much greater challenges than is domestic HRM. IHRM is more complex than domestic HRM.

The scope of domestic HRM is relatively narrow as compared to IHRM, which takes care of wide range of HRM activities and includes international taxation, foreign currencies, foreign locations, and the like. MS 29 Free Solved Assignment

Again, while HR issues relate to employees belonging to single nationality, IHRM issues relate to employees belonging to more than one nationality, thus requiring setting up different HRM systems for different locations.

Then, domestic HRM has to deal with limited external factors, while IHRM has to manage several external factors like government regulations of a foreign countries about staffing practices.

A strik-ing difference between the domestic HRM and one is that while the former has limited involvement of the HR manager in the personal life of employees,

IHRM requires greater involvement in the personal life of employees such as helping in the admission of children in schools and supporting the family in adiusting to a foreign culture through cross-cultural training.

Besides, in domestic HRM, there is limited risk, whereas in international assignments, there is heightened exposure to risks such as health and safety of the employee and his/her family, terrorism, and human and financial consequences of mistakes committed in HOT Thus, a management style effective in the domestic environment may not be a success if applied in a foreign environment unless it is suitably modified.

2.Describe and discuss purpose and role of performance management from the perspective of International HRM. Briefly discuss Tahvanainen (1998) model for expatriate performance management.

Ans:- International performance management is the evaluation of an individual who works in a foreign subsidiary on a temporary basis to transfer knowledge or develop global leadership skills. MS 29 Free Solved Assignment

At its best, international performance management should feed into the global goals of the business.

There are many challenges associated with expatriate performance management. Although we have listed some below, they are likely to vary by business.

Ideally work to identify the challenges your company is likely to encounter and attempt to mitigate them in the expatr5 of 9erformance management plan.

Environmental variations

Performance management systems rarely work in the same way domestically and internationally.

Environmental variations including; different growth rates, the immediate environment and differences in performance, usually mean international performance appraisals need to be unique to each expatriate manager.

Time and distance

Improvements in technology make this less of an issue than it once was, but time differences and local infrastructure will impact on performance and appraisals.

This is particularly true of expats working in underdeveloped countries.

Cultural adjustment

The employee’s ability to adjust to the organisational culture within the subsidiary, as well as the wider culture within their new country, is likely to impact performance.

An understanding of the local organisational culture by the HR team, the management team and the employee will facilitate the creation of a measurable international performance management system. MS 29 Free Solved Assignment

Inconsistency of implementation

Like all performance development, it will only be successful if implemented consistently in company subsidiaries.

Oversight of this may be a challenge if most Human Resource functions are centralized to headquarters, meaning some employees thrive while others are left directionless.

Tahvanainen (1998) has proposed a model to explain how the expatriates’ performance should be appraised in the context of the firm’s specific strategies and set goals.

According to this model, organizational context comprises the organizational structure, performance appraisal system, top management’s support, nature of job, size of the subsidiary, styles and skills of the spe of expatriate manager and the other employees of the subsidiary.

These factors are interrelated in terms of achievement of corporate goals and thus, influence an expatriate’s performance ion.

However the mediating effect of any of these element- varies according to the strength of its interaction with other elements (Dowling, et. al, 1999r Performance expectation is another important element that is linked with both, company goals and performance appraisals.

Performance expectations may be conveyed in informal ways.

Day management is another critical component of an MC’s organizational context. For example, expatriates working in a situation where continuous customer interaction is required may need informal guidance. MS 29 Free Solved Assignment

Feedback and performance evaluation. On the other hand, an expatriate, working in a standardized work environment with of defined job responsibilities maybe benefited with organization-width standard performance appraisal system.

The amount of data which is available to the superior is another influencing factor in an expatriate’s performance appraisal.

Sometimes, due to lack of data and knowledge about the expatriate’s performance, the performance appraisal system becomes inadequate.

3 How does cross-cultural communication and negotiation play an important role for the success in the Global Business? Explain with relevant examples.

Ans:- Considering that the global economy is stabilizing and that the importance of globalization is becoming self-evident to most companies in the US, it’s only natural for the number of cross-cultural negotiations with foreign agencies to escalate.

Whether your company is buying, selling or investing, we must admit it can’t avoid negotiating. On a global scale, people bargain in numerous different ways

A better understanding of cross-cultural negotiations

In a dialogue between two people the conversation is rarely about exactly the same subject. In order for the dialogue to have a productive end result, each of the speakers shapes ideas around the other person’s cognitive and cultural perceptions.

During international negotiations, this endeavor translates into culturally foreseeing related issues that are likely to be appreciated by an individual of a specific culture.

As for the discussions, these are often impeded because the parties involved seem to be looking after different logic paths. MS 29 Free Solved Assignment

In most contexts that are cross-cultural related, the possibility for talking past one another or misunderstanding things is greatly enhanced.

Don’t enter international negotiations thinking that everyone thinks the same. That’s certainly not true especially since people of different cultures have specific ways of thinking, and they abide by a specific set of rules and principles.

Divergent negotiation styles

Singular cultural systems are able to generate divergent negotiation styles formed after the culture of each nation, history, geography, and political system.

It’s impossible for all business people to think alike as there will always be different cultural images, assumptions, and prejudices.

People can thrive in cross cultural negotiation only if they can find a way to understand each other. It is important to communicate with counterparts in order reach mutual ground and land a favorable deal.

When dealing with cross cultural negotiation, man bf ge tactics and strategies used conventionally may not work.

This usually happens when one of the associates tries to use a cultural technique that is less known by the other parties involved. MS 29 Free Solved Assignment

Establishing a goal

Business negotiators who come from different cultural backgrounds may have a tendency to see the purpose of a business deal in a very different way.

In the view of some people, the main purpose of a negotiation is to have written contract makes things seem a lot more definite, this is not the best way of constructing a relationship.

In a recent study performed by the Global Negotiator, researchers found that out of 400 people who were interviewed, 74% of Spanish respondents said that the goal of their negotiation was to sign a contract.

33% of Indian business people said they had the same view, and that it is important to have papers signed in order to build a good business foundation.

Language matters the most

Language matters a lot in business negotiations of all kinds, especially cross cultural negotiation. All the parties involved have to verify that they understand each other before starting the meeting. MS 29 Free Solved Assignment

In some cases, a translator may be required just to ensure that communication is done right and that there are no misunderstandings.

The Swedes for example, are known to have a tough attitude in negotiations. They’re extremely detailed and methodical, and they don’t feel comfortable in challenging positions.

In the business environment, and when we say business we refer to domains like marketing, advertising, venture capital, real estate, and others, negotiating is an unavoidable endeavor.

There’s no way of avoiding, so that’s why business people have to master the art of proper cross cultural negotiation prior to entering meetings.

4 Discuss the importance of leadership in Multinational context and the qualities required for a leader to be successful. Explain with examples.

Ans:- Leadership is an important function of management which helps to maximize efficiency and to achieve organizational goals. The following points justify the importance of leadership in a concern.

Initiates action- Leader is a person who starts the work by communicating the policies and plans to the subordinates from where the work actually starts.

Motivation- A leader proves to be playing an incentive role in the concern’s working. He motivates the employees with economic and non-economic rewards and thereby gets the work from the subordinates. MS 29 Free Solved Assignment

Providing guidance- A leader has to not only supervise but also play a guiding role for the subordinates. Guidance here means instructing the subordinates the way they have to perform their work effectively and efficiently.

Creating confidence- Confidence is an important factor which can be achieved through expressing the work efforts to the subordinates, explaining them clearly sale and giving them guidelines to achieve the goals effectively.

It is also important to hear the employees with regards to their complaints and problems.

A leader can be a morale booster by achieving full co-operation so that they perform with best of their abilities as they work to achieve goals.

Builds work environment- Management is getting things done from people. An efficient work environment helps in sound and stable growth.

Therefore, human relations should be kept into mind by a leader. He should have personal contacts with employees and should listen to their problems and solve them. He should treat employees on humanitarian terms.

Co-ordination– Co-ordination can be achieved through reconciling personal interests with organizational goals. MS 29 Free Solved Assignment

This synchronization can be achieved through proper and effective co-ordination which should be primary motive of a leader.

5.Briefly describe and discuss the competencies required to be effective in International Business.

Ans:- kills needed for success in international business. Whether you’re hoping to land a job at a top multinational company, seek a new career abroad, or launch your own business venture, these are the skills that you need to succeed:

. Cross-cultural
. communication skills
. Excellent networking abilities
. Collaboration
. Interpersonal influence
. Adaptive thinking
. Emotional intelligence
. Resilience

Cross-cultural communication skills :

Any role or function in international business means working in diverse workplace with people from a different country or background to yours.

Whether they’re a colleague, a client, or a customer, understanding how to communicate across cultures is an absolutely indispensable skill.

It requires no small amount of sensitivity, respect, and diplomacy. It also requires an open mind and, often, a little bit of research.

Make an effort to learn, understand appreciate cultural differences and nuances when it comes to communication. MS 29 Free Solved Assignment

Knowing, for instance, how people from other cultures interpret workplace confrontation or something as simple as maintaining eye contact can help to avoid misunderstandings and facilitate better workplace communication.

And good communication is good for business. (In fact, studies suggest that a breakdown in communication is one of the top reasons why projects fail.)

Excellent networking abilities :

If you want to work in international business, developing a strong network of connections outside of your home country is essential.

Successful networking can open the door to unexpected business opportunities overseas, and some reports claim that up to 80% of jobs are now landed through networking.

While online platforms like LinkedIn make it easier to mind and maintain professional connections abroad, excellent in-person networking ability is still among the key skills for success in international business. MS 29 Free Solved Assignment

Mastering your “elevator pitch” and attending industry networking events is one useful way meet like-minded professionals and grow your connections.

Of course, like cross-cultural communication, networking skills also require diplomacy, tact, and a listening ear-remember that you’re building a relationship rather than simply selling your skills.

For ambitious international business professionals, one of the most valuable networking opportunities is often going to business school.

From your peers to your professors, the people you’ll meet on an MBA or Executive MBA program will come from all over the world and boast a diverse range of skills and expertise, making them strong candidates as future collaborators or colleagues.

Collaboration :

For success in international business, it’s not enough to simply build a network – you need to work well with others.

The ability to collaborate and work together for a common purpose is fundamental in the business world.

It requires humility, allowing others to take the lead and share credit for success. It also requires confidence to tackle problems, give and receive feedback, and respectfully fight your cause.

Interpersonal influence :

The ability to influence others is fundamental to business success, whether you’re trying to persuade an investor to secure funding for your new venture encourage an employee to adant a new way of working or convince a customer to buy your product.

The best business leaders gain influence by developing good professional relationships and building respect – meaning communication, networking, and collaboration can all culminate in influence.

Adaptive thinking :

In today’s VUCA business environment, you must have the confidence to react and adapt quickly, thinking “out of the box” to solve problems.

Adaptive thinkers thrive in an ever-changing environment, making them well placed for success in international business. But how can you develop adaptive thinking skills?

Emotional intelligence :

In today’s HR terms, you’re more likely to hear people valuing “EQ” over the more traditional measure of “IQ”.

Strong emotional intelligence is noted as a critical skill when it comes to how to do international business. That’s because it influences nearly every aspect of business interaction.

Resilience :

To succeed in international business unequivocally demands mental toughness and resilience.

On a practical level, working across time zones and cultures involves long hours. Failure and setbacks are also a fact of life in the business world, but defeat isn’t. This is where rest of 2 come in.

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