Philosophy of Human Person
MPYE 04 Free Solved Assignment
MPYE 04 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022
Q 1. How does existentialism define ‘human being’? Critically evaluate this existentialist’s definition of human being.
Ans. Existentialism is a form of philosophical inquiry that explores the problem of human existence and centers on the experience of thinking, feeling, and acting.
In the view of the existentialist, the individual’s starting point has been called “the existential angst,” a sense of dread, disorientation, confusion, or anxiety in the face of an apparently meaningless or absurd world.
Existentialist thinkers frequently explore issues related to the meaning, purpose, and value of human existence.
Existentialism is associated with several 19th and 20th-century European philosophers who shared an emphasis on the human subject, despite profound doctrinal differences.
Many existentialists regarded traditional systematic or academic philosophies, in style and content, as too abstract and remote from concrete human experience.
A primary virtue in existentialist thought is authenticity. Søren Kierkegaard is generally considered to have been the first existentialist philosopher.
He proposed that each individual-not society or religion-is solely responsible for giving meaning to life and living it passionately and sincerely, or “authentically”.
Furthermore, existentialism has influenced many disciplines outside of philosophy, including theology, drama, art, literature, and psychology.
The term existentialism (French: L’existentialisme) was coined by the French Catholic philosopher Gabriel Marcel in the mid-1940s.MPYE 04 Free Solved Assignment
When Marcel first applied the term to Jean-Paul Sartre, at a colloquium in 1945, Sartre rejected it. Sartre subsequently changed his mind and, on October 29, 1945, publicly adopted the existentialist label in a lecture to the Club Maintenant in Paris, published as L’existentialisme est un humanisme (Existentialism is a Humanism), a short book that helped popularize existentialist thought.
Marcel later came to reject the label himself in favour of Neo-Socratic, in honor of Kierkegaard’s essay “On The Concept of Irony”.
Some scholars argue that the term should be used only to refer to the cultural movement in Europe in the 1940s and 1950s associated with the works of the philosophers Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, and Albert Camus.
Others extend the term to Kierkegaard, and yet others extend it as far back as Socrates. However, it is often identified with the philosophical views of Sartre.
Like “rationalism” and “empiricism,” “existentialism” is a term that belongs to intellectual history. MPYE 04 Free Solved Assignment
Its definition is thus to some extent one of historical convenience.
The term was explicitly adopted as a self-description by Jean-Paul Sartre, and through the wide dissemination of the postwar literary and philosophical output of Sartre and his associates-notably Simone de Beauvoir, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, and Albert Camus-existentialism became identified with a cultural movement that flourished in Europe in the 1940s and 1950s.
Among the major philosophers identified as existentialists (many of whom–for instance Camus and Heideggerrepudiated the label) were Karl Jaspers, Martin Heidegger, and Martin Buber in Germany, Jean Wahl and Gabriel Marcel in France, the Spaniards José Ortega y Gasset and Miguel de Unamuno, and the Russians Nikolai Berdyaev and Lev Shestov.
The nineteenth-century philosophers, Søren Kierkegaard and Friedrich Nietzsche, came to be seen as precursors of the movement.
Existentialism was as much a literary phenomenon as a philosophical one.
Sartre’s own ideas were and are better known through his fictional works (such as Nausea and No Exit) than through his more purely philosophical ones (such as Being and Nothingness and Critique of Dialectical Reason), and the postwar years found a very diverse coterie of writers and artists linked under the term:
retrospectively, Dostoevsky, Ibsen, and Kafka were conscripted; in Paris, there were Jean Genet, André Gide, André Malraux, and the expatriate Samuel Beckett; the Norwegian Knut Hamsun and the Romanian Eugene lonesco belong to the club; artists such as Alberto Giacometti and even Abstract Expressionists such as Jackson Pollock, Arshile Gorky, and Willem de Kooning, and filmmakers such as Jean-Luc Godard and Ingmar Bergman were understood in existential terms.
By the mid 1970s the cultural image of existentialism had become a cliché, parodized in countless books and films by Woody Allen.MPYE 04 Free Solved Assignment
Q 2. Discuss the idea of self in Nyaya, Buddism and Advaita Philosophy.
Ans. Advaita Vedānta is a school of Hindu philosophy and “spiritual experience. The term Advaita refers to the idea that Brahman alone, pure consciousness, is ultimately real, the phenomenal transient world is an illusory appearance (maya) of Brahman, and the true self, atman, which is self-luminous pure awareness, is identical with Brahman.
In this view, jivanatman or individual self is a mere reflection of singular Atman in a multitude of apparent individual bodies.
Originally known as Puruşavāda and as māyāvāda, the followers of this school are known as Advaita Vedantins, or just Advaitins, regarding the phenomenal world as mere illusory appearance of plurality, experienced through the sense-impressions by ignorance (avidya), an illusion superimposed (adhyāsa) on the sole reality of Brahman.
They seek moksha (liberation) through recognizing this illusoriness of the phenomenal world and acquiring vidyā (knowledge) of one’s true identity as Atman, and the identity of Atman and Brahman.MPYE 04 Free Solved Assignment
Adi Shankara, the most prominent exponent of Advaita Vedānta tradition.
Advaita Vedanta is the oldest extant sub-school of Vedānta, a tradition of interpretation of the Prasthanatrayi, that is, the Upanishads, the Brahma Sutras, and the Bhagavad Gitā, and one of the six orthodox (ästika) Hindu philosophies (darśana).
The most prominent exponent of the Advaita Vedanta is considered by tradition to be the 8th century scholar Adi Shankara.
Advaita Vedānta emphasizes Jivanmukti, the idea that moksha (freedom, liberation) is achievable in this life in contrast to other Indian philosophies that emphasize videhamukti, or moksha after death.
The school uses concepts such as Brahman, Atman, Maya, Avidya, meditation and others that are found in major Indian religious traditions, but interprets them in its own way for its theories of moksha. MPYE 04 Free Solved Assignment
Advaita Vedanta is one of the most studied and most influential schools of classical Indian thought. Many scholars describe it as a form of monism, while others describe the Advaita philosophy as non-dualistic.
Advaita influenced and was influenced by various traditions and texts of Indian philosophy, such as Samkhya, Yoga, Nyaya, other sub-schools of Vedānta, Vaishnavism, Shaivism, the Puranas, the Agamas, as well as social movements such as the Bhakti movement and incorporates philosophical concepts from Buddhism, such as svayam prakāśa and the two truths doctrine.
Advaita Vedānta texts espouse a spectrum of views from idealism, including illusionism, to realist or nearly realist positions expressed in the early works of Shankara.
In the 19th century, due to the interplay between western views and Indian nationalism, Advaita came to be regarded as the paradigmatic example of Hindu spirituality, despite the numerical dominance of theistic Bkakti-oriented religiosity.
In modern times, its views appear in various Neo-Vedānta movements.
Q 3. Give answer of any two questions in about 250 words each.
a) Compare Plato’s and Aristotle’s idea of Soul.
Ans. Plato (c. 428-c. 348 BCE) and Aristotle (384-322 BCE) are generally regarded as the two greatest figures of Western philosophy. MPYE 04 Free Solved Assignment
For some 20 years Aristotle was Plato’s student and colleague at the Academy in Athens, an institution for philosophical, scientific, and mathematical research and teaching founded by Plato in the 380s.
Although Aristotle revered his teacher, his philosophy eventually departed from Plato’s in important respects.
Aristotle also investigated areas of philosophy and fields of science that Plato did not seriously consider.
According to a conventional view, Plato’s philosophy is abstract and utopian, whereas Aristotle’s is empirical, practical, and commonsensical.
Such contrasts are famously suggested in the fresco School of Athens (151011) by the Italian Renaissance painter Raphael, which depicts Plato and Aristotle together in conversation, surrounded by philosophers, scientists, and artists of earlier and later ages.
Plato, holding a copy of his dialogue Timeo (Timaeus), points upward to the heavens; Aristotle, holding his Etica (Ethics), points outward to the world.
Although this view is generally accurate, it is not very illuminating, and it obscures what Plato and Aristotle have in common and the continuities between them, suggesting wrongly that their philosophies are polar opposites.MPYE 04 Free Solved Assignment
So how exactly does Plato’s philosophy differ from Aristotle’s? Here are three main differences.
The most fundamental difference between Plato and Aristotle concerns their theories of forms. (When used to refer to forms as Plato conceived them, the term “Form” is conventionally capitalized, as are the names of individual Platonic Forms.
The term is lowercased when used to refer to forms as Aristotle conceived them.) For Plato, the Forms are perfect exemplars, or ideal types, of the properties and kinds that are found in the world.
Corresponding to every such property or kind is a form that is its perfect exemplar or ideal type.
Thus the properties “beautiful” and “black” correspond to the Forms the Beautiful and the Black; the kinds “horse” and “triangle” correspond to the Forms the Horse and the Triangle; and so on.MPYE 04 Free Solved Assignment
b) Examine Locke’s understanding of Personal Identity.
Ans. John Locke speaks of personal identity and survival of consciousness after death. A criterion of personal identity through time is given.
Such a criterion specifies, insofar as that is possible, the necessary and sufficient conditions for the survival of persons.
John Locke holds that personal identity is a matter of psychological continuity.
He considered personal identity (or the self) to be founded on consciousness (viz. memory), and not on the substance of either the soul or the body.
John Locke (29 August 1632-28 October 1704) was one of the philosophers who were against the Cartesian theory that soul accounts for personal identity.
Chapter XXVII on “Identity and Diversity” in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (Locke, 1689/1997) has been said to be one of the first modern conceptualizations of consciousness as the repeated self-identification of oneself, in which Locke gives his account of identity and personal identity in the second edition of the Essay.
Locke holds that personal identity is a matter of psychological continuity.
Arguing against both the Augustinian view of man as originally sinful and the Cartesian position, which holds that man innately knows basic logical propositions, Locke posits an “empty” mind, a tabula rasa, which is shaped by experience, and sensations and reflections being the two sources of all our ideas.MPYE 04 Free Solved Assignment
Locke creates a third term between the soul and the body, and Locke’s thought may certainly be meditated by those who, following a scientist’s ideology, would identify too quickly the brain with consciousness.
For the brain, as the body and as any substance, may change, while consciousness remains the same.
Q 4. Give answer of any four questions in about 150 words each.
c) Explain Heidegger’s idea of ‘Concern’.
Ans. Martin Heidegger, the 20th-century German philosopher, produced a large body of work that intended a profound change of direction for philosophy.
Such was the depth of change that he found it necessary to introduce many neologisms, often connected to idiomatic words and phrases in the German language.
Two of his most basic neologisms, present-at-hand and ready-to-hand, are used to describe Heidegger’s idea of aletheia, or disclosure (Erschlossenheit), was an attempt to make sense of how things in the world appear to human beings as part of an opening in intelligibility, as “unclosedness” or “unconcealedness”. MPYE 04 Free Solved Assignment
(This is Heidegger’s usual reading of aletheia as Unverborgenheit, “unconcealment.”)
d) “Animal identity is preserved in identity of life, and not of substance.” Discuss.
Ans. According to Locke, personal identity (the self) “depends on consciousness, not on substance” nor on the soul.
We are the same person to the extent that we are conscious of the past and future thoughts and actions in the same way as we are conscious of present thoughts and actions.
If consciousness is this thought” which “goes along with the substance…which makes the same person,” then personal identity is only founded on the repeated act of consciousness: “This may show us wherein personal identity consists: not in the identity of substance, but…in the identity of consciousness.”
For example, one may claim to be a reincarnation of Plato, therefore having the same soul substance. MPYE 04 Free Solved Assignment
However, one would be the same person as Plato only if one had the same consciousness of Plato’s thoughts and actions that he himself did.
Therefore, self-identity is not based on the soul.
One soul may have various personalities.
Neither is self-identity founded on the body substance, argues Locke, as the body may change while the person remains the same.
Even the identity of animals is not founded on their body: “animal identity is preserved in identity of life, and not of substance,” as the body of the animal grows and changes during its life
On the other hand, identity of humans is based on their consciousness.
e) Differentiate between ‘freedom from’ and ‘freedom for.
Ans. There are two kinds of freedom. Freedom from (negative freedom) and freedom to (positive freedom). MPYE 04 Free Solved Assignment
The splitting of freedom into this binary framework can be traced at least back to Kant, was articulated by Erich Fromm in his 1941 work, Escape from Freedom, made famous by Isaiah Berlin’s 1958 essay, “Two Concepts of Liberty,” and explored more modernly by Charles Taylor.
These philosophers and thinkers generally used these two different categories of freedom to discuss and debate the role of government in citizens’ lives.
But today we’d like to take a stab at exploring the way in which thinking about the difference between freedom from and freedom to can help us understand more about our personal development and the journey from boy to man.
Negative freedom is freedom from external interference that prevents you from doing what you want, when you want to do it. MPYE 04 Free Solved Assignment
These restrictions are placed on you by other people. The more negative freedom you have, the less obstacles that exist between you and doing whatever it is you desire.
f) How does Gabriel Marcel reject Cartesian dualism?
Gabriel Marcel, in full Gabriel-Honoré Marcel, (born December 7, 1889, Paris, France-died October 8, 1973, Paris),
French philosopher, dramatist, and critic who was associated with the phenomenological and existentialist movements in 20th-century European philosophy and whose work and style are often characterized as theistic or Christian existentialism
(a term Marcel disliked, preferring the more neutral description “neo-Socratic” because it captures the dialogical, probing, and sometimes inchoate nature of his reflections).
Marcel’s mother died when he was four years old, and he was raised by his father and his maternal aunt, whom his father later married.
Marcel had little religious upbringing but received an excellent education, studying philosophy at the Sorbonne and passing an agrégation (competitive examination) in 1910 that qualified him to teach in secondary schools. MPYE 04 Free Solved Assignment
Although he produced a stream of philosophical and dramatic works (he wrote more than 30 plays), as well as shorter pieces in reviews and periodicals,
Marcel never completed a doctoral dissertation and never held a formal position as a professor, instead working mostly as a lecturer, writer, and critic.
He also developed a keen interest in classical music and composed a number of pieces.
Q 5. Write short notes on any five in about 100 words each.
Ans. Dasein (German pronunciation:) (sometimes spelled as Da-sein) is a German word that means “being there” or “presence” (German: da “there”; sein “to be”), and is often translated into English with the word “existence”.
It is a fundamental concept in the existential philosophy of Martin Heidegger. Heidegger uses the expression Dasein to refer to the experience of being that is peculiar to human beings. MPYE 04 Free Solved Assignment
Thus it is a form of being that is aware of and must confront such issues as personhood, mortality and the dilemma or paradox of living in relationship with other humans while being ultimately alone with oneself.
b) The Butterfly Affect
Ans. The Butterfly Effect is a 2004 American science fiction thriller film written and directed by Eric Bress and J. Mackye Gruber, starring Ashton Kutcher and Amy Smart.
The title refers to the butterfly effect, a popular hypothetical situation that illustrates how small initial differences may lead to large unforeseen consequences over time.
Kutcher plays 20-year-old college student Evan Treborn, with Amy Smart as his childhood sweetheart, Kayleigh Miller, William Lee Scott as her sadistic brother, Tommy, and Elden Henson as their neighbor, Lenny.
Evan experiences blackouts and memory loss throughout his childhood. Later, in his 20s, Evan finds he can travel back in time to inhabit his former self during those periods of blackout, with his adult mind inhabiting his younger body.
c) Somatic Death
Somatic death is characterized by the discontinuance of cardiac activity and respiration, and eventually leads to the death of all body cells from lack of oxygen, although for approximately six minutes after somatic death-a period referred to as clinical death-a person whose vital organs have not been damaged may be revived.
However, achievements of modern biomedical technology have enabled the physician to artificially maintain critical functions for indefinite periods.
Somatic death is followed by a number of irreversible changes that are of legal importance, especially in estimating the time of death. MPYE 04 Free Solved Assignment
These include rigor mortis, livor mortis (discoloration of the body due to settling of blood), algor mortis (cooling of the body), autolysis (breakdown of tissue by enzymes liberated by that tissue after death), and putrefaction (invasion of the body by organisms from the gastrointestinal tract).
f) Marcel’s idea of availability
Ans. A major theme in Marcel is the notion that human beings live in a broken world (le monde cassé).
He meant to convey a number of points by this claim, one that he returned to in different forms in his work.
First, the notion of being has been lost in the modern world, replaced by a nearobsession with the power of primary reflection; the modern world is under the sway of what Marcel called “the spirit of abstraction” (Man Against Mass Society).
Second, one manifestation of the dominance of primary reflection is the increasing bureaucratization of modern culture, which often identifies human beings with their functional roles in society and which therefore stultifies their inner lives and their creativity to such an extent that people’s selfworth is often directly tied to the social status of their jobs or their potential for owning material possessions.
That situation leads to alienation, a key theme in the existentialist movement in general.
Ans. An absurdity is a thing that is extremely unreasonable, so as to be foolish or not taken seriously, or the state of being so.MPYE 04 Free Solved Assignment
“Absurd” is an adjective used to describe an absurdity, e.g., “Tyler and the boys laughed at the absurdity of the situation.”
It derives from the Latin absurdum meaning “out of tune”, hence irrational. The Latin surdus means “deaf”, implying stupidity.
Absurdity is contrasted with seriousness in reasoning. In general usage, absurdity may be synonymous with ridiculousness and nonsense.
In specialized usage, absurdity is related to extremes in bad reasoning or pointlessness in reasoning; ridiculousness is related to extremes of incongruous juxtaposition, laughter, and ridicule; and nonsense is related to a lack of meaningfulness.
Absurdism is a concept in philosophy related to the notion of absurdity.
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