IGNOU MPYE 03 Free Solved Assignment 2022- Helpfirst

MPYE 03

Epistemology

MPYE 03 Free Solved Assignment

MPYE 03 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022

a) What is naturalized epistemology? Write some implications of Naturalized Epistemology.

Ans. Naturalized epistemology (a term coined by W. V. O. Quine) is a collection of philosophic views concerned with the theory of knowledge that emphasize the role of natural scientific methods.

This shared emphasis on scientific methods of studying knowledge shifts focus to the empirical processes of knowledge acquisition and away from many traditional philosophical questions.

There are noteworthy distinctions within naturalized epistemology. Replacement naturalism maintains that traditional epistemology should be abandoned and replaced with the methodologies of the natural sciences.

The general thesis of cooperative naturalism is that traditional epistemology can benefit in its inquiry by using the knowledge we have gained from the cognitive sciences.

Substantive naturalism focuses on an asserted equality of facts of knowledge and natural facts. MPYE 03 Free Solved Assignment

Objections to naturalized epistemology have targeted features of the general project as well as characteristics of specific versions.

Some objectors suggest that natural scientific knowledge cannot be circularly grounded by the knowledge obtained through cognitive science, which is itself a natural science.

This objection from circularity has been aimed specifically at strict replacement naturalism. There are similar challenges to substance naturalism that maintain that the substance naturalists’ thesis that all facts of knowledge are natural facts is not only circular but fails to accommodate certain facts.

Several other objectors have found fault in the inability of naturalized methods to adequately address questions about what value forms of potential knowledge have or lack.

Substantive naturalism is a form of naturalized epistemology that emphasizes how all epistemic facts are natural facts.

Natural facts can be based on two main ideas. The first is that all natural facts include all facts that science would verify.

The second is to provide a list of examples that consists of natural items. This will help in deducing what else can be included.

Cooperative naturalism is a version of naturalized epistemology which states that while there are evaluative questions to pursue, the empirical results from psychology concerning how individuals actually think and reason are essential and useful for making progress in these evaluative questions. MPYE 03 Free Solved Assignment

This form of naturalism says that our psychological and biological limitations and abilities are relevant to the study of human knowledge.

Empirical work is relevant to epistemology but only if epistemology is itself as broad as the study of human knowledge.

On Quine’s account, attempts to pursue the traditional project of finding the meanings and truths of science philosophically have failed on their own terms and failed to offer any advantage over the more direct methods of psychology.

Quine rejects the analytic-synthetic distinction and emphasizes the holistic nature of our beliefs. Since traditional philosophic analysis of knowledge fails, those wishing to study knowledge ought to employ natural scientific methods.

Scientific study of knowledge differs from philosophic study by focusing on how humans acquire knowledge rather than speculative analysis of knowledge.

According to Quine, this appeal to science to ground the project of studying knowledge, which itself underlies science, should not be dismissed for its circularity since it is the best option available after ruling out traditional philosophic methods for their more serious flaws. MPYE 03 Free Solved Assignment

This identification and tolerance of circularity is reflected elsewhere in Quine’s works.

MPYE 03 Free Solved Assignment
MPYE 03 Free Solved Assignment

b) How one can grasp the meaning of a sentence according to Mimamsa Philosophy?

Ans. Mimamsa, (Sanskrit: “Reflection” or “Critical Investigation”) one among the six systems (darshans) of Indian philosophy.

Mimamsa, probably the earliest of the six, is prime to Vedanta, another of the six systems, and has deeply influenced the formulation of Hindu law (see Indian law).

The aim of Mimamsa is to offer rules for the interpretation of the Vedas, the earliest scriptures of Hinduism, and to supply a philosophical justification for the observance of Vedic ritual.

Because Mimamsa cares with the sooner parts of the Vedas (called the Karmakanda), it’s also mentioned as Purva-Mimamsa (“Prior Study”) or Karma-Mimamsa (“Study of Actions”).

Vedanta,which deals with the later portion of Vedic literature called the Upanishads, is named UttaraMimamsa (“Posterior Study”) or Jnana-Mimamsa (“Study of Knowledge”).

The earliest work of the system is that the Mimamsa-sutra of Jaimini (c. 4th century BCE). a serious commentary was written by Shabarasvamin (1st century BCE?),

who was followed by an extended line of interpreters and teachers, most notably Kumarila and Prabhakara (7th-8th century CE).MPYE 03 Free Solved Assignment

The goal of Mimamsa is to supply enlightenment on dharma, which during this school is known because the set of formality obligations and prerogatives that, if properly performed, maintains the harmony of the planet and furthers the private goals of the performer.

Since dharma can’t be known through either perception or reasoning, one must depend upon revelation within the Vedas, which are considered eternal, authorless, and absolutely infallible.

To find out what one’s dharma is on specific occasions, one must depend on samples of direct or implicit command within the Vedic text.

If the command is implicit, one must judge from parallels; if a text fails to detail how a priest proceeds with an action, this detail must be provided from other texts.

This concern with precise statement necessitates meticulous examination of the structure of a sentence conveying a command.

Although it had been purely practical in origin, Mimamsa became a strong intellectual force. Mimamsa, within the person of Kumarila, is traditionally credited with the defeat of Buddhism in India. MPYE 03 Free Solved Assignment

it’s also contributed to the direction, method, and content of Hindu erudition.

Mimāmsă may be a Sanskrit word meaning “reflection” or “critical investigation” and thus refers to a practice of contemplation which reflected on the meanings of certain Vedic texts.

This tradition is additionally referred to as Purva-Mimamsă due to its specialise in the sooner (pūrva) Vedic texts handling ritual actions, and similarly as Karma-Mimamsa thanks to its specialise in ritual action (karma).

it’s one among six Vedic “affirming” (astika) schools of Hinduism. This particular school is understood for its philosophical theories on the character of dharma, supported hermeneutics of the Vedas, especially the Brāhmanas and Samhitas.

The Mimamsă school was foundational and influential for the vedāntic schools, which were also referred to as Uttara-Mimamsă for his or her specialise in the “later” (uttara) portions of the Vedas, the Upanişads.

While both “earlier” and “later” Mimāmsā investigate the aim of act, they are doing so with different attitudes towards the need of formality praxis.

Mimāmsā has several sub-schools, each defined by its epistemology.

The Prabhākara sub-school, which takes its name from the seventh-century philosopher Prabhākara, described the five epistemically reliable means to gaining knowledge: pratyaksa or perception; anumana or inference; upamāna, by comparison and analogy; arthāpatti, the utilization of postulation and derivation from circumstances; and sabda, the word or testimony of past or present reliable experts.

The Bhatta sub-school, from philosopher Kumärila Bhatta, added a sixth means to its canon; anupalabdhi meant non-perception, or proof by the absence of cognition (e.g., the shortage of gunpowder on a suspect’s hand).MPYE 03 Free Solved Assignment

Q 2 When you say, “I know x’, what do you want to say in saying this? Compare between Idealist and Realist outlook on the concept of knowledge.

Ans. The terms “idealism” and “idealist” are by no means used only within philosophy; they are used in many everyday contexts as well. Optimists who believe that, in the long run, good will prevail are often called “idealists”.

This is not because such people are thought to be devoted to a philosophical doctrine but because of their outlook on life generally;

indeed, they may even be pitied, or perhaps envied, for displaying a naive worldview and not being philosophically critical philosophical doctrine but because of their outlook on life generally; indeed, they may even be pitied, or perhaps envied, for displaying a naive worldview and not being philosophically critical at all.

Even within philosophy, the terms “idealism” and “idealist” are used in different ways, which often makes their meaning dependent on the context.

However, independently of context one can distinguish between a descriptive (or classificatory) use of these terms and a polemical one, although sometimes these different uses occur together. MPYE 03 Free Solved Assignment

Their descriptive use is best documented by paying attention to the large number of different “idealisms” that appear in philosophical textbooks and encyclopedias, ranging from metaphysical idealism through epistemological and aesthetic to moral or ethical idealism.

Within these idealisms one can find further distinctions, such as those between subjective, objective and absolute idealism, and even more obscure characterizations such as speculative idealism and transcendental idealism.

It is also remarkable that the term “idealism”, at least within philosophy, is often used in such a way that it gets its meaning through what is taken to be its opposite:

as the meaningful use of the term “outside” depends on a contrast with something considered to be inside, so the meaning of the term “idealism” is often fixed by what is taken to be its opposite.

Thus, an idealist is someone who is not a realist, not a materialist, not a dogmatist, not an empiricist, and so on. MPYE 03 Free Solved Assignment

Given the fact that many also want to distinguish between realism, materialism, dogmatism, and empiricism,

it is obvious that thinking of the meaning of “idealism” as determined by what it is meant to be opposed to leads to further complexity and gives rise to the impression that underlying such characterizations lies some polemical intent.

Within modern philosophy there are sometimes taken to be two fundamental conceptions of idealism:

1 something mental (the mind, spirit, reason, will) is the ultimate foundation of all reality,or even exhaustive of reality, and

2 although the existence of something independent of the mind is conceded, everything that we can know about this mind-independent “reality” is held to be so permeated by the creative, formative, or constructive activities of the mind (of some kind or other) that all claims to knowledge must be considered, in some sense, to be a form of selfknowledge.

3 Give answer of any two questions

a) Write an essay on the relation between metaphysics and epistemology.

Ans. Epistemology (in Greek “episteme” means ‘knowledge and the suffix “ology” means “the science of or ‘the study of) is the branch of philosophy that involves the study of scope and nature of knowledge and justified belief, MPYE 03 Free Solved Assignment

while metaphysics (Greek word “metaphysical” – literally meaning “after physics”) is the branch of philosophy that involves the study of truth and reality.

Epistemology looks at how we know what the actual reality or truth is and are there are limits to this knowledge specially in terms of its validity, scope and methods, while metaphysics aims to get a thorough understanding about the nature of reality including abstract concepts (identity, time, space, being, knowing) and existence.

The term “epistemology” in the Greek means “episteme” and “logos”. “Episteme” meaning “knowledge”, and “logos” meaning “reason” or “account”.

Epistemology is that branch of philosophy that involves the study of knowledge acquisition. It is based on reality, facts, rationality, justification, and belief.

This branch of philosophy addresses cognitive sciences (the study of learning, thought, and mental organization), cultural studies (teaching that investigates the different ways in which “culture” develops and transforms experiences of different individuals, their day to day life, power and social relations).

Metaphysics (“first philosophy” or sometimes just “wisdom”), is the foundation of philosophy. MPYE 03 Free Solved Assignment

It encompasses everything that exists, including the nature of existence itself. Metaphysicians seek an irreducible foundation of reality or “first principles from which an absolute knowledge of the truth can be induced or deduced.

It is a branch of philosophy that emphasizes on structures of reality: time and eternity, being and nothingness, time hood and personhood, space and time, freedom and determinism, mind and body, thinghood and personhood, and a supreme being and nature.

It basically encompasses everything that exists, fundamental concepts and beliefs about them.

MPYE 03 Free Solved Assignment
MPYE 03 Free Solved Assignment

b) What is language game? Explain the shift from picture theory to language game theory.

Ans. A language game (also called a cant, secret language, ludling, or argot) is a system of manipulating spoken words to render them incomprehensible to the untrained ear.

Language games are used primarily by groups attempting to conceal their conversations from others. MPYE 03 Free Solved Assignment

Some common examples are Pig Latin; the Gibberish family, prevalent in the United States and Sweden; and Verlan, spoken in France.

A common difficulty with language games is that they are usually passed down orally; while written translations can be made, they are often imperfect, and thus spelling can vary widely.

Some factions argue that words in these spoken tongues should simply be written the way they are pronounced, while others insist that the purity of language demands that the transformation remain visible when the words are imparted to paper.

A language-game (German: Sprachspiel) is a philosophical concept developed by Ludwig Wittgenstein, referring to simple examples of language use and the actions into which the language is woven.

Wittgenstein argued that a word or even a sentence has meaning only as a result of the “rule” of the “game” being played.

Depending on the context, for example, the utterance “Water!” could be an order, the answer to a question, or some other form of communication.

Some language games such as Pig Latin are so widely known that privacy is virtually impossible, as most people have a passable understanding of how it works and the words can sound very similar to their English counterparts.

Although language games are not usually used in everyday conversation, some words from language games have made their way into normal speech, such as ixnay in English (from Pig Latin), and loufoque in French (from Louchebem).

4 Give answer of any four questions

a) What is the relation between concept and proposition?

Ans. In logic and linguistics, a proposition is the meaning of a declarative sentence. In philosophy, “meaning” is understood to be a non-linguistic entity which is shared by all sentences with the same meaning. MPYE 03 Free Solved Assignment

Equivalently, a proposition is the non-linguistic bearer of truth or falsity which makes any sentence that expresses it either true or false.

While the term “proposition” may sometimes be used in everyday language to refer to a linguistic statement which can be either true or false, the technical philosophical term, which differs from the mathematical usage, refers exclusively to the non-linguistic meaning behind the statement.

The term is often used very broadly and can also refer to various related concepts, both in the history of philosophy and in contemporary analytic philosophy.

It can generally be used to refer to some or all of the following: The primary bearers of truth values (such as “true” and “false”); the objects of belief and other propositional attitudes (i.e. what is believed, doubted, etc.);

the referents of “that”-clauses (e.g. “It is true that the sky is blue” and “I believe that the sky is blue” both involve the proposition the sky is blue); and the meanings of declarative sentences.MPYE 03 Free Solved Assignment

c) Discuss Pragmatic theory of truth,

Ans. A pragmatic theory of truth is a theory of truth within the philosophies of pragmatism and pragmaticism. Pragmatic theories of truth were first posited by Charles Sanders Peirce, William James, and John Dewey.

The common features of these theories are a reliance on the pragmatic maxim as a means of clarifying the meanings of difficult concepts such as truth; and an emphasis on the fact that belief, certainty, knowledge, or truth is the result of an inquiry.

Pragmatic theories of truth developed from the earlier ideas of ancient philosophy, the Scholastics, and Immanuel Kant.

Pragmatic ideas about truth are often confused with the quite distinct notions of logic and inquiry”, “judging what is true”, and “truth predicates”.

In one classical formulation, truth is defined as the good of logic, where logic is a normative science, MPYE 03 Free Solved Assignment

that is, an inquiry into a good or a value that seeks knowledge of it and the means to achieve it.

In this view, truth cannot be discussed to much effect outside the context of inquiry, knowledge, and logic, all very broadly considered.

MPYE 03 Free Solved Assignment
MPYE 03 Free Solved Assignment

d) Critically evaluate the coherence theory of truth.

Ans. In epistemology, the coherence theory of truth regards truth as coherence within some specified set of sentences, propositions or beliefs. The model is contrasted with the correspondence theory of truth.

A positive tenet is the idea that truth is a property of whole systems of propositions and can be ascribed to individual propositions only derivatively according to their coherence with the whole. MPYE 03 Free Solved Assignment

While modern coherence theorists hold that there are many possible systems to which the determination of truth may be based upon coherence, others, particularly those with strong religious beliefs, hold that the truth only applies to a single absolute system.

In general, truth requires a proper fit of elements within the whole system. Very often, though, coherence is taken to imply something more than simple formal coherence.

For example, the coherence of the underlying set of concepts is considered to be a critical factor in judging validity.

In other words, the set of base concepts in a universe of discourse must form an intelligible paradigm before many theorists consider that the coherence theory of truth is applicable.

f) Write a short note on the distinction between ‘first order assertion’ and ‘second order assertion’ in Performative theory of truth.

Ans. Truth, in metaphysics and the philosophy of language, the property of sentences, assertions, beliefs, thoughts, or propositions that are said, in ordinary discourse, to agree with the facts or to state what is the case.

Truth is the aim of belief; falsity is a fault. People need the truth about the world in order to thrive. Truth is important. MPYE 03 Free Solved Assignment

Believing what is not true is apt to spoil people’s plans and may even cost them their lives. Telling what is not true may result in legal and social penalties.

Conversely, a dedicated pursuit of truth characterizes the good scientist, the good historian, and the good detective.

The correspondence theory

The classic suggestion comes from Aristotle (384-322 BCE): “To say of what is that it is, or of what is not that it is not, is true.”

In other words, the world provides “what is” or “what is not,” and the true saying or thought corresponds to the fact so provided.

This idea appeals to common sense and is the germ of what is called the correspondence theory of truth.

As it stands, however,it is little more than a platitude and far less than a theory. Indeed, it may amount to merely wordy paraphrase, whereby, instead of saying “that’s true” of some assertion, one says “tha corresponds with the facts.”

Only if the notions of fact and correspondence can be furthe developed will it be possible to understand truth in these terms. MPYE 03 Free Solved Assignment

5 Write short notes on any five

b) Svata Pramanyavada

Ans. The controversy over the truth (prâmņaya) of knowledge in Indian Philosophy is well known. The main participants in this controversy (whom I have considered here)
are the Mimāmsă and the Nyāya schools of thought.

The whole discussion centres round two questions: (1) what are the conditions generating truth? and (2) how is the truth of a knowledge known? For the Mimāmsă, both the generation and knowledge of truth are intrinsic (svatah), while for the Nyaya, both are extrinsic (parataḥ).

So far as falsity is concerned there is no disagreement between the two. Both agree that both the generation and knowledge of falsity are extrinsic.

I do not propose to re-state here the arguments and counter arguments of the rival schools in defence of their own views, for such an exercise would be fruitless,

I intend to analyse the positions of the contending schools and attempt a re-evaluation of their doctrines. MPYE 03 Free Solved Assignment

I propose to consider in this regard the following questions:

(i) What is the nature of knowledge?

(ii) Is the classification of knowledge into true and false legitimate?

(iii) Is the question about the generation of truth meaningful?

(iv) Can the knowledge of truth be intrinsic? and

(v) Are the two theories of truth totally defective, or there is some element of truth in both which may be combined to formulate a more defensible position?

c) Arthakriyakaritva

Ans. It appears that a thing or a phenomenon may be defined from the Buddhist point of view as being the combination of diverse characteristics (Footnote ref 258).

What we call a thing is but a conglomeration of diverse characteristics which are found to affect, determine or influence other conglomerations appearing as sentient or as inanimate bodies. MPYE 03 Free Solved Assignment

So long as the characteristics forming the elements of any conglomeration remain perfectly the same, the conglomeration may be said to be the same.

As soon as any of these characteristics is supplanted by any other new characteristic, the conglomeration is to be called a new one.

Existence or being of things means the work that any conglomeration does or the influence that it exerts on other conglomerations.

This in Sanskrit is called arthakriyakaritva which literally translated means–the power of performing actions and purposes of some kind [Footnote ref 260].

d) Confirmational Holism

Ans. In philosophy of science, confirmation holism, also called epistemological holism, is the view that no individual statement can be confirmed or disconfirmed by an empirical test, but rather that only a set of statements (a whole theory) can be so.

It is attributed to Willard Van Orman Quine who motivated his holism through extending Pierre Duhem’s problem of underdetermination in physical theory to all knowledge claims.

Duhem’s idea was, roughly, that no theory of any type can be tested in isolation but only when embedded in a background of other hypotheses, e.g. hypotheses about initial conditions. MPYE 03 Free Solved Assignment

Quine thought that this background involved not only such hypotheses but also our whole web of belief, which, among other things, includes our mathematical and logical theories and our scientific theories.

This last claim is sometimes known as the Duhem-Quine thesis.

e) Theory-Ladenness of observation

Ans. In the philosophy of science, observations are said to be “theory-laden” when they are affected by the theoretical presuppositions held by the investigator.

The thesis of theory-ladenness is most strongly associated with the late 1950s and early 1960s work of Norwood Russell Hanson,

Thomas Kuhn, and Paul Feyerabend, and was probably first put forth (at least implicitly) by Pierre Duhem about 50 years earlier.MPYE 03 Free Solved Assignment

Semantic theory-ladenness refers to the impact of theoretical assumptions on the meaning of observational terms while perceptual theory-ladenness refers to their impact on the perceptual experience itself.

Theory-ladenness is also relevant for measurement outcomes: the data thus acquired may be said to be theory-laden since it is meaningless by itself unless interpreted as the outcome of the measurement processes involved.

g) Upamana

Ans. Upamana, upamana in Hinduism, is a pramāņa, or means of having knowledge of something.

Observance of similarities provides knowledge of the relationship between the two. It also means getting the knowledge of an unknown thing by comparing it with a known thing.

For example,assume a situation where a man has not seen a gavaya or a wild cow and doesn’t know what it is.

A forester told him that a wild cow is an animal like a country cow but she is more furious and has big horn in her forehead.

In a later period he comes across a wild cow in a forest and recognizes it as the wild cow by comparing the descriptions made by the forester. MPYE 03 Free Solved Assignment

This knowledge is possible due to the upamana or comparison. Thus, upamana is the knowledge of the relation between a name and the object it denotes by that name.

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