IGNOU MPYE 02 Free Solved Assignment 2022- Helpfirst

MPYE 02

Ethics

MPYE 02 Free Solved Assignment

MPYE 02 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022

Q 1 What are the normative characters of social institutions? Discuss the role or social institutions in the sphere of morality.

Ans. The term, “social institution” is somewhat unclear both in ordinary language and in the philosophical literature (see below). However, contemporary sociology is somewhat more consistent in its use of the term.

Typically, contemporary sociologists use the term to refer to complex social forms that reproduce themselves such as governments, the family, human languages, universities, hospitals, business corporations, and legal systems.

A typical definition is that proffered by Jonathan Turner (1997: 6): “a complex of positions, roles, norms and values lodged in particular types of social structures and organising relatively stable patterns of human activity with respect to fundamental problems in producing life-sustaining resources, in reproducing individuals, and in sustaining viable societal structures within a given environment.”

Again, Anthony Giddens (1984: 24) says: “Institutions by definition are the more enduring features of social life.” He (Giddens 1984: 31) goes on to list as institutional orders, modes of discourse, political institutions, economic institutions and legal institutions.

The contemporary philosopher of social science, Rom Harre follows the theoretical sociologists in offering this kind of definition (Harre 1979: 98): “An institution was defined as an interlocking double-structure of persons-as-role-holders or office-bearers and the like, and of social practices involving both expressive and practical aims and outcomes.”

He gives as examples (Harre 1979: 97) schools, shops, post offices, police forces, asylums and the British monarchy. MPYE 02 Free Solved Assignment

In this entry the above-noted contemporary sociological usage will be followed. Doing so has the virtue of grounding philosophical theory in the most salient empirical discipline, namely, sociology.

In the not-so-recent past it might have been asked why a theory of social institutions has, or ought to have, any philosophical interest; why not simply leave theories of institutions to the theoretical sociologists?

However, in recent years philosophers have addressed a variety of ontological, explanatory, normative and other theoretical issues concerning social institutions (Searle 1995, 2007 and 2010; Tuomela 2002; Miller 2010; Epstein 2015; Guala 2016; Ludwig 2017) Of particular importance is the work of John Searle (1995; 2010).

One source of the impetus for this has been recent philosophical work on social action and social forms more generally (Gilbert 1989; Searle 1990); Tuomela 2007; Schmid 2009; Miller 2001; Bratman 2014; Tollefsen 2015; Ludwig 2016).

Another source is the recognition that a good deal of normative work on social justice, political philosophy and the like presupposes an understanding of social institutions.

For instance, philosophers, such as John Rawls (1972), have developed elaborate normative theories concerning the principles of justice that ought to govern social institutions.

Yet they have done so in the absence of a developed theory of the nature and point of the very entities (social institutions) to which the principles of justice in question are supposed to apply. MPYE 02 Free Solved Assignment

Surely the adequacy of one’s normative account of the justice or otherwise of any given social institution, or system of social institutions, will depend at least in part on the nature and point of that social institution or system.

Thus distributive justice is an important aspect of most, if not all, social institutions; the role occupants of most institutions are the recipients and providers of benefits, e.g. wages, consumer products, and the bearers of burdens, e.g. allocated tasks and, accordingly, are subject to principles of distributive justice.

Moreover, arguably some institutions, perhaps governments, have as one of their defining ends or functions, to ensure conformity to principles of distributive justice in the wider society.

However, distributive justice does not appear to be a defining feature, end or function of all social institutions.

By this I do not mean that some social institutions are unjust and, for instance, exist in practice to serve narrow economic or other special interests (Marx 1867; Habermas 1978; Honneth 1995); though clearly many are. MPYE 02 Free Solved Assignment

Rather am referring to the fact that a number of social institutions, such as the so-called Fourth Estate and the university, are arguably not defined-normatively speaking-in terms of justice, but rather by some other moral value(s), e.g. truth (Ostrom 2005; Miller 2010).

MPYE 02 Free Solved Assignment
MPYE 02 Free Solved Assignment

Q 2 Explain and evaluate the idea of diversity of morals given by Morris Ginsberg.

Ans. Professor of Sociology at the University of London from 1929-1954, just one year before his retirement, Ginsberg delivered the Huxley Memorial lecture on the phenomenon of apparent ethical relativism that anthropologists and sociologists were unearthing in cross cultural studies.

It would be pertinent to quote in anticipation, the conclusion he arrives at, after a long and patient scrutiny of the facts.

Amidst variations moral codes everywhere exhibit striking similarities in essentials. There are no societies without rules of conduct, backed by the general approval of the members.

There are none which do not regard that which contributes to the needs and survival of the group as good, none which do not condemn conduct interfering with the satisfaction of common needs and threatening the stability of social relations.

As Ginsberg sums it up insightfully, “It might be argued that the diversity of moral judgments affords no more proof of their subjectivity than the diversity of judgments regarding matters of fact throws any doubt on the possibility of valid scientific judgments about them” MPYE 02 Free Solved Assignment

He then goes on to detail six different contexts wherein a certain variation in moral practices may be noted between and within certain nations and cultures.

In sum, they are as follows: Variations in the view as to whom moral rules were held to be applicable. Variations arising due to differences of opinion as to the non-moral qualities of certain acts and their consequences.

Variations arising from the fact that the same act appears to be seen differently in different situations and contexts.

Variations arising due to a difference of emphasis on different elements comprising moral life. Variations arising from the possibility of alternative ways of satisfying primary needs.

Variations due to differences of moral insight and general level of development, ethical as well as intellectual. MPYE 02 Free Solved Assignment

The range of persons to whom moral rules are held to be applicable: Anthropologists like Taylor recognize a certain “natural solidarity,” comprising a measure of mutual forbearance, helpfulness and trust as constitutive of all societies.

Everyone felt somehow bound to his or her neighbour by certain societal bonds of shared care and responsibility.

However, there was a divergence of view as to who really were ones neighbours.

Initially, and quite understandably, “neighbour” was rather narrowly understood to be only those of one’s own family, tribe or clan and very often it was only the males who, in the full sense, were considered moral persons to whom societal norms in all fullness had to be applied.

However, what constitutes one’s “neighbourness” is not a particular set of racial features or one’s sex but “human nature adequately considered” and so moral laws have to be applied to all persons, irrespective of their age, sex, social status or nationality.

No law was understood as discriminating against ones neighbour: there was only a mistaken perception as to what the term meant.

It could well be that vested interest’s made use of this confusion to justify their breaking of promises and agreements to colonised natives.

After all, if the natives had no souls, then they were mere sub-humans and the ethical prescriptions didn’t apply in their case.MPYE 02 Free Solved Assignment

Differences arising from the growth of knowledge concerning certain acts: This is perhaps best exemplified with the medical discovery, in fairly recent times, of the role played by microbes in generating disease.

This has given us new responsibilities as regards cleanliness and hygiene: hospital staff may be guilty of criminal neglect if they are careless in these areas nowadays something totally unheard of in ancient period.

Again, it was only in the eighteenth century that people desisted from torturing and burning to death alleged “witches.”

At that time, such people were seen as being guilty of heinous crimes and, due to their pernicious influence or occult powers could cause serious bodily harm to peoples, bring about natural disasters and jeopardize not only their own salvation, but of others as well.

As Lecky, remarks “granted these propositions, there was no moral difficulty in drawing the conclusion that… (They…should be put to death.”

Happily, we live in more enlightened times and developments in psychology and sociology have helped us recognize the folly and error underlying such views.

The same act is seen differently in different contexts/cultures: Divergences, here, are very often the result of ethical laws and principles being couched in a very brief formula.

As a result, the passage of time or a wholly new set of circumstances in a different climate or culture yield examples of “differences in ethical behavior as regards the same act when, on closer study, we realize that these are totally different ones altogether.

What constitutes “usury” in one place may not be so in another, depending on the standard of living. MPYE 02 Free Solved Assignment

MPYE 02 Free Solved Assignment
MPYE 02 Free Solved Assignment

Q 3 Give answer of any two questions

a) “Violence is morally wrong.” How would intuitionist, realist and relativist analyze this moral statement?

Ans. Hours after the terrorist attacks on the Charlie Hebdo offices in Paris on January 7th, 2015, the US President Barack Obama, condemned the “cowardly, evil..and senseless attacks” perpetrated by the men who murdered twelve people.

Leaders throughout the western world expressed similar sentiments.

It is common for politicians to represent the perpetrators of violence as acting outside the boundaries of morality; their actions belong to an incomprehensible realm beyond our understanding of what is good and right.

But the Charlie Hebdo killers were not acting at random-they were following a moral code.

We don’t need to approve of their moral framework to understand that it exists and guides their behavior, and that understanding can bring us insights into the psychology of violence that we miss if we simply dismiss it as evil. MPYE 02 Free Solved Assignment

Generally speaking, we think of most interpersonal violence, not just terrorist attacks, as immoral.

It’s very rare that you’ll see anybody claim that hurting someone else is an inherently moral thing to do.

When people are violent, explanations for their behavior tend to invoke some sort of breakdown: a lack of self-control, the dehumanization of an “outgroup.” or perhaps sadistic psychological tendencies.

This is a comforting notion – one that draws a clear boundary between acceptable and unacceptable behavior.

But according to the authors of a new book, it simply isn’t an accurate reflection of how people actually behave: morality, as understood and practiced by real-world human beings, doesn’t always prohibit violence. MPYE 02 Free Solved Assignment

In fact they make the case that most violence is motivated by morality.

b) Critically evaluate the idea of cultural relativism in the field of morality.

Ans. Cultural relativism is the idea that a person’s beliefs and practices should be understood based on that person’s own culture.

Proponents of cultural relativism also tend to argue that the norms and values of one culture should not be evaluated using the norms and values of another.

It was established as axiomatic in anthropological research by Franz Boas in the first few decades of the 20th century and later popularized by his students.

Boas first articulated the idea in 1887: “civilization is not something absolute, but…is relative, and…our ideas and conceptions are true only so far as our civilization goes.” However, Boas did not coin the term.

The first use of the term recorded in the Oxford English Dictionary was by philosopher and social theorist Alain Locke in 1924 to describe Robert Lowie’s “extreme cultural relativism,” found in the latter’s 1917 book Culture and Ethnology.

The term became common among anthropologists after Boas’ death in 1942, to express their synthesis of a number of ideas he had developed.MPYE 02 Free Solved Assignment

Boas believed that the sweep of cultures, to be found in connection with any subspecies, is so vast and pervasive that there cannot be a relationship between culture and race.

Cultural relativism involves specific epistemological and methodological claims. Whether or not these claims necessitate a specific ethical stance is a matter of debate.

Cultural relativism is the ability to understand a culture on its own terms and not to make judgments using the standards of one’s own culture.

The goal of this is promote understanding of cultural practices that are not typically part of one’s own culture.

Using the perspective of cultural relativism leads to the view that no one culture is superior than another culture when compared to systems of morality, law, politics, etc.

Q 4 Give answer of any four questions

a) Write a note on the D. Ross’s idea of human duties.

Ans. Sir William David Ross KBE FBA (15 April 1877-5 May 1971), known as David Ross but usually cited as W. D. Ross, was a Scottish philosopher who is known for his work in ethics.

His bestknown work is The Right and the Good (1930), and he is perhaps best known for developing a pluralist, deontological form of intuitionist ethics in response to G. E.

Moore’s consequentialist form of intuitionism. Ross also critically edited and translated a number of Aristotle’s works, in addition to writing on Greek philosophy.

In The Right and the Good, Ross lists seven prima facie duties, without claiming his list to be all-inclusive: fidelity; reparation; gratitude; justice; beneficence; non-maleficence; and self-improvement. MPYE 02 Free Solved Assignment

In any given situation, any number of these prima facie duties may apply. In the case of ethical dilemmas, they may even contradict one another.

Someone could have a prima facie duty of reparation, say, a duty to help people who helped you move house, move house themselves, and a prima facie duty of fidelity, such as taking your children on a promised trip to the park, and these could conflict.

Nonetheless, there can never be a true ethical dilemma, Ross would argue, because one of the prima facie duties in a given situation is always the weightiest, and over-rules all the others.

MPYE 02 Free Solved Assignment
MPYE 02 Free Solved Assignment

b) Write a note on the social responsibility of media.

Ans. Media ethics and social responsibility have always been important but never so much as today. Information, like knowledge, is power. Hence intelligence gathering was from early times basic to statecraft.

The liberal revolution that followed the Reformation and Renaissance democratised information. MPYE 02 Free Solved Assignment

But none of this compares with the communications revolution ushered in our own lifetime by the satellite and the chip, and the computer and the internet. This has created an instant world, shrinking space and time.

Convergence and miniaturisation have given us the cell phone and the iPod, and we now can hold the world in the palm of one hand.

This has in turn created an entirely new medium called the social media, manifested in the Web, YouTube, Facebook, and Twitter. Information is now popular power and not just state power.

Social responsibility theory allows free press without any censorship but at the same time the content of the press should be discussed in public panel and media should accept any obligation from public interference or professional self regulations or both.

The theory lies between both authoritarian theory and libertarian theory because it gives total media freedom in one hand but the external controls in other hand.

c) Compare Aristotle’s and Macintyre’s virtue ethics.

Ans. Aristotle’s views on virtue theory are all led back to the highest good; Eudaimonia. To understand its role in virtue ethics we look to Aristotle’s function argument.

Aristotle recognizes that actions are not pointless because they have an aim. Every action aims at some good. MPYE 02 Free Solved Assignment

Furthermore, some things are done for their own sake and some for the sake of others. Aristotle then observes that when an object has a function the good of the object is when it performs its function well.

For example, the knife has a function, to cut, and it performs its function well when it cuts well. This argument is applied to man. Man has a function and the good man, is the man who performs his function well.

This is the life of eudaimonia. Eudaimonia is the life of achieving virtues through activity in conjunction with reason, man’s highest function.

Therefore, when linked to moral decision making the person making the decision and wanting to become virtuous, will have an incentive of endless happiness, which should lead to the correct moral decision being chosen.

e) What are the main objections against moral intuitionism?

Ans. Ethical intuitionism (also called moral intuitionism) is a view or family of views in moral epistemology (and, on some definitions, metaphysics).

It is foundationalism applied to moral knowledge, the thesis that some moral truths can be known non-inferentially (i.e., known without one needing to infer them from other truths one believes). MPYE 02 Free Solved Assignment

Such an epistemological view is by definition committed to the existence of knowledge of moral truths; therefore, ethical intuitionism implies cognitivism.

As a foundationalist epistemological position, ethical intuitionism contrasts with coherentist positions in moral epistemology, such as those that depend on reflective equilibrium.

Despite the name “ethical intuitionism”, ethical intuitionists need not (though often do) accept that intuitions of value (or of evaluative facts) form the foundation of ethical knowledge;

the common commitment of ethical intuitionists is to a non-inferential foundation for ethical knowledge, regardless of whether such a non-inferential foundation consists in intuitions as such.

Throughout the philosophical literature, the term “ethical intuitionism” is frequently used with significant variation in its sense. MPYE 02 Free Solved Assignment

This article’s focus on foundationalism reflects the core commitments of contemporary self-identified ethical intuitionists.

Q 5 Write short notes on any five

a) Panchasila

Ans. Pancasila is the official, foundational philosophical theory of Indonesia. Pancasila comprises two Old Javanese words originally derived from Sanskrit: “pañca” (“five”) and “sila” (“principles”).

Thus it is composed of five principles and contends that they are inseparable and interrelated:

Pancasila democracy endeavors to strike a balance between the interests of the individual and those of society.

It seeks to prevent the oppression of the weak by the strong, whether by economic or political means.

Therefore, we hold that Pancasila is a socio-religious society. Briefly its major characteristics are its rejection of poverty, backwardness, conflicts, exploitation, capitalism, feudalism, dictatorship, colonialism and imperialism. MPYE 02 Free Solved Assignment

This is the policy I have chosen with confidence.

c) Distributive Justice

Ans. Distributive justice concerns the socially just allocation of resources. Often contrasted with just process, which is concerned with the administration of law, distributive justice concentrates on outcomes.

This subject has been given considerable attention in philosophy and the social sciences.
In social psychology, distributive justice is defined as perceived fairness of how rewards and costs are shared by (distributed across) group members.

For example, when some workers work more hours but receive the same pay, group members may feel that distributive justice has not occurred.

To determine whether distributive justice has taken place, individuals often turn to the behavioral expectations of their group.

If rewards and costs are allocated according to the designated distributive norms of the group, distributive justice has occurred. MPYE 02 Free Solved Assignment

Distributive justice is also fundamental to the Catholic Church’s social teaching, inspiring such figures as Dorothy Day and Pope John Paul II.

d) Situation Ethics

Ans. Situational ethics or situation ethics takes into account the particular context of an act when evaluating it ethically, rather than judging it only according to absolute moral standards.

With the intent to have a fair basis for judgments or action, one looks to personal ideals of what is appropriate to guide them, rather than an unchanging universal code of conduct, such as Biblical law under divine command theory or the Kantian categorical imperative.

Proponents of situational approaches to ethics include existentialist philosophers Sartre, de Beauvoir, Jaspers, and Heidegger.

Specifically Christian forms of situational ethics placing love above all particular principles or rules were proposed in the first half of the twentieth century by liberal theologians Rudolf Bultmann, John A. T. Robinson, and Joseph Fletcher.

These theologians point specifically to agapē, or unconditional love, as the highest end. Other theologians who advocated situational MPYE 02 Free Solved Assignment

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