STATE POLITICS IN INDIA
MPSE 8 Free Solved Assignment
MPSE 8 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022
Q 1 Explain the basic features of Marxian frameworks to study state politics.
Ans. Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that uses a materialist interpretation of historical development, better known as Historical materialism, to understand class relations and social conflict as well as a dialectical perspective to view social transformation. It originates from the works of 19th-century German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
As Marxism has developed over time into various branches and schools of thought, there is currently no single definitive Marxist theory.
Some Marxist schools of thought place greater emphasis on certain aspects of classical Marxism while rejecting or modifying other aspects.
Some schools have sought to combine Marxian concepts and no Marxian concepts which has then led to contradictory conclusions. MPSE 8 Free Solved Assignment
It has been argued that there is a movement toward the recognition of historical and dialectical materialism as the fundamental conceptions of all Marxist schools of thought.
This view is rejected by some post-Marxists such as Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe, who claim that history is not only determined by the mode of production but also by consciousness and will
Marxism has had a profound impact on global academia, having influenced many fields, including anthropology, archaeology, art theory, criminology, cultural studies, economics, education, ethics, film theory, geography, historiography, literary criticism, media studies, philosophy, political science, psychology, science studies, sociology, urban planning, and theater.
Marxism seeks to explain social phenomena within any given society by analyzing the material conditions and economic activities required to fulfill human material needs.
It assumes that the form of economic organization, or mode of production, influences all other social phenomena including wider social relations, political institutions, legal systems, cultural systems, aesthetics and ideologies.
These social relations, together with the economic system, form a base and superstructure. As forces of production (i.e. technology) improve, existing forms of organizing production become obsolete and hinder further progress. MPSE 8 Free Solved Assignment
Karl Marx wrote: “At a certain stage of development, the material productive forces of society come into conflict with the existing relations of production or-this merely expresses the same thing in legal terms-with the property relations within the framework of which they have operated hitherto.
From forms of development of the productive forces these relations turn into their fetters. Then begins an era of social revolution.”
These inefficiencies manifest themselves as social contradictions in society which are, in turn, fought out at the level of class struggle.
Under the capitalist mode of production, this struggle materializes between the minority who own the means of production (the bourgeoisie) and the vast majority of the population who produce goods and services (the proletariat).
Starting with the conjectural premise that social change occurs as result of the struggle between different classes within society who contradict one another,
a Marxist would conclude that capitalism exploits and oppresses the proletariat, therefore capitalism will inevitably lead to a proletarian revolution.
In a socialist society, private property-as the means of production would be replaced by co-operative ownership. MPSE 8 Free Solved Assignment
A socialist economy would not base production on the creation of private profits, but on the criteria of satisfying human needs-that is, production for use.
Friedrich Engels explained that the capitalist mode of appropriation, in which the product enslaves first the producer, and then the appropriator, is replaced by the mode of appropriation of the products that is based upon the nature of the modern means of production; upon the one hand, direct social appropriation, as means to the maintenance and extension of production – on the other, direct individual appropriation, as means of subsistence and of enjoyment.”
Q 2 Critically analyse the decline of the Congress System.
Ans. The 2014 general election dealt the Congress an electoral punch that knocked the wind out of its sails.
It also threw up a leader in Narendra Modi that was reminiscent of Indira Gandhi with a larger than life image and that resulted in a tectonic shift of political equilibrium in Delhi from the middle of the centre ideological pinning of the Congress to the right wing brand of politics of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) which rolled out a new political discourse promising to usher in a new India free from the Congress.
In the aftermath of these elections, journalistic and academic narratives focussing on the decline of the Congress party in the country’s political arena abounded and red flags were raised within the party circles to arrest its terminal downslide and save it from being marginalised.
The party went into a huddle but internal dissensions and lack of visionary strategies failed to revive its electoral fortunes. MPSE 8 Free Solved Assignment
It lost the state elections held in 2015-2016 in quick succession and conceded the remaining political space to the BJP which was on a roll.
The recent assembly elections held in Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Punjab, Manipur and Goa in March were a kind of a referendum on demonetisation undertaken by Modi and a midterm appraisal of the BJP government.
The issue of demonetisation created a sharp political divide and provided the Congress the much needed opportunity not only in stopping the saffron juggernaut but also in reversing its losing streak and making a political u-turn.
The electorate of Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand handed the saffron party one of the biggest state election mandates in independent India.
The Congress registered a consolation win in Punjab and emerged as the largest party in Manipur and Goa (in terms of seats, but lagged behind the BJP in terms of popular votes) but still lost the opportunity to form the government in the smaller states.
This was largely due to poor negotiations by the party’s state interlocutors and the flip flop by its national leadership. MPSE 8 Free Solved Assignment
The declining wheel turned a full circle and the Congress is in power now in only six states– Karnataka, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Mizoram and Meghalaya on its own and in Bihar as a junior partner in an alliance.
On the other hand, the BJP has extended its political reach and rules in 17 states either on its own or in alliance.
The electoral map of India has turned almost saffron signalling the rise of the BJP as a dominant player in the country’s politics.
The electoral shrinkage of the Congress after the elections in the above mentioned five states has once again started the debate in the public domain over its imminent decline with some over-enthusiastic political observers even writing obituaries and penning requiems.
It thus becomes contextual to delve into the declining popularity graph of the Congress and ascertain the most plausible reasons that could explain the current downsizing of electoral support for the party from a vantage point.
The political journey of the party can be divided into three time frames. It began its first innings officially as the Indian National Congress (INC) after independence and witnessed a rebirth in 1971 when Indira Gandhi broke free from the shackles of powerful leaders who had known her father and formed her own party.
The Congress (Indira) continued after her death in 1984 under the leadership of her son Rajiv Gandhi until his assassination in 1991. MPSE 8 Free Solved Assignment
There was a political interregnum between 1992 and 1997 when the party was not led by any member of the Nehru-Gandhi family.
The taking over of the reins of the Congress by Sonia Gandhi in 1997 marked the 3.0 version of the party.
She propelled it back to power at the centre in 2004 and ruled for ten years (in alliance with other parties) before taking an electoral bow in 2014.
Indian National Congress 1952-1968:-
From the first general election in 1952 when Jawaharlal Nehru led it to a landslide victory (it won 364 of the 401 seats), the INC won in the majority of the following state elections and paved the way for a Nehruvian era of single party dominance.
Political scientist Rajni Kothari in his book Politics in India defines a one-party dominant system as, “a competitive party system but one in which the competing parts play dissimilar roles and one which consists of, parties of pressure and parties of consensus”.
The parties of pressure operate within the margin of pressure which comprises opposition parties. The parties of consensus are those which are part of the ruling consensus.
The system depends on the sensitivity of the margin of pressure, where the parties of pressure operate, ensure suitable checks and balance on the ruling consensus and ensure the accountability of the parties of consensus.MPSE 8 Free Solved Assignment
He identified the Congress party as the main consensus and therefore the dominant party with an obligation towards nation building through which the Indian political system operated after independence with back to-back electoral victories in the 1952, 1957 and 1962 Lok Sabha elections.
Q 3. Discuss the significant factors that determine electoral behaviour in India
Ans. Voting Behaviour is defined as the following by the following Sociologists and Political Scientists
According to Sociologist Gordon Marshall: “The study of voting behaviour invariably focuses on the determinants of why people tend to vote in public elections as they do and how they arrive at the decisions they make”.
According to Political University Professor – Stephen Wasby (New York State University, Department of Political Science): “The Study of Voting Behaviour involves an analysis of individual psychological make-up and their relation to political action as well as institutional patterns, such as the communication process and their impact on elections”.
Significance of Voting Behaviour:
The scientific study which deals with voting behaviour is known as Psephology. The recorded history of voting goes back to the Greek city-states of classical antiquity.
The modern world for the study of voting behaviour, psephology, derives from the classical Greek ‘Presphos’, the piece of pottery on which certain votes, mainly about the banishment of those seen as dangerous to the state, were inscribed.
The study of voting behaviour is significant for the following reasons:
. It helps in comprehending the process of political socialisation
. It helps in examining the internalisation of democracy as a value among the elites as well as masses. MPSE 8 Free Solved Assignment
. It emphasises the real impact of the revolutionary ballot box
. It enables to throw light as to how far the electoral politics continue or break with the past
. It helps to measure whether it is modern or primordial in the context of political development
Determinants of Voting Behaviour in India:-
Indian society is highly diversified in nature and composition. Hence, voting behaviour in India is determined or influenced by multiple factors.
Broadly speaking, these factors can be divided into two categories: socio-economic factors and political factors
They are explained in detail below:
Caste: Caste is an important factor influencing the behaviour of voters. Politicisation of caste and casteism in politics have been a feature of Indian politics.
While formulating their election strategies political parties account the factor of caste.
Large and important castes in a constituency tend to back either a respected member of their case or a political party with whom their caste identifies.
However, local factions and local-state factional alignments that involve inter-caste coalition, are also important factors in influencing voting behavior.
Religion: Religion is another significant factor which influences electoral behaviour. Political parties indulge in communal propaganda and exploit the religious sentiments of the voters. MPSE 8 Free Solved Assignment
The existence of various communal parties has further added to the politicization of religion. Despite India being a secular nation, no political party ignores the influence of religion in electoral politics.
Language: Linguistic considerations of the people influence their voting behaviour. During elections, the political parties arouse the linguistic feelings of the people and try to influence their decision-making.
The reorganisation of states (in 1956 and later) on language basis clearly reflects the significance of language factor in India politics.
The rise of DMK in Tamil Nadu and TDP in Andhra Pradesh can be attributed to linguism.
Region: Regionalism and sub-regionalism play an important role in voting behaviour. These parochial feelings of sub-nationalism led to the emergence of perpetual regional parties in various states.
These regional parties appeal to the electorate on the ground of regional identities and regional sentiments. Sometimes, the secessionist parties call for the boycott of elections.
Personality: The charismatic personality of the party leader plays an important role in electoral behavior. MPSE 8 Free Solved Assignment
Thus, the towering image of Jawaharlal Nehru (Born on November 14, 1889), Indira Gandhi, Rajiv Gandhi, Atal Bihari Vajpayee and Naredra Modi had significantly influenced the electorate to vote in favour of their parties.
At the state-level also, the charismatic personality of the regional party leader has been a significant factor of popular support in the elections.
Money: The role of the money factor cannot be overlooked in explaining the voting behaviour.
Despite the limitations on the election expenditures, crores of rupees are spent on elections. The voters seek money or liquor or goods in return for their votes.
SECTION – ii
Q 6 a) Chhattisgarh Mukti Morcha (CMM)
Ans. A significant share of popular sentiment is anti-activism today. Many people hardly trust activists. In fact they loath them, abuse them on social media and often make fun of their tragedy by sharing jokes around.
Not just activists, movements for justice are mocked at and believed to be undesirable. The ruling establishment not only cashes in on such sentiment but also perpetuates it by criminalizing different activists.MPSE 8 Free Solved Assignment
A population, engrossed in unlimited desire and overwhelmed by populist electoral promises, forget that the rights they enjoy are products of some peoples’ life-long struggle.
Here, my focus is on the movement Chhattisgarh Mukti Morcha- Mazdoor Karyakarta Samiti (CMM-MKS), which Sudha Bharadwaj has been associated with.
In the context of the state hounding her, the judiciary denying her bail and putting her behind the bars, I am sharing some experience from my fieldwork for research.
CMM-MKS is an offshoot of Chhattisgarh Mukti Morcha (CMM) led by the legendary trade unionist late Shankar Guha Niyogi.
CMM arose out of a trade-union movement named Chhattisgarh Mines Shramik Sangh that began at Dalli Rajhara in the undivided province of Madhya Pradesh, India in 1977.
It was a resistance against both the management and the existing union Sayunkt Khadan Mazdoor Sangh that didn’t take up contract labourers’ issues because of CPI’s (Communist Party India) support for the Emergency. MPSE 8 Free Solved Assignment
Niyogi’s approach was unconventional. It raised not only issues of wages but also worked for abolition of contract labour and struggled against departmentalization of workforce as well as mechanization.
He took worker’s struggle beyond the workplace to their neighborhood and villages by focusing on different socio-political issues-like women’s participation, alcoholism, health, and education of workers’ children and so on.
It was a holistic approach with a unique conceptualization of working class situation beyond economist.
He believed that the success of the struggle depended on the survival of the workers. Hence, the struggle was often accompanied by construction of alternatives.
The movement established a hospital, a garage and several schools etc. The ideology of sangharsh our nirman (struggle and construct) contributed to its stability and spread.
Niyogi was condemned to be a Naxalite and later assassinated on September 28, 1991.
In the aftermath of Niyogi’s death, the movement travelled its own path- from mass protest to prolonged struggle in court, gradual sanitization of its political potential, and finally the crisis. MPSE 8 Free Solved Assignment
Varieties of conflict led to its fragmentation into different groups at Dalli, Raipur and Bhilai in Chhattisgarh (a province separated from Madhya Pradesh).
Sudha Bharadwaj has continued her activism with the Bhilai group. Their effort was to go beyond the crisis and rebuild the movement.
The organization has been remodeled by replacing traditional form of hierarchical leadership with ‘committee system’.
They call their struggle as janadharit (people-based) instead of neta-adharit (leader-based). Its emphasis is on samuhik netrutwa aur byaktigat jimmedari (collective leadership and individual responsibility), so that the movement won’t die out of leadership crisis and corrupt leadership can be dealt with.
At the same time, the gap between a leader and led can be reduced by involvement of masses in decision making. The idea is to convert a movement for masses into a movement of masses.
b) The Dalit Panther
Ans. The Dalit Panthers are an Ambedkarite social organisation that seeks to combat caste discrimination. MPSE 8 Free Solved Assignment
The organisation was founded by Namdeo Dhasal, Arjun Dangle, Raja Dhale and J. V. Pawar on 29 May 1972 in the Indian state of Maharashtra.
The movement’s heyday lasted from the 1970s through the 1980s, and it was later joined by many Dalit-Buddhist activists.
The Dalit Panthers were inspired by the Black Panther Party, a socialist and communist political party that sought to combat racial and economic discrimination against African-Americans, during the Civil Rights Movement in the United States, which occurred in the mid-20th century.
The initiative to form the Dalit Panther movement was taken up by Namdeo Dhasal, J. V. Pawar, Raja Dhale and Arun Kamble in Bombay.
They conceived of the movement as a radical departure from earlier Dalit movements, due to its initial emphasis on militancy and revolutionary attitudes, akin to attitudes espoused by their Black American counterparts. MPSE 8 Free Solved Assignment
The Black Panther Party acknowledged and supported the Dalit Panthers through the Black Panther newspaper, which circulated worldwide on a weekly basis from 1967-1980.
Most of the organization’s members were young men, some of whom were Neo-Buddhists. Most of the leaders were literary figures whose academic qualifications ranged from not having a basic education to master’s degrees.
The controversy over Raja Dhale’s article titled “Kala Swatantrya Din” (Black Independence Day), published in Sadhana, the Dalit Panthers’ official publication, on 15 August 1972. created a great sensation and built recognition for the Dalit Panthers through Maharashtra.
The Panthers’ support of Dhale during this controversy brought him into the movement and made him a prominent leader.
The leadership split after disagreements over its future and over if other castes should be allowed to join. mpse 001 solved assignment 2021-22
The name Dalit Panther was taken up by others in many parts of Maharashtra as well as in other states, such as Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.
The Dalit Panthers emerged to fill the vacuum created in Dalit politics resulting from B. R. Ambedkar’s Republican Party of India splitting into factions.
The Dalit Panthers led a renaissance in Marathi literature and art. They advocated for and practised radical politics, fusing the ideologies of Ambedkar, Jyotirao Phule and Karl Marx.
Crucially, the Dalit Panthers helped invigorate the use of the term Dalit to refer to lower-caste communities. MPSE 8 Free Solved Assignment
Their manifesto, issued in 1973, fit the Ambedkarite spirit into a broader Marxist framework and heralded the rise of an autonomous Dalit perspective in postIndependence India.
Q 7 a) Green Revolution
Ans. The Green Revolution, or the Third Agricultural Revolution, is the set of research technology transfer initiatives occurring between 1950 and the late 1960s, that increased agricultural production in parts of the world, beginning most markedly in the late 1960s.
The initiatives resulted in the adoption of new technologies, including high-yielding varieties (HYVS) of cereals, especially dwarf wheat and rice.
It was associated with chemical fertilizers, agrochemicals, and controlled water-supply (usually involving irrigation) and newer methods of cultivation, including mechanization.
All of these together were seen as a ‘package of practices’ to supersede ‘traditional technology and to be adopted as a whole. The key elements of the revolution include:
1) Use of the latest technological and capital inputs,
2) adoption of modern scientific methods of farming,
3) use of high yielding varieties of seeds, MPSE 8 Free Solved Assignment
4) proper use of chemical fertilizers,
5) consolidation of land holdings,
6) Use of various mechanical machineries.
Both the Ford Foundation and the Rockefeller Foundation were heavily involved in its initial development in Mexico. One key leader was agricultural scientist Norman Borlaug, the “Father of the Green Revolution”, who received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1970.
He is credited with saving over a billion people from starvation.
The basic approach was the development of high-yielding varieties of cereal grains, expansion of irrigation infrastructure, modernization of management techniques, distribution of hybridized seeds, synthetic fertilizers, and pesticides to farmers.
The Green Revolution had mixed results. MPSE 8 Free Solved Assignment
Norman Borlaug blamed its failures on politics.
As the development of new cereal varieties through selective breeding reached their limits, some agricultural scientists turned to the creation of new strains that did not exist in nature, genetically modified organisms (GMOs), a phenomenon sometimes called the Gene Revolution.mpse 008 solved assignment in hindi
b) The Kulaks
Ans. Kulak was the term which was used to describe peasants who owned over 8 acres (3.2 hectares) of land towards the end of the Russian Empire.
In the early Soviet Union, particularly in Soviet Russia and Azerbaijan, kulak became a vague reference to property ownership among peasants who were considered “hesitant” allies of the revolution.
In 1930-31 in Ukraine also existed a term of pidkurkulnyk (almost wealthy peasant)
The word kulak originally referred to former peasants in the Russian Empire who became wealthier during the Stolypin reform of 1906 to 1914, which aimed to reduce radicalism amongst the peasantry and produce profit-minded, politically conservative farmers.
During the Russian Revolution, the label kulak was used to chastise peasants who withheld grain from the Bolsheviks.MPSE 8 Free Solved Assignment 2021-22
According to MarxistLeninist political theories of the early 20th century, the kulaks were considered the class enemies of the poorer peasants.
Vladimir Lenin himself described them as “bloodsuckers, vampires, plunderers of the people and profiteers, who fatten themselves during famines,” declaring revolution against them to liberate poor peasants, farm laborers, and proletariat (the much smaller class of urban and industrial workers).
During the first five-year plan, Stalin’s all-out campaign to take land ownership and organisation away from the peasantry meant that, according to historian Robert Conquest, “peasants with a couple of cows or five or six acres more than their neighbors” were labeled kulaks. mgpe 008 solved assignment
However, in 1929, Soviet officials officially classified kulaks according to subjective criteria, such as the use of hired labour.
Under dekulakization, government officials seized farms and killed some resisters, deported others to labor camps, and drove many others to migrate to the cities following the loss of their property to the collectives. MPSE 8 Free Solved Assignment
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