PEACE AND CONFLICT STUDIES
MPSE 6 Free Solved Assignment
MPSE 6 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022
Q1. The evolution of civil society in its relationship with the state has undergone major transformations in the modern period. Elucidate.
Ans:- The evolution of civil society in its relationship with the state – has undergone major transformations in the modem period itself. Until the middle of the eighteenth century the phase civil society was coterminous with the word ‘state’.
Thus, different European language terms, like societas civilis, societic civile, burgerliche gesseleschaft, were interchangeable terms with the State.
In this phase, the ancient Roman (and the earlier Greek) identification of societas civilis with the state provided a continuity.
This concept of civil society began to implode after the middle of the eighteenth century when civil society and the state were seen as different entities Civil society was identified mart: with the sphere of economic-social relations and the state with the political and legal sponge.MPSE 6 Free Solved Assignment
The reinstatement of the state’s pre-eminence can be witnessed in the popularisation of the legal concept of sovereignty as an attribute solely belonging to the state conferring it with the power to control all other parts of the social sphere.
The ‘state’ therefore became the supreme institution in and of the society. In one sense this phase has its hold right upto the contemporary times.
For instance. the Welfare State concept and the authoritarian concept of state power, endow the state with over-arching power and influence over society.
Contemporary Civil Society Theory and Practice: The immediate occasion for the projection of civil society in the contemporary decades could be traced to the recession of the state from some of its earlier functions.
To a great extent, this is a trend accompanying the globalisation process. It is well known that globalisation promotes the expansion of private sector and puts pressure on the political state to withdraw from the economic aspect of society.
This trend, in its turn left large groups of people vulnerable to socio-economic distress. It is to cater to these interests that NGOs have emerged in a big way.
Q2. Critically examine the strategies adopted by the Cold War rivals to fight or deter a nuclear war.
Ans. Nuclear warfare, or atomic warfare, is a military conflict in which nuclear weapons are used. Compared to conventional warfare, nuclear warfare is vastly more destructive in range and extent of damage. MPSE 6 Free Solved Assignment
A major nuclear exchange could have severe long-term effects, primarily from radiation release but also from possible atmospheric pollution leading to nuclear winter that could last for decades, centuries, or even millennia after the initial attack.
Nuclear war is considered to bear existential risk for civilization on Earth. The first, and to date only, nuclear war was the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan by the United States shortly before the end of World War II.
At the time of those bombings, the United States was the only country to possess atomic weapons.
After World War II, nuclear weapons were also developed by the United Kingdom, France, the Soviet Union, and the People’s Republic of China, which contributed to the state of conflict and tension that became known as the Cold War.
In the 1970s, India and Pakistan, countries openly hostile to each other, developed nuclear weapons. MPSE 6 Free Solved Assignment
After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and the resultant end of the Cold War, the threat of a major nuclear war between the superpowers was generally thought to have receded.
Since then, concern over nuclear weapons has shifted to the prevention of localized nuclear conflicts resulting from nuclear proliferation, and the threat of nuclear terrorism.
Nuclear strategy, a policy for the use of nuclear weapons. The first atomic bombs were used in the context of the Allies’ World War II policy of strategic bombing.
Early in the Cold War, US policy was for massive retaliation with Strategic Air Command bombers in the event of war with the USSR. In 1949, after the Soviets exploded their first atomic device,
the United States elaborated other policies, but these did not affect the ever-increasing numbers, types, and explosive force of nuclear arsenals throughout the world.
During the cold war, the nuclear strategies of the United States and the USSR ranged from straightforward deterrence to the threat of massive retaliation during the early 1950s, to limited forward deployment in the late 1950s, to various forms of flexible response in the 1960s. MPSE 6 Free Solved Assignment
Q3. Briefly describe the different methods of resolving inter-state conflicts.
Ans. Conflict resolution is a range of methods for alleviating or eliminating sources of conflict. The term “conflict resolution” is sometimes used interchangeably with the term dispute resolution.
Processes of conflict resolution generally include negotiation, mediation and diplomacy.
The processes of arbitration, litigation and formal complaint processes such as ombudsman processes, are usually described with the term dispute resolution, although some refer to them as “conflict resolution”.
Processes of mediation and arbitration are often referred to as alternative dispute resolution.
Diplomatic Methods MPSE 6 Free Solved Assignment
Negotiation: Negotiations between nations in conflict can be either bilateral or multilateral. These can be conducted directly between Heads of State or Ambassadors or special representatives of the countries involved.
Negotiations can be held between conflicting parties through an international conference also.
Negotiation, good offices, mediation, conciliation and inquiry are methods of settlement of disputes less formal than judicial settlement or arbitrations.
Negotiation usually proceeds in conjunction with good offices or mediation. It involves consultation and communication.
The Australia- New Zealand Free Trade agreement of 1965 had provisions for consultation. The 1963 US-Soviet Hot Line Agreement implied negotiations and consultations.
Good Offices and Mediation: Good offices and mediation involve a friendly third state which assists in bringing about an amicable solution to a dispute.
The party offering good offices or mediation may be an individual or an international organization or a state. MPSE 6 Free Solved Assignment
The distinction between good offices and mediation is mostly one of degree. In good offices, a third party offers its services to bring the disputing parties together and to suggest the making of a settlement without actually participating in the negotiations or conducting an exhaustive inquiry.
Mediation on the other hand involves the mediating party in a more active role which includes participating in negotiations and helping reach a peaceful solution.
The mediator’s suggestions have no binding character. For example, the former Soviet Union mediated a settlement between India and Pakistan at Tashkent in 1965.
Q8. Critically examine the neorealist and postmodernist approaches to human security.
Ans:- There are two main contemporary theories of international relations in which the concepts of human security could be placed. MPSE 6 Free Solved Assignment
At one end of the continuum is and approach, based on a neo-realist theoretical framework, which maintains a continued emphasis on the primacy of the state within a broadened conceptualization of (human) security.
Some call this approach the ‘new security thinking’. At the other end of the security discourse is the postmodernist or ‘critical human security’ approach that is rooted within the pluralist theory of international politics.
This approach is based on a set of assumptions that essentially attempt to dislodge the state as the primary referent of security,
while placing greater emphasis on the interdependency and transnationalization of non-state actors Barry Buzan has advocated the neo-realist or ‘structuralist’ approach to human security in his seminal work ‘People, States and Fear’.
Buzan argued that the ‘straitjacket’ militaristic approach to security that dominated the discourse during the Cold War was ‘simple-minded’ and led to the underdevelopment of the concept. MPSE 6 Free Solved Assignment
He subsequently broadened it to include political, economic, social and environmental threats; in addition to those that are militaristic.
Although Buzan examines security from the three perspectives of the international system, the state, and the individual, he concludes that the most important and effective provider of security should remain the sovereign state.
The ‘critical’ or postmodernist approach to human security, reflected in the work of Ken Booth, also advocates a broadened conceptualisation of security that goes beyond a military determination of threats.
But he and other advocates of the postmodernist approach stress quite explicitly that the state must be dislodged as the primary referent of (human) security, and encompass instead a wide range of non-state actors, such as individuals, ethnic and cultural groups, regional economic blocs, multinational corporations (MNCs) and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and just about all humankind. MPSE 6 Free Solved Assignment
In expanding the concept of security horizontally and vertically, Booth argues that human security is ultimately more important than state security.
To put differently, the postmodernist conceptualisation of security does not equate state security with human security.
In Booth’s view, states and implicitly governments must no longer be the primary referents of security because governments which are supposed to be “the guardians of ‘their peoples’ security”,
have instead become the primary source of insecurity for the many people who live under their sovereignty, rather than the armed forces of a neighbouring country,
this approach challenges the very idea of a state as an effective and adequate provider of security to its people. MPSE 6 Free Solved Assignment
Q9. Write a short note on the following
a) What is peace-keeping? Describe the role of UN peace-keeping operation in the Somalia’s ethnic conflict.
Ans. A peacekeeping operation has come to be defined as an operation involving military personnel, but without enforcement powers, under taken by the United Nations to help maintain or restore international peace and security in areas of conflict.
The operations are voluntary and are based on consent and co-operation.
While they involve the use of military personnel, they achieve their objective not by force of arms, thus, contrasting them with the ‘enforcement action’ of the “United Nations under Article 42” (UN, 1999).
By and large, peacekeeping forces are employed to act as a buffer between two parties which had been at armed conflict, but which have accepted a ceasefire.
In some situations, it may be considered that an Observation Mission would satisfy the purpose of observing whether the ceasefire is being kept.
In 1947, for example, the Security Council appointed UN Observation Team in Indonesia in connection with the conflict between the Dutch Colonists who attempted to maintain the old colonial order as against Indonesian nationalists.MPSE 6 Free Solved Assignment
No member of the Security Council was prepared to support the Dutch colonial order. The Observer Team was to observe and report to the Security Council the observance of the various ceasefire lines and sporadic fighting.
The Security Council considered the reports from the Observers and acted towards Indonesian independence.
In 1949, the Security Council appointed the UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) to observe whether the ceasefire between India and Pakistan in Kashmir was being kept, and that Group exists even now.
The parties agreed to ceasefire and what was needed was observance of the compliance by the parties. Observation Groups were employed in some other cases also.
b) What are CBMs? How do the CBMs in Asia differ from those in Europe?
Ans. Confidence building measures, broadly defined, can be any set of unilateral, bilateral, or multilateral actions or procedures that act to reduce military tensions between a set or sets of states, before, during or after actual conflict.
In practice, they function to make the conduct of countries more calculable and predictable, so that states can have certain expectations with regard to the behavioru of other states.
Dozens of successful confidence building measures have been applied throughout the world.
Approaches vary, but in general there are four main areas: communication, constraint, transparency and verification: MPSE 6 Free Solved Assignment
• Communication channels between conflict-prone states help to defuse tensions during moments of crisis or provide a more regular consultative mechanism.
A prime example is the hotline that was established between national command authorities in Washington and Moscow after the Cuban Missile Crisis.
• Constraint measures are designed to keep certain types and levels of states. military forces at a distance from one another, especially along borders.
These measures could include the advance notice of troop movements above a pre-agreed level, or placing constraints on military exercises.MPSE 6 Free Solved Assignment
Limited force deployment zones, or thin-out zones, also restrict the type and number of military equipment or troops permitted in or near a certain territory or border.
An example of this constraint was former President George Bush’s decision to withdraw all deployed ground, air, and sea launched tactical nuclear weapons overseas in the fall of 1991.
• Transparency measures foster greater openness of military capabilities and activities. Such measures may include pre-notification requirements, data exchanges, and voluntary observations of another state’s military exercises and operating procedures.
Nuclear transparency measures also include unilateral declarations of nuclear-related data, or exchanges of such data among parties.
Decisions by the United States and the United Kingdom to declassify information about their military fissile material stocks are examples of unilateral transparency measures aimed at confidence building MPSE 6 Free Solved Assignment
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