IGNOU MPSE 5 Free Solved Assignment 2022- Helpfirst

MPSE 5

STATE AND SOCIETY IN AFRICA

MPSE 5 Free Solved Assignment

MPSE 5 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022

Q. 1. Write an essay on early African kingdoms.

Ans. Early African Kingdoms: In several African regions, kingdoms emerged during the first millennium A.D. The kingdoms were little more than enlarged chiefdoms.

The rulers were like senior lineage leaders and persons charged with ritual powers. Under the impact of economic and political development, the importance of rulers gradually increased.

In the 13th century, the west Asian mercenaries of Ayyubid Egypt were able to build the dynasty of Mamluk and rule Egypt until the early 16th century.

The empire of Ghana formed by Soninke chiefs long before the 8th century was one of the large mediaeval empires. In the 11th century, it reached the height of power.

The empire of Mali was dominant over the southern terminals of the trading network of the west. It rose to power in the western and central Sudan after Ghana, but it was short-lived.

In 11th century, its Mandinka kings believe to have accepted Islam and several of them went on pilgrimages. Under the rule of Mansa Kankan Musa (1312-1337), the triumph of Islam in Mali came.

Musa brought most of western Sudan, the westerly portion of the central Sudan and much of the southern Sahara under his control. MPSE 5 Free Solved Assignment

In 1324, Musa went on a pilgrimage and upon returning, he introduced Muslim patterns of administration into his court and government structure.

Prior to about 1400 AD, a large number of kingdoms emerged. The early kingdoms of the Yoruba (western Nigeria), of the Edo (mid-western Nigeria), of the Akan (central Ghana) and of the Wolof (Senegal) are notable among them.

The Yoruba kingdoms evolved from a cultural synthesis between the existing indigenous peoples and intrusive migrants from the central Sudan at around 1000 AD.

They had developed complex political systems, a rich cultural life, skills in handicraft production and a pattern of large urban development.

Many of the Yoruba kingdoms were later on drawn together in the Oyo Empire (1650-1810).

In eastern, central and southern Africa, some other types of kingship similar to that in west Africa developed from the needs of ritual and then of political and military leadership.

Some of them were influenced by long-distance trade such as Shona and their neighbours of the central southern plateau.

Luba and Lunda and their neighbours of the southern Congolese-Angolan grasslands are such kingships after 16th century. MPSE 5 Free Solved Assignment

Some others were concerned primarily with the command, defence and distribution of cattle pasture and farming land.

They included the states of the southern Bantu which are now the Transvaal, Natal, eastern Cape provinces of South Africa and neighbouring areas among others the states of the Swazi, Venda, Xhosa and Nguni.

There were also stratified conquest kingdoms in which cattle owners ruled over cultivators on the basis of ethnic differences.

There was no private ownership of land in these kingdoms so none of these kingdoms evolved the hierarchical rigidities of Europe or Asia.

MPSE 5 Free Solved Assignment
MPSE 5 Free Solved Assignment

Q. 2. Trace the patterns of colonization in Africa.

Ans. Patterns of Colonization: British Colonialism had two specific forms. Following the model of Australia and New Zealand, the British government provided some form of independence status to colonies where a significant white population had permanently settled and administering the colonies such as South Africa and Rhodesia (Zimbabwe).

The British colonialism in Africa was based on the pattern of indirect rule. British administrator Lord Lugard had popularized this concept of indirect rule.

On the other hand, French colonies had centralized form of administration under direct rule in which each colony was divided into different administrative departments as per the convenience. MPSE 5 Free Solved Assignment

The French officials were appointed at the higher levels and Africans were appointed at the lower level posts.

The French colonialism was based on the policy of assimilation. Under this concept, even an African can be a French citizen if he fulfils certain criteria.

Taking it as an advantage, many Africans had taken French citizenship.

Portugal and Belgium’s colonial model were similar to that of the French as they aim to create a class of evolues(assimilados in Portuguese) that had adopted the major cultural traditions of Belgium and Portugal respectively.

However, neither the Belgium’s evolues nor the Portuguese assimilados were ever likely to wield power.

To promote its economic interest, Belgian adopted scientific colonialism to put the best public face. MPSE 5 Free Solved Assignment

Like Britain, the Portuguese supported the migration of Portuguese settler communities capable of administering the colonies permanently.

The Portuguese were the first among Europeans to set up colonies in Africa. The primary aim was to have an edge over the Arab traders.

Their other goals included spreading Christianity and the enhancement of the political and military strength.

Other European nations also started exploring the natural resources and raced for colonizing African societies.

In 1988, colonial powers scramble for natural resources in the continent. The colonial powers met in 1984-1985 in Berlin to decide on demarcating the boundaries.

The colonial powers faced political and armed resistance from African kingdoms and ethnic groups.

For example, the Asante Empire fought a series of battles (1823, 1826, 1874 and 1896) with the British colonial army.

By 1914, the African continent was divided into seven colonial empires, varying in size, shape and geographical distribution.MPSE 5 Free Solved Assignment

France and Britain had the most extensive colonial empires. Belgium and Portugal had the second-tier empires that were smaller compared to those of Britain and France.

Belgium’s empire was in the central Africa and Portugal had its empire in the southern Africa. Germany had also its colony in Africa, but was stripped of its empire

in the continent after its defeat in the First World War. Italy also lost its colonial power over Libya and Eritrea after its defeat in the Second World War.

Spain had the smallest among the European colonies in Africa. British Colonialism had two specific forms.

On the basis of the model of Australia and New Zealand, the British government provided some form of independence status to colonies where a significant white population had permanently settled and administered the colonies such as South Africa and Rhodesia (Zimbabwe).

The British colonialism in Africa was based on the pattern of indirect rule. British administrator Lord Lugard had popularized this concept of indirect rule.

On the other hand, French colonies had centralized form of administration under direct rule in which each colony was divided into different administrative departments as per the convenience.

The French officials were appointed at the higher levels and Africans were appointed at the lower level posts. MPSE 5 Free Solved Assignment

The French colonialism was based on the policy of assimilation. Under this concept, even an African can be a French citizen if he fulfils certain criteria.

Taking it as an advantage, many Africans had taken French citizenship. Portugal and Belgium’s colonial model were similar to that of the French as they aim to create a class of evolues (assimilados in Portuguese) that had adopted the major cultural traditions of Belgium and Portugal respectively.

However, neither the Belgium’s evolues nor the Portuguese assimilados were ever likely to wield power.

To promote its economic interest, Belgian adopted scientific colonialism to put the best public face.

Like Britain, the Portuguese supported the migration of Portuguese settler communities capable of administering the colonies permanently.

Q. 3. Discuss the problems of Nationalism in Africa.

Ans. The newly independent African countries faced a number of problems.
First, they faced a crisis of nationalism. The post-colonial African state was hardly a natural nation-state.MPSE 5 Free Solved Assignment

Its geographical boundaries were mapped not on the basis of geographically, ethnically, culturally, economically, socially or politically homogenous or cohesive ethnie groups.

A frican state has amalgams of heterogeneous groups, incoherent patchwork that hardly qualified for nationhood..

Second, these countries faced the problems of integrating civil society the Challenges that originated from the states’ inherited colonial legacies of state-society structural distortions, geographical and physical constraints and later mishandling by state officials.

Third, an inheritance of the colonial state run by chosen nationalist elite was a challenge. The elite because of its interest in retaining power continued relations with the former metropolitan state, ethnic heterogeneity and regional economic differences.

It also proved to be an incongruity in the African setting when a state with obvious politicoeconomic structural distortions that safeguarded the interest of a few at the cost of the large majority.

Several dissatisfied sections of people dissociated from the nation-state project.
Fourth, ethnic conflict, along with racial, cultural, religious and regional differences are some other problems.MPSE 5 Free Solved Assignment

Except in Tanzania, most other independent states had to adjust with its debilitating impact. In Tanzania, the Nationalist Party was a genuine nationalist coalition of various ethnic groups.

The Foula in Guinea, the Ashanti in Ghana, the ibo Nigeria, the Ewe in Togo and the Bamileke in Cameroon posed challenges before the regime.

In Cameroon, only a civil war could bring independence to the country. In Uganda, The Baganda, the country’s most powerful ethnic group and one that was favoured by the colonial regime, opposed the regime they could not dominate.

A government cannot survive without their support.

In Nigeria, in 1960s three dominant ethnic groups competed for control of the new state and the numerically superior but economically weaker Moslem Hausa Fulani that dominated the political structure,

the Yorubas in the east and the economically prosperous Christian Ibos in the west.

The conflict between state and civil society was another crisis for the African state. It surfaced in a later phase of African political development and challenged state efforts at integration.MPSE 5 Free Solved Assignment

Independent African states also faced the crisis of legitimacy. There were gaps in the theory and practice of their policies.

The state did not meet the expectations that it would be the prime mover of all developmental efforts pertaining to agriculture, industries, education and social welfare of the society.

Instead, the state became hegemonic and patrimonial serving the individual and class interest of a few.

The independent African countries faced a crisis of nationalism.

The governments took measures to consolidate nation-states out of the arbitrarily defined colonies and to ensure all round economic development to help address widespread poverty and the frustrations of its peoples.

The post-colonial African countries were hardly a natural nation-state.

Their geographical boundaries were mapped not on the basis of geographically, ethnically, culturally, economically, socially or politically homogenous or cohesive ethnic groups.

African country has amalgams of heterogenous groups, incoherent patchworks that hardly qualified for nationhood. MPSE 5 Free Solved Assignment

Except Lesotho, Swaziland and Cape Verde, which had at the time of independence colonial boundaries that conformed to the historical logic, all other states were affected by divisive ethnic, racial and regional tendencies.

These countries also faced the problems of integrating civil society – the challenges that originated from the states’ inherited colonial legacies of state-society structural distortions, geographical and physical constraints and later mishandling by state officials.

Besides, African states faced several hindrances that differed from one state to another and became a major challenge to nationalist attempts to build a nation-state.

Despite all these challenges, several ingenuous leaders drew on the continent’s own glorious historical past and espoused and propagated a cultural nationalism that attracted its own people.

For example, in Guinea the leaders espoused a consistent cultural nationalism that traced its legacy to a purely African past of resistance to colonialism, alongside its own concepts of a radical pan-Africanism on the continent.

An inheritance of the colonial state run by chosen nationalist elite was a challenge.

The elite because of its interest in retaining power continued relations with the former metropolitan state, ethnic heterogeneity and regional economic differences.

It also proved to be an incongruity in the African setting when a state with obvious politicoeconomic structural distortions safeguarded the interest of a few at the cost of the large majority. MPSE 5 Free Solved Assignment

Several dissatisfied sections of people dissociated from the nation-state project. These sections of people were not opposed to independence or nationalism,

but they were not favourably inclined to accept the legitimacy of the “new nationalists”, who had been selected to take on the political mantle by the departing colonialists after they had won the run-up elections to independence.

Other major challenge to nationalism and national integration was posed by ethnic conflict, along with racial,cultural, religious and regional differences.

Except in Tanzania, most other independent states had to adjust with its debilitating impact. In Tanzania, the Nationalist Party was a genuine nationalist coalition of various ethnic groups.

The Foula in Guinea, the Ashanti in Ghana, the ibo Nigeria, the Ewe in Togo and the Bamileke in Cameroon posed challenges before the regime.

In Cameroon, only a civil war could bring independence to the country.

The conflict between state and civil society was another crisis for the African state. It surfaced in a later phase of African political development and challenged state efforts at integration.MPSE 5 Free Solved Assignment

MPSE 5 Free Solved Assignment
MPSE 5 Free Solved Assignment

SECTION – II

Q. 6. (a) Military in politics

Ans. Military in politics: The African military got deeply involved in politics over the years. To identify any distinct patterns in the behaviour of military is very difficult.

In order to put out of existence an arbitrary and corrupt regime, the military staged a coup. The armed forces sometimes simply stepped in to fill a political vacuum.

Military leaders in some cases were themselves divided as to whether or not they should intervene.

Besides, whatever may have been the objectives of the coup leaders, once the military violates its norm of keeping away from politics, it f more or less permanently enmeshed in non-military affairs.

Here we will discuss character, performance, achievements and theories advanced in regard to the military in politics in Africa.MPSE 5 Free Solved Assignment

There are two theories in regard to military intervention.

(i) Theory of a contagion: it believes that a military coup in one territory may lead to a chain reaction in other territories.

(ii) Theory of conspiracy: It sees sinister imperialist motives behind the overthrow of civilian governments. However, these two theories cannot explain all coups.

There were complexity of circumstances and the motives and opportunities governing the action of the men of the military, so there cannot be a unified explanation for all coups in the continent.

Few African countries inherited large-sized armies from colonial powers. It was also very late in the colonial period efforts were made to train Africans for appointment to commissioned ranks.

At independence, in almost every country pressures for Africanizing the higher ranks in the armed forces were felt.

Post-independence, the new governments also introduced crash programmes to increase the size of their armies and to provide better training facilities to the armed forces From the point of viewof the structure of Еthe armed forces rapid Africanization of the superior grades in the military had three important implications.

(i) It created the feeling of relative deprivation among the middle ranking officers.

(ii) The unbalanced age structure weakened established patterns of discipline.

(iii) The relatively command positions in the military came to be occupied by these junior officers at an early age, thus developing in them qualities of initiative to an unusual extent.

These officers had both the motivation and the opportunity to act swiftly in times of crisis. Analysis of coups show that factors relating to the internal organization of the armies played as important a role in governing the action of soldiers as the external factors.

A successful coup quite often led to the elimination of not only politicians but also senior military officers.MPSE 5 Free Solved Assignment

After taking charge, the military regime made special provisions for the armed personnel. For routine administration, it depended on the civil servants.

Meanwhile, the administrative apparatus led by the military resembled more and more the colonial system.

There would be over-emphasis on centralization with greater reliance on the bureaucracy to run the affairs of the state.

At the local level, chiefly authorities were resurrected to promote decentralization and to forge alliance with the rural elites.

However, the military government despite having extensive powers failed to rectify the problems confronting the state. Instead of eliminating corruption in the system, they in some ways abetted it.

The performance of the military regime belies the expectation that they can bring about any significant improvement in either the administration or society.

Preservation of their own hegemony as a privileged group was their main concern. Besides, the armies themselves began to show signs of cracks in their organization as they grew entanglement in the state polities. MPSE 5 Free Solved Assignment

They saw drastic changes in their character. Discipline became lax and in some cases affected the army ranks. The military as an institution suffered most under military rule in the long-run.

(b) African foreign trade

Ans. African Foreign Trade: Key Features: The very low level of exports and declining share in world trade in the post-war years is an indication of the marginality of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) in the global economy.

The value of total merchandise exports from SSA was $125 billion in South Korea and $73 billion in Malaysia in 1995.

In 1950, Africa had 5.3 per cent share in global exports. Its share fell to average 4.3 per cent in 1960s and 1970s.

It rose marginally to 4.6 per cent in 1980, but fell again to 3.2 per cent in 1985; 2.3 per cent in 1990 and dived to 1.6 per cent in 1995.

SSA’s share in world exports also fall sharply reaching 1.1 per cent in 1996 from 3.5 per cent in 1950 and an average of 2.5 per cent in the 1960s and 1970s.

In import also, the continent had a dismal picture. In 1950, Africa’s share in world import was 5.7 per cent. It dropped to average 4 per cent in 1960s and 1970s.

It recorded continuous decline and touched 2.5 per cent in 1980s and slightly less than 2 per cent in the first half of 1990s. MPSE 5 Free Solved Assignment

SSA’s share in import was 3.1 per cent in 1950 and averaged about 2.5 per cent until 1980 and dropped to average 1 per cent until 1990s.

Besides the staggering fall in share of world trade in the 1980s and 1990s, Africa’s terms of trade also worsened during the period.

The terms of trade of S$A non-oil countries declined by over one-third between 1977 and 1993 relative to a decline of 20 per cent for other non-oil developing countries.

By 1993, the SSA required to raise the volume of their exports by over 50 per cent above their 1977 level to be able to import the same volume of goods.

In some cases, for example, terms of trade deteriorated 50 per cent or even more than 50 per cent.

For example in 1996, Uganda (36), Ghana (42), Nigeria, Ethiopia and Madgascar (54, 56, 51 respectively) were some of the worst fall in terms trade.

African exports mainly comprise primary commodities. The share in exports is miniscule for some of the dynamic primary commodities – semi-processed or so.

Manufactured goods had a very small share in Africa’s total exports. In SSA’s two-third countries, manufactured goods accounted for only 15 per cent of the total exports.

The share of individual country in total exports varies significantly. For instance, in 1990 in such exports share of Mauritius was 70 per cent, South Africa and Zimbabwe accounted for 30 per cent and Senegal and Sierra Leone had 20 per cent.

Traditionally African countries had been trading mostly with Western Europe. Two-third of their exports and imports are with this region only.

Intra-Africa trade is miniscule. In recent years, it was not more than 10 per cent of their total trade.MPSE 5 Free Solved Assignment

There are many factors responsible for Africa’s low share in world trade. Some of them are:

(i) Africa’s share in global output is small

(ii) Growth rate in traded goods resulting in fall in the share of exports in GDP during 1980s and 1990s.

(iii) Poor infrastructure in African countries

(iv) Unfavourable climate condition and inappropriate economic policies.

(v) Misalignment of exchange rates, high transport cost, natural calamities, price instability and low price and income elasticities of these exports in major export markets of Western Europe are some factors.

African countries thus continued to get affected by import compression. Dependence on imported capital and intermediate goods and low productivity and output growth also affects exports adversely in Africa.

As per the data, Africa’s manufacturing share in its GDP is low even by the standards of their developing region. In 1995, it was only 11.5 per cent in Africa, compared with 21 per cent for Latin America and 24 per cent for South and East Asia.

Besides, among of all the developing countries, Africa’s share in Manufacturing Value Added (MVA) was only 5.5 per cent in 1996, a fall from the low level of 6.9 per cent in the mid-1980s. MPSE 5 Free Solved Assignment

Between 1980 and 1990, MVA increased only slightly in the continent.

Q. 7. (a) Cold war in the Horn of Africa

Ans. The Horn of Africa: The great powers tried to get involved in the Horn of Africa to look for military facilities in a strategic area.

The US set up a presence in Ethiopia not because it wanted to make that country a model of democracy and the Soviet also provided arms to Somalia not because it wanted to make it a paragon of socialism.

Ethiopia and Somalia also looked at the US and the Soviet not as political or social models, but as sources of military aid.

Three major concerns influenced the US policy towards Ethiopia and Somalia. They are:

(i) to maintain access to Kagnew Station,

(ii) to oppose Soviet presence in the Horn of Africa and the Red Sea and

(iii) to develop a new policy towards Africa. In the 1960s and 1970s, the US concentrated its aid and efforts in a few countries where it had special interests.

Ethiopia was one of the countries where it had such special interests due to the significance of Kagnew Station and the Soviet’s growing presence in Somalia.

In the mid-1970s, the harmony among the various objectives of US policy in the Horn of Africa began breaking down. MPSE 5 Free Solved Assignment

At this time, several developments occurred simultaneously. The long-standing relation between Ethiopia and the US was shaken by the overthrow of the emperor and the rise to power of the radicals in the Dreg.

The conflict in Eritrea became a dangerous issue and could no longer be ignored.

The Soviet Union started a policy of much greater interference in Africa with measures intervention in Angola, the signing of the Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation with Somalia, and building up of a naval installation at Berbera.

When John Carter took charge and the US interest in Africa was inore pronounced, liberation of Zimbabwe, Namibia and South Africa were the major issues in Africa.

The Horn was not that much important. Besides, the African stand that the colonial borders should not be changed was against the US interests in the Horn after the Soviet set up its presence in Ethiopia, making it difficult to provide aid to Somalia.

In results, even by the late 1970s the US was unable to frame a policy toward the Horn that fulfilled the African geopolitical and regional interests simultaneously simultaneously

(b) Causes of conflict in Africa

Ans. Causes of Conflict in Africa: Africa today confronted with different faces of conflict such as debt, war, poverty, disease and exploitation.

The reasons include the colonial past, political instability in post-independence period, social disunity and interference of outside world, mainly developed Western nations.

Only in recent decades, African countries have emerged on the political stage. In 1945, when the United Nations was set up, only four countries were the members. Later on in the 1960s and 1990s, most of the countries were granted independence.

Some of the African countries faced the territory problems inherited from the colonial past. The boundaries of the most of the African countries are arbitrarily drawn.

These boundaries are also not well demarcated and this led to the problem of border clashes. For examples, the border conflicts between Uganda and Tanzania, Somalia and Ethiopia and Eritrea and Ethiopia.MPSE 5 Free Solved Assignment

Many social and ethnic groups have been randomly divided by these arbitrarily drawn territories.

The new independent African countries are now unable to cement the ethnic differences and mix minority groups with the mainstream.

This has resulted in clash among ethnic groups and the refugee flow from one country to another. According to an estimate by the UN, Africa has now 10 million refugees. This is the largest number of refugees compared with other continents.

Some African countries have also faced separatist movements emerging out of ethnic nationalism.

Such movements have been ruthlessly suppressed in the Katanga province of the Congo and Biafra of Nigeria.

At present, Sudan is also confronted with such problem.
One of the causes of conflict in Africa is economic and social backwardness.

Lack of education and high child mortality rate are also creating problems in the continent. In 1990s, AIDS killed 10 times more people in Africa than the armed conflicts in the continent.

Ninety per cent of the children who became destitute due to AIDS globally are from Africa. In past two decades, the Horn of Africa and other parts have faced famines and starvation deaths continuously.

Sub-Saharan countries are in need of food aid due to civil wars, drought, economic disruption and internal displacement. MPSE 5 Free Solved Assignment

Although African countries are endowed with natural resources, many nations have faced economic stagnation because of lack of skilled manpower and weak infrastructure.

The continent has 48 least developed countries. There are also countries in which per capital income is less than $2 per day.

African countries are also burdened with mounting debts. Africa’s debt has increased from $350 million in 1970s to $400 billion in 2000.

UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan had stated that the world had failed Africa by not addressing the causes of conflict, by not doing enough to ensure peace and by inability to create the conditions for sustainable development.

African countries have failed in build a participatory and accountable political system. The military and one party overthrew the democratic governments in many African countries including Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Burundi and Uganda.

Human rights and right to dissent have been suppressed. Some countries witnessed armed movements.MPSE 5 Free Solved Assignment

Illegal investments were made on purchase of arms. Some African countries like Congo, Angola and Horn of Africa became the victims of the Cold War.

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