EUROPEAN UNION IN WORLD AFFAIRS
MPSE 11 Free Solved Assignment
MPSE 11 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022
Q 1 Discuss the idea of European integration. Has it been successful in its goal?
Ans. European integration is the process of industrial, economic, political, legal, social and cultural integration of states wholly or partially in Europe or nearby. European integration has primarily come about through the European Union and its policies.
The question of how to avoid wars between the nation-states was essential for the first theories.
Federalism and Functionalism proposed the containment of the nation-state, while Transactionalism sought to theorise the conditions for the stabilisation of the nation-state system.
One of the most influential theories of European integration is neofunctionalism, developed by Ernst B. Haas (1958) and further investigated by Leon Lindberg (1963).
This theory focuses on spillovers of integration, which leads to more integration (10) By contrast, the other big influential theory in Integration Studies, Liberal
Intergovernmentalism focuses on state preferences being realised through bargaining. This theory was developed by Andrew Moravcsik in the 1990s, by building on the ‘intergovernmental’ work of Stanley Hoffman and others.
It remains very influential. The important debate between neo-functionalism and Liberal intergovernmentalism still remains central in understanding the development and setbacks of the European integration.MPSE 11 Free Solved Assignment
As the empirical world has changed, so have the theories and thus the understanding of European Integration.
Today there is a relatively new focus on the complex policy-making in the EU and multi-level governance (MLG) trying to produce a theory of the workings and development of the EU.
According to a 2016 study, European integration deepens through a “failing forward” process whereby,
Intergovernmental bargaining leads to incompleteness because it forces states with diverse preferences to settle on lowest common denominator solutions.
Incompleteness then unleashes forces that lead to crisis. Member states respond by again agreeing to lowest common denominator solutions, which address the crisis and lead to deeper integration.
To date, this sequential cycle of piecemeal reform, followed by policy failure, followed by further reform, has managed to sustain both the European project and the common currency.MPSE 11 Free Solved Assignment
Various federalist organisations have been created over time supporting the idea of a federal Europe.
These include the Union of European Federalists, the European Movement International, the European Federalist Party, and Volt Europa.
The Union of European Federalists (UEF) is a European nongovernmental organisation, campaigning for a Federal Europe. It consists of 20 constituent organisations and it has been active at the European, national and local levels for more than 50 years.
The European Movement International is a lobbying association that coordinates the efforts of associations and national councils with the goal of promoting European integration, and disseminating information about it.
The European Federalist Party is a pro-European, pan-European and federalist political party which advocates further integration of the EU and the establishment of a Federal Europe.MPSE 11 Free Solved Assignment
Its aim is to gather all Europeans to promote European federalism and to participate in all elections all over Europe.
It has national sections in 15 countries. Volt Europa is a pan-European and European federalist polinjal movement that also serves as the pan-European structure for subsidiary parties in EU member states.
It is present in 29 countries and participates in elections all over the EU on the local, national and European level.
Q 2. Critically discuss the future prospects of the European Union. What are major challenges
Ans. The European Union (EU) is a unique partnership in which member states have pooled sovereignty in certain policy areas and harmonized laws on a wide range of economic and political issues.
The EU is the latest stage in a process of European integration begun after World War II, initially by six Western European countries, to promote peace, security, and economic development. MPSE 11 Free Solved Assignment
The EU currently consists of 28 member states, including most of the formerly communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe.
The EU is largely viewed as a cornerstone of European stability and prosperity. For much of the last decade, however, many EU countries have faced considerable economic difficulties.
Despite an improved economic situation in the EU since 2017, economic pressures and societal changes have contributed to the rise of populist and antiestablishment political parties, at least some of which harbor anti-EU or “euroskeptic” sentiments.
Such trends have complicated the EU’s ability to deal with multiple internal and external challenges. Among the most prominent challenges are
. the pending departure of the United Kingdom (UK) from the EU (“Brexit”);
. democracy and rule-of-law concerns in Poland, Hungary, and other EU members;
. migration and related societal integration concerns;
. a resurgent Russia; and
. a heightened terrorism threat.MPSE 11 Free Solved Assignment
Amid these difficult issues, some are questioning the future shape and character of the EU. Supporters of the EU worry that certain aspects of EU integration could be stopped or reversed.
Others contend that the multiple crises could produce some beneficial reforms and ultimately transform the EU into a more effective, cohesive entity.
Recently, considerable attention has focused on developing a “multispeed EU,” in which some EU members could pursue greater integration in specified areas while others could opt out.
Successive U.S. Administrations and many Members of Congress have supported the European integration project since its inception, viewing it as crucial to European peace and security and as a way to foster strong U.S. allies and trading partners.
Despite some tensions over the years, the United States and the EU share a dynamic political partnership on various foreign policy issues and an extensive trade and investment relationship.
How the EU evolves in the years ahead may have strategic and economic repercussions for the United States.
At the same time, some EU leaders are concerned about President Trump’s apparent skepticism of the EU and his reported assessment of the bloc as an economic competitor.
Those of this view also worry that elements of the Trump Administration’s “America First” foreign policy-such as the U.S. decision to withdraw from the 2015 multilateral nuclear deal with Iran-pit the United States against the EU. MPSE 11 Free Solved Assignment
A number of European officials and analysts question whether traditional U.S. support for close U.S.-EU relations may be shifting and whether the United States will remain a reliable international partner.
Some observers suggest that managing relations with the United States under the Trump Administration has emerged as another, somewhat unexpected, challenge for the EU.
At the same time, many in the EU hope to preserve close U.S.-EU ties and EU policymakers continue to seek to cooperate with the Trump Administration where possible on issues of common interest and concern.
Q 3. Discuss the theory of inter-governmentalism in the context of European Union integration.
Ans.In international relations, intergovernmentalism treats states (and national governments in particular) as the primary actors in the integration process.
Intergovernmentalist approaches claim to be able to explain both periods of radical change in the European Union because of converging governmental preferences and periods of inertia because of diverging national interests.
Intergovernmentalism is distinguishable from realism and neorealism because of its recognition of the significance of institutionalisation in international politics and the impact of domestic politics upon governmental preferences.
The best-known example of regional integration is the European Union (EU), an economic and political intergovernmental organisation of 27 member states, all in Europe.
The EU operates through a system of supranational independent institutions and intergovernmental negotiated decisions by the member states.
Ighitutions of the EU include the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, the Court of Justice of the European Union, the European Central Bank, the Court of Auditors, and the European Parliament.
The European Parliament is elected every five years by EU citizens. The EU’s de facto capital is Brussels.MPSE 11 Free Solved Assignment
The EU has developed a single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states. Within the Schengen Area (which includes 22 EU and 4 non-EU European states) passport controls have been abolished.
EU policies favour the free movement of people, goods, services, and capital within its boundaries, enact legislation in justice and home affairs, and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture, fisheries and regional development.
A monetary union, the eurozone, was established in 1999 and is composed of 17 member states.
Through the Common Foreign and Security Policy the EU has developed a role in external relations and defence.
Permanent diplomatic missions have been established around the world. The EU is represented at the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8 and the G-20.
Intergovernmentalism represents a way for limiting the conferral of powers upon supranational institutions, halting the emergence of common policies.
In the current institutional system of the EU, the European Council and the Council play the role of the institutions which have the last word about decisions and policies of the EU, institutionalizing a de facto intergovernmental control over the EU as a whole, with the possibility to give more power to a small group of states.
This extreme consequence can create the condition of supremacy of someone over someone else violating the principle of a “Union of Equals”.MPSE 11 Free Solved Assignment
African integration :
The African Union (AU, or, in its other official languages, UA) is a continental intergovernmental union, similar but less integrated to the EU, consisting of 54 African states.
The AU was presented on 26 May 2001 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and officially founded on 9 July 2002 in Durban, South Africa to replace the Organisation of African Unity (OAU).
The most important decisions of the AU are made by the Assembly of the African Union, a semi-annual meeting of the heads of state and government of its member states.
The AU’s secretariat, the African Union Commission, is based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Q 6 a) Global Government
Ans. World government, global government or cosmocracy is the concept of a common political authority for all of humanity, giving way to a global government and a single state or polity with jurisdiction over the entire human world.
Such a government could come into existence through violent and compulsory world domination or through peaceful and voluntary supranational union.
There has never been an executive, legislature, judiciary, military, or constitution with global jurisdiction. MPSE 11 Free Solved Assignment
The world’s largest and most powerful international organisation, the United Nations-beyond the United Nations Security Council (which can issue mandatory resolutions backed by its member states)-is limited to a mostly advisory role, and its stated purpose is to foster cooperation between existing national governments rather than exert authority over them.
Numerous fictional depictions exist however, such as the World State in Brave New World, the “Dictatorship of the Air” in H. G. Wells The Shape of Things to Come, and the United Nations in James S.A Corey’s The Expanse.
b) EU and WTO
Ans. The World Trade Organization (WTO) is made of governments and customs territories that set, apply and enforce the global rules for trade between themselves. Both the European Union (EU) and the individual EU countries are members of the WTO.
The WTO’s main activities are:
. Being a forum for international trade negotiations (e.g. the Doha Development Round)
. Resolving trade disputes (Dispute Settlement)
. Setting legal rules for trade in the form of trade agreements
. Monitoring members’ trade policy through the Trade Policy Review Mechanism
The EU’s objectives : MPSE 11 Free Solved Assignment
The EU’s objectives at the WTO are to:
• keep the world’s trading system fair, predictable and based on common rules
• modernise the world’s trade markets so European goods, services and investment can benefit
• follow the common WTO rules, and make sure others also play by the rules
• make the WTO more open by interacting with both non-members and other
• bring developing countries into the WTO, its decision-making, and the global economy
• reinforce the WTO’s support for sustainable trade policies worldwide
The European Commission has also put forward a first set of ideas to modernise the WTO and to make world trade rules fit for the challenges of the global economy.
Without prejudice to the EU’s final position, these ideas relate to three key areas:
•updating the rule book on international trade to capture today’s global economy •strengthening the monitoring role of the WTO
•overcoming deadlock on the WTO dispute settlement system
Q 7 a) European Union and ASEAN
Ans. The ASEAN-European Union relations refers to bilateral foreign relations between the two organizations, the European Union (EU) and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). MPSE 11 Free Solved Assignment
EU and ASEAN have been interacting with each other on the economic, trade and political levels for more than four decades.
The partnership between the EU and ASEAN Nates back to 1972 when the EU (then known as the European Economic Community) became ASEAN’s firsthormal dialogue partner.
Relations between the two regions are expanding, developing progressively on the economic, political and cultural fronts.
Dialogue between the two regions has been enhanced with numerous technical level meetings and bi-annual Ministerial meetings.
Whereas in the past, much of the Europe-Southeast Asia relationship has focused on Southeast Asian development,
the focus of cooperation has transformed to an emphasis on diplomacy, where the two sides discuses regional and international problems, and finally to a new emphasis on non-traditional risks and regional integration support.MPSE 11 Free Solved Assignment
b) EU and SAARC
Ans. The EU encourages regional integration and supports the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC).
The member countries of the SAARC are Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, the Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.
The EU, China, Iran, Japan, South Korea, Mauritius, Myanmar and the US have observer status with the SAARC.
Development cooperation between the EU and the countries of South Asia covers financial and technical aid as well as economic cooperation.
Priorities include regional stability, poverty alleviation, human rights, sustainable development, good governance and labour rights. EU-SAARC cooperation seeks to promote the harmonisation of standards and the facilitation of trade, and to raise awareness of the benefits of regional cooperation. MPSE 11 Free Solved Assignment
The EU-India strategic partnership promotes trade and economic cooperation. Each partner has regions that differ vastly in terms of economic strength, language and culture, a very large market, and a geostrategic position that poses security policy concerns.
The Council of the EU adopted conclusions on 10 December 2018 seeking a deeper and broader engagement with India through the promotion of peace and security over the coming years.
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