INDIA AND THE WORLD
MPSE 1 Free Solved Assignment
MPSE 1 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022
Q. 2. What are the objectives of India’s foreign policy? Explain the different approaches.
Ans. India’s Foreign Policy: Objectives and Principles: The goals and objectives have to be clearly specified in any task undertaken.
Likewise, the foreign policy of any country is a major activity that builds a nation or kills a nation.
Hence, the goals and objectives of India’s foreign policy have to be clear, specific and productive. The goals and objectives have been tested, verified, weighed by experts and professional
India has always been a nation that gives priority to world peace. Since it was under Britishers, colonial rule and struggles greatly for independence.
India knows the worth of freedom. Hence it doesn’t want to lose that hard-gained independence in the hands of another foreign element.
Therefore India’s foreign policy’s main objective or goal is to safeguard its national interest, internal and external security.
It is more concerned about protecting India from the threat of enemies who might show their military strength. MPSE 1 Free Solved Assignment
India’s views on safeguarding security is not only instructed to a country but it wants the whole world be protected against threats like yet another World War.
In the bargain, it does not want other countries to view India as a threat to them just because we keep tightening our security.
India wants to have cordial relations with all the countries of the world and it keeps sending peace messages to its neighbouring countries to establish that it looks for a cordial relationship between them.
Even with countries that have different ideologies and political set up, they expect to have smooth working relations.
The next most important goal of the Indian foreign policy is to fight against colonization. It is very evident from the fact that India has been a victim of colonization under the Britishers, hence, it does not want it sufferings experienced by any other country.
So it fought against colonization and for its abolishment in countries like Asia and Africa where colonization was prevalent. India also stood for the right to equality for all Indians settled in other parts of the world.
It fought against apartheid in South Africa and was against differentiating people on the basis of their colour and race.
It fought for equality of the people and was opposed to discrimination.
India wanted to work for the upliftment of economically weak and backward third world countries.
This was the third goal or objective of India’s foreign policy. It needed the help of the developed rich countries to supply the poor countries, hence its agenda was to have a healthy relationship that would help India to secure the benefits.
India wanted to bridge the economic inequalities of the third world countries and the developed superpowers. This was their main goal in addition to its own economic growth and development.MPSE 1 Free Solved Assignment
The above-mentioned goals or objectives of India’s foreign policy are strengthened by various principles which help them to achieve the goals.
From time immemorial India was never among such nations which were interested in fights or war.
This tradition is still followed in modern India too where India tries to resolve all differences arising between the other countries through peaceful methods.
Whether it is friction between India and Pakistan or India and China. India prefers to sit across the table and sort out the issues and believe fights or wars are not the solution for it.
India has always been a law abider and naturally, it supported that it would definitely be a source to settle all the disputes which are international in nature.
There are various other international agencies like the World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations (UN) and other domestic organization which includes members from all the countries.
They work for world peace and harmony and India supports such organizations. India is totally against those countries which post-war threat by strengthening their nuclear power, arms and ammunition which may lead to erosion of mankind in the world.
Panchsheel agreement includes all the ingredients of India’s foreign policy. It is a known fact that India insists on harmony and peace among the countries in the world by not being aggressive towards other nations and not interfering in their internal issues.
India wants to grow in a positive way spreading the message of peace across the world. Through its foreign policy, it is obvious that it wants to be known as a law-abiding nation that wants to be cordial and gain a bit through its good conduct!
Realism has a great influence on the strategic community of India. In the perception of political realism, the term power is the foundation to inter-state relations.
It is not evenly spread because every state is more selfish in fulfilling its interests and needs. The Indian realist with regard to foreign policy considered China as the real and prospective enemy or competitor for India. MPSE 1 Free Solved Assignment
This was very true when the India-China conflict occurred in 1962 and they were considered as bitterest enemies who can never have a cordial relationship.
China was always a topic of discussion where there is diplomatic talks between the United States and India.
The Kashmir issue was the basis for strain in the relationship between India and Pakistan. China grew to be a strong power in military and economy and this was always a threat to Asian security.
India was huge in terms of its geographical area, population, skilled professionals, Gross National Product etc. Its defence power has all state-of-art equipment and it was well equipped and strong.
Before India conducted its nuclear equipment in 1998 the politicians through their propaganda passed the message across that China is the first threat to India.
This is also a part of realist thinking. Indian realists did not refuse the probable chance of future friendship between India and China when they are real super powers.
In order to keep a check on the Chinese threat, India was showcased as a mighty power nuclear strength was demonstrated.
Having relation with Pakistan is really time-consuming and energy-consuming for Indian foreign policy planners. To add fuel to fire the China-Pakistan bond irritated India. In addition, Pakistan became a member of the Western alliance.
United States plans to exploit the natural gas and minerals in Central Asia by setting foot in Pakistan. MPSE 1 Free Solved Assignment
Realists view that China helps Pakistan a great deal with arms and ammunition to help the later be equal to India’s military strength.
Whatever said and done is no way closer to India has a huge geographical area, population, skilled men, Gross National Product when compared to Pakistan.
It is also viewed that Pakistan is responsible for many of the domestic conflicts of India which hinders our peace.
In the Realist approaches to India’s foreign policy the ‘strategic community of India consisted of six groups namely the military, the diplomats, bureaucrats, aristrocrats, experts from the field of media and educationists, members from the field of science and technology.
Whereas in the Independent approach the actors are from Non-Government Organizations, NGOs and from International Financial Agencies like the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank.
They are from both the domestic and international agencies. In the realistic approach prime importance was given to the external national security and internal national unity.
In the interdependence approach to the study of India foreign policy there are other issues like environmental degradation, issues regarding illegal migration, illegal financing, piracy of electronic accessories, etc. are given importance in addition to national safety and security.
Interdependence given priority to international relations especially after cold war and it concentrates of combining economies. MPSE 1 Free Solved Assignment
But realists are bothered more about security than taking into consideration the growing social and economic gap between the developed and developing nations.
The inter-dependence approach gave importance to the concept of economic globalization. This means that new international financial and trade institutions were established.
This was not the case in the realistic approach, where the economic aspect was not given due importance.
The realist goal was to attain regional pre-eminence but the inter-dependence approaches goal was to focus on economic cooperation.
Hence the realistic approach is definitely an approach which is more modern in its views and perception.
Q. 3. What are the main institutions which frame the foreign policy of India? How do they work together?
Ans. India is a democratic country where every activity is formulated by the people, for the people and of the people. MPSE 1 Free Solved Assignment
Since the people elect their own representatives, the latter is responsible for every action and is expected to give reasons for an action and is answerable to the people.
Hence, while making a foreign policy it has to dealt with the views of the people.
Earlier in non-democratic European countries foreign policy formulation was not the business of the people.
It was considered a secret task assigned to government officials. This is not the case in the Indian form of democracy where the public views and perception are given importance and it is a matter of debate in the Parliament.
In India, it is very difficult to say who initiates our foreign policy matters and frames it. There are a few members who participate in the foreign policy matter.
Usually the Prime Minister of India is the head of participants who decide and participants are usually a group of ministers in the Parliament.
The hierarchy is followed where there is a council of ministers, where it shrinks to the cabinet and the cabinet is a narrow term and from the cabinet, a Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) is formed.
Thus the CCS is actively involved in framing the foreign policy and if there is any issue on security that is also looked after by them. MPSE 1 Free Solved Assignment
When there was a terrorist attack on the United States twin tower on September 11th, 2001 India under the leadership of Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee moved to cooperate and he remarked there will be a difference of opinion and discussion, but once a stand is taken everybody will follow it.
Any foreign policy should have a combination of national interest and power.
The goals of a country and the resources to achieve these goals should be in such a way that the national interest is protected and the power factor is guarded.
Any foreign policy should be framed keeping this as priority. Modelski has defined foreign policy as
……Activities evolved by communities for changing the behaviour of other states and for adjusting their own activities to the international environment.”
Foreign policy may include various factors, but the main aim of any policy is to safeguard the national policy.
Similarly, power is also very essential in framing a foreign policy. There are various other players in the making of Indian foreign policy, despite the fact that the leaders in power finally frame it.
Among the other participants the player who plays a vital role in the Ministry of External Affairs.
Foreign policy-making and the ministry of External Affairs (MEA)
India’s foreign policy or any foreign policy which is formulated is not so easy as it seems to be. MPSE 1 Free Solved Assignment
When compared to domestic policies there are always solutions in hand and it is within the control of the policymakers.
If there is a domestic problem such as price rise, etc. can be easily sorted out and it can be controlled.
But, while making a foreign policy, it does not have control over the vast world outside. Each country is different and the way they behave or respond will also be different.
Hence the policymakers should be efficient and capable enough to predict the relations and behaviour of the country.
Take for example, India’s foreign policy planning with reference to Pakistan. There are a hundred questions asked and guesses made before framing a policy.
Should India start the peace process through comprehensive dialogue and ask them to control cross-border terrorism if they want the talks to be successful?
Did the Prime Minister take the right decision in saying he’ll quit if he fails in his peace talk? What will be Pakistan’s move, will it wait till next year and wait for a government change in India?
There are a few questions which the policy-makers ask within themselves for which there are no concrete answers. MPSE 1 Free Solved Assignment
In order to provide answers to the number of questions in the minds of the policy-makers the Ministry of External Affairs which is shortly known as MEA would be able to give reliable and correct information.
They are the authority about matters related to foreign affairs. The MEA is headed by the Minister of External Affairs or he is also called the foreign minister.
At present Mr. S.M. Krishna is our Foreign Minister who heads the MEA. He is the political representative and member of the cabinet who is assisted by a group of experts who send the policy for his approval.
He alters, makes changes and approves the policy before implementing it. These policy decisions are laid before the cabinet for its approval.
The Minister of External Affairs need not be a specialist in foreign affair issues, he is given a group of experts who guides them in policy formulation.
The experts who guide the Foreign Minister in the policy-making process are generally Indian Foreign Service (IFS) Officers.
These officers clear the civil services exam. held by the Union Public Service Commission. Among these experts, there is a head who is the senior-most and well experienced.
He is called the Foreign Secretary and he advises the Foreign Minister regarding policy issues.
The Foreign Secretary holds a permanent post in the Ministry of External Affairs. He has two other foreign secretaries for the West and East to assist them.
The Foreign Secretary West and Foreign Secretary East also are senior like the Foreign Secretary and they supervise and the tasks of Ministry of External Affairs.
In order to help the Foreign Secretary there are three additional secretaries. The Ministry of External Affairs is divided into 24 divisions where a Joint Secretary is incharge of each division. MPSE 1 Free Solved Assignment
Countries including the United States, Canada, Latin America, Gulf, East Asia etc. are dealt by 12 territorial divisions.
There are 11 functional divisions like the policy planning, economic division, protocol, the spokesman and XP Division, Historical and L&T Division, Territorial Division, External Publicity, UN etc.
The administrative division takes care of the housekeeping tasks in the Ministry of External Affairs.
Earlier the historical division was responsible for providing the needed information by the MEA.
There was no such division that was ready for emergency situation and no research activity was undertaken.
It struck the Ministry of External Affairs only when they had a problem in their hands during the Chinese attack in 1962.
The MEA did not have substantial record or information when China demanded the territory which they fought for.
Till then it was the historical division giving information to the territorial division when they were asked for. MPSE 1 Free Solved Assignment
It was after the Chinese attack the planning and research division was formed. Next year the East Asia research and coordinating division was formed. Its aim was to research and gather information about China.
In the year 1965, a Current Research division was formed where the research and planning covered a vast area.
Again in 1966 it was known as the Policy Planning and Review Division. This division consisted of the policy planning and review committee.
Our previous Prime Minister like Indira Gandhi and Rajiv Gandhi used this division to appoint the Indian Foreign Service Officers who had no place to get posted to. This division exists even now in the MEA.
India has got embassies all over the world. The IFS officers take charge of these embassies which are situated in the foreign country’s capital.
The main job of these embassies are to gather information about the country where the embassies are situated.
These information are secretive information that are not easily available. For each and every category there are specialized personnel who are appointed, who are well trained in the field.
These professional diplomats collect information on their specialized area. The defence attache collects information on military trends of the country where they are placed.
Details regarding the agricultural developments, industrial development are absorbed and information is gathered by the attache.MPSE 1 Free Solved Assignment
In the United States and England, such specialized information are gathered. The information gathered depends upon India’s need for any such information.
The information collected by the embassies by trained professionals are formal ones and are approved.
These are secret information collected through intelligence agencies and such information is called intelligence’. This intelligence are needed and should be effective if they want the foreign policy to be successful.
In the case of intelligence failure the whole policy fails. The Pakistani soldiers had occupied the Kargil Peaks and we had access to such information very lately. This is a classic example of intelligence failure.
The Research and Analysis Wing (RAW) is an agency which engages in the main activity of intelligence gathering about foreign countries.
Every country has these specialized agencies like in Pakistan’s intelligence agency is called the ISI, in U.S.A it is called the Central Intelligence Agency.
There is another agency called the Intelligence Bureau which is set up to collect the internal Intelligence.
In order to have a successful foreign policy the ‘intelligence’ gathered should be accurate. If a policy is based on the intelligence gathered and if it fails the intelligence agency is blamed for the policy failure. MPSE 1 Free Solved Assignment
Hence to be on the safer side the agencies give raw information before checking and analysing its validity. Later on, it so happens that it does not serve the purpose for what it was established.
National Security Council
The Indian foreign policy and the national security policy-making had two advantages. Firstly, these policies were made on a temporary basis and the second one is there was no coordination.
The Foreign Minister during Indira Gandhi time felt that they were more into giving reply to others rather than framing an effective foreign policy.
The then Prime Ministers like Mr. Nehru, Mrs. Indira Gandhi and Rajiv Gandhi felt the need to have answers to every emergency situation.
An IFS officer is more experienced and have expertise in dealing with crisis situation rather than a minister. Hence it is very essential to consider the view and opinion expressed by the MEA officials.
As seen earlier Nehru who as the first Prime Minister of India was looking after the post of the Foreign Minister also.
He did not assign anybody to handle that portfolio. He took decisions on his own regarding the National Security and he consulted his Defence Minister Mr. Krishna Menon only.
Indira Gandhi gathered the views of her ministers if she thought it was really needed.
K.P. Mishra and K. Subrahmanyam were the pioneers who stressed the need for an organized system of foreign and national security policy-making thereby suggesting the formation of the National Security Council.
K.P. Mishra was in favour of an Expert Advisory Committee. On the contrary, Subrahmanyam was in favour of a policy formulating secretariat.
The National Security Council looked after the foreign policy process. Likewise in India we have the Cabinet Committee on Political Affairs (CCPA).
In his book on India’s foreign policy Bandopadhyaya initiated the need for a Foreign Policy Council like the one they have in America. MPSE 1 Free Solved Assignment
A National Security Council is not possible in India where decision-making is not restricted to one authority.
It is not mandatory for the Prime Ministers to have a meeting with the cabinet committee on political affairs.
The then Prime Minister during 1991 Mr Narsimha Rao had problems with the Human Resource Minister Mr. Arjun Singh.
Because of this he did not have any meeting with the CCPA after 1993 because he wanted to avoid Mr. Arjun Singh from not attending it Hence there was no meeting or discussion during Narsimha Rao’s time.
Mr. Arjun Singh from not attend it Hence there was no meeting or discussion during Narasimha Rao’s time.
National security was to be formed through the Parliament process and not by mere order.
All political parties arrived at a consensus in setting up of a National Security Council exclusively for policymaking.
This was done by Mr. Vajpayee when he was the Prime Minister in 1998. The National Security Council is headed by the Prime Minister, he is called the chairman of its members included the Defence Minister, Foreign Minister, Finance Minister, Deputy Chairman of Planning Commission.
It had a panel of experts like the Scientific Advisor to the Defence Minister, defence experts and strategists, retired IFS officers, academicians, senior bureaucrats, the Army Chief, Navy Chief and the Airforce Chief. MPSE 1 Free Solved Assignment
It was very difficult for ministers to think ahead and make contingency plans for any problem which may occur regarding security.
To overcome this problem the strategic core group was formed. This group included the Army, Navy and Airforce chiefs, the chiefs of Intelligence Bureau, RAW and secretaries of each department.
The Joint Intelligence Committee (JIC) serves as the secretariat of the NSC. In order to coordinate all the factors in policy-making, an official is appointed who is approved by the Prime Minister.
The principal secretary of the Prime Minister performs the role of National Security Advisor. There is National Security Advisory Board which was set up in 1998, which had 27 members.
The members were from different areas like the media, Educationists, prominent public persons, defence experts etc.
The NSC had Mr. Brajesh Mishra as its head and NSAB started its first assignment by preparing a nuclear doctrine, which was completed in 1999.
Sometimes, there was a feeling that the National Security Council was formed just for the sake of forming it and was not used effectively.
It was used for the first time to discuss the Kargil issue that too after a month. There were flaws in which the Fiji crisis was handled.
The Prime Minister of Fiji islands was a person of Indian origin who was thrown out by a military coup. MPSE 1 Free Solved Assignment
There was great trouble in Sri Lanka regarding the Tamil issue and Sri Lanka wanted to sort out the problem through its military power.
Then it was the CCS that intervened in this matter. National Security Council was called for to review the situation in October 2002 after the Jammu Kashmir elections.
The National Security Council was very sparingly used and the reason given was it was an advisory board. Any decision regarding National Security is taken in the CSS.
It was argued that if NSC is an advisory board then why was the National Security Advisory Board formed.
The Board consisted of retired officers who held Central Government posts and were Delhi residents.
In order to assess the Kargil issue, the Kargil Committee was formed. The committee recommended that the NSC must be regulated and made to function smoothly.
The formation of the National Security Council was not passed as a bill in the Parliament, but it was created through an order.
This was the second reason given for the failure of NSC. Due to the difference of opinion between Mr. Narsimha Rao and the HR Minister Mr. Arjun Singh the CCPA never met to decide on the foreign and national security policy.
Moreover, it was under the disposal of the Prime Minister to hold or not hold a meeting. If it was legally established at least the Prime Minister can be questioned for not conducting a meeting through public opinion.
The National Security Council can engage in policy-making only under a secretariat and not through Joint Intelligence Committee. MPSE 1 Free Solved Assignment
It is essential to bring together all the intelligence gathered by different agencies. It is also said the NSC is not only restricted to gathering and coordinating intelligence.
At times there is a complaint that various intelligence gathers are not disclosed by RAW Hence it is difficult to bring together intelligence where the policy needs opinion for the Defence Ministry, Home Ministry, MEA, etc. which also have to be coordinated.
To make NSC more viable it needs a National Security Advisor who is fully dedicated for this job only.
This cannot be done by the Prime Minister’s principal secretary who is busy at the prime minister’s office.
iF a person is exclusively asked to look after the NSC as its Advisor he can think and work dedicatedly on national security issues. This was also recommended by the committee formed to review the Kargil issue.
It is already mentioned that the members of the National Security Advisory Board were retired officials who were Delhi residents.
It is totally difficult for somebody who is sitting and settled in Delhi to deal with Sri Lankan issues with the Tamils. MPSE 1 Free Solved Assignment
Hence a person who is from that region will be a good choice to deal with the situation and he should be in the National Security Advisory Board.
Making all retired officers who are Delhiites is the main drawback.
The politicians, in general, are not ready to accept any valuable suggestion which would bring fresh blood to the NSC. They have a fear that their powers will be diluted.
Prime Minister’s Office
Earlier before the lind World War the Prime Ministerial government was initially known as the Parliamentary government and later on as cabinet government.
In the Prime Ministerial government, the prime minister plays a vital role in decision-making processes and the Prime Minister’s Office (PMO) is so powerful that Indian foreign policy or any other matter of prime importance is decided here.
Prime Minister’s decision-making regarding foreign policies are restricted to India’s security, foreign policy goals or regarding the economic development of a country.
He cannot decide on all the matters regarding foreign policy.
The PMO was initially known as the PM’s secretariat and it was set by then Prime Minister Mr. Lal Bahadur Shastri. Unlike Nehru looked after the MEA, Lal Bahadur Shastri has his own foreign ministers.
He in fact used Mr. L.K Jha to look after the foreign policy issues. Mr. Jha was a very experienced and senior IFS officer. Since Nehru had the MEA with him he handled all the foreign policies through the PMO.
Mrs. Gandhi was a powerful and strong prime minister and during her time she held an MEA with her like her father Nehru. MPSE 1 Free Solved Assignment
After some point in time, she appointed external affairs ministers. During the 1971 Bangladesh war with Pakistan she was powerful enough and took decisions after discussing with Mr. P. N. Haksar and D.P.
Dhar whom she trusted the most. She single handedly discussed the issue with powers of the world, sketched the details of war and signed the Shimla Agreement in the year 1972 when Pakistan was defeated by India. She was a strong lady and an efficient Prime Minister.
The Prime Minister’s office has joint secretaries, deputy secretaries and other officials who are in charge of various functions.
In the NDA government, the Prime Minister’s office greatly influenced policy-making. The Prime Minister’s National Security Advisor was brought to the limelight.
Usually, the PM/MEA/ foreign secretary talks about Indi foreign policy. The NDA government created history by making the National Security Advisor to give a presentation and foreign policy issues were discussed.
The then National security advisor spoke about public policy issues during his foreign visits. Mr. Brijesh Mishra give a presentation and foreign policy issue during his foreign visits. Mr.
Parliament is nothing but a people representative. Leave alone foreign policy issues any government policy matters are decided by the Parliament.
If it has to be legalised then it has to go through the Parliament only. The Parliament has control over foreign policy-related issues and these issues are listed in the Union List.
Parliament enacts legislation that includes trade representation, citizenship, war and peace, etc.
The central government gives the inputs on treaties and formulate it. It is then sent to the Parliament for its approval.
In rare instances the bill or treaty was presented one hour before it was to be signed. This happened when Mrs. Indira Gandhi formulated the Indo-Soviet Peace and Friendship Treaty was presented before the Parliament one hour before it was to be signed.
Indira Gandhi was so powerful she gained a majority approval since nobody had the guts to question her. MPSE 1 Free Solved Assignment
Parliament at times are so influential that even a powerful Prime Minister has to oblige. This incident occurred when both the Parliament and the President forced the then Prime Minister Nehru to sack his Defence Minister Krishna Menon.
After the 1962 border war the Chinese started spreading biased or misleading information to promote a political cause.
In order to counter-attack India wanted to spread its message loud and clear through All India
Radio and it was supposed to borrow the high powered transmitter from Voice of America (VOI).
But the members of Parliament from the Communist party was against this idea. They did not want India to use America’s aid hence the idea was dropped even though it was done with safeguarding the national interest.
This also reflects how influential the Parliament was in certain issues. At times it is difficult for the Parliament to use such powers.
It was able to do it because in sucking the Defence Minister it was easy because of the Sino-Indian war failure.
In 1996, we had a coalition Government. A coalition government is one where more than one party join together to form a government.
When the Gulf War happened US fought against Iraq.
This happened in March 2003, Prime Minister Vajpayee did not want to anger the United States for condemning against the war and requested Iraq to lend its cooperation to the UN to destroy weapons.
But our Parliament took a drastic step and condemned America’s unruliness in waging war against Iraq. This was strongly objected to and condemned in the Parliament by using strong Hindi words. MPSE 1 Free Solved Assignment
Another example of a letdown by the Parliament happened in 1991 during Ist Gulf War. The then Prime Minister Mr. Chandra Sekhar of the coalition government had permitted the US Airforce plane to refuel their aircraft in Mumbai airport.
When this issue leaked outside it was strongly condemned and the Parliament was furious and was against it.
The Congress Party feared of losing Muslim votes in the forthcoming election changes its decision and denied premium to refuel the US Airforce aircrafts.
The funds allotted for foreign policy matters and national security issues are under the control of the Parliament.
The control of funds by the Parliament are carried out without great effort. The funds allotted for each and every ministry like the MEA and Defence Ministry are done without any hassle.
This fund allotment goes through a quick process in the Parliament. That is why Madhu Dundavate criticized 85%-87% of the funds are allotted by the Parliament without any question raised.
In a democratic country like India is it right to have such control over money by the Parliament.
The Members of Parliament also act very irresponsibly at times. They are mostly of unaware of the funds required for India’s defence needs.
The MPs did no react when the then Defence Minister reduced the defence budget by Rs. 25 crores.
It was during that year China threatened India and there was a test to our national security. But even after that there was cut made in the defence budget, which was so foolish.
On the contrary in 1987-88 budget defence was given priority and a all-time high defence budget was allotted during that year. MPSE 1 Free Solved Assignment
During the Parliament, questions hour lot of questions were raised about the increase in defence budget cannot be questioned because it was anti-national.
During the Parliament session, different activities take place like the question hour, adjournment of a session, calling attention notice, etc.
All the above-mentioned activities can take place to discuss domestic issues as well as international issues.
Usually, in the Parliament, there are questions, debates and discussions on domestic issues and foreign affairs are rarely discussed.
The member’s knowledge regarding international issues are limited and they are not bothered or interested in the external issues.
Their village background can also be cited as an example.
It is like too many cooks spoil the dish, where the Parliament has a considerable number of members and coming to a consensus and making a foreign policy is really a tough task.
The members of the Parliament first of all do not have an interest in matters regarding foreign affairs and defence-related issues.
That is why they do not debate, discuss or raise a question against the issues in the Parliament.
The politicians are bothered about their regional internal problems through which they can plump their vote banks.
These external issues do not do any good to their vote bank hence they are not bothered about foreign matters.
An MP will definitely be willing to have an arms manufacturing unit in his constituency because in bargain there will be employment opportunities which will, in turn, increase his vote bank.
Thus if he does not have knowledge about the issues and is unaware of any information then by their foolishness they can change the policy on the whole.
Hence expert advice is needed for them to carry out the foreign policy successfully. Even then the urge to learn is not present in the members.
Parliament if not largely has an influence over the foreign policies. There are specific guidelines which have to be followed which are issued by the Parliament and the government cannot overrule it.
At times the Parliament greatly influences the foreign policy affairs. In order to have an effective foreign policy formation, there should be proper coordination between the Parliament and MEA. MPSE 1 Free Solved Assignment
This was lacking and there is no link between the MEA. Parliament and the foreign policies.
The Parliament has a Parliamentary consultative committee on external affairs to look after foreign affairs and the defence issues are taken care by the parliamentary consultative committee.
The Parliamentary Consultative Committees were formed by the Parliament with an objective to help the ministers These committees do not operate on their own and the meetings were convened when the ministers felt like when there was a need.
Usually, MEA calls for a meeting to debate over a formulated policy other than that nothing new was discussed.
It was even idler during our first Prime Minister Nehru’s period since he did not have a foreign minister separately. During his period the committee was used a debating body.
Initially, Mrs. Indira Gandhi made use of the Consultative Committee on external affairs frequently.
But after the 1971 general elections where she won with a strong majority, the meetings got minimised and the Consultative Committee for external affairs had no taken.
During the Indo-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Co-operation of 1971, the issue was not discussed or debated. MPSE 1 Free Solved Assignment
There was no meeting held in the Consultative Committee before and after signing the treaty. Mrs. Indira Gandhi was very strong and powerful and moreover, it was given to the Parliament’s approval one hour before signing the treaty.
On 2nd July the Shimla Agreement was reached and formal consent was given and it was made valid on 28th July.
There was a meeting held on 3rd July immediately by the Consultative Committee after the agreement was reached. Again a second meeting was held as soo and it was made legal on 28th August.
The Estimates Committee, Public Accounts Committee and Public Assurance Committee are standing committees formed by the Parliament.
All these committees are given statutory powers and they after the issues related to foreign policy and defence issues.
The work of the Public Accounts Committee are to examine the accounts of the agencies who are looking after foreign affairs.
The other committees like Estimates Committee evaluated the work of the embassies situated in foreign countries.
This was done under ex-Prime Minister Vajpayee who headed the committee in 1976-77. The Public Assurance Committee evaluated the assurance given by the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha.
The Parliamentary Committees on foreign affairs and defence was established in the year 1991. MPSE 1 Free Solved Assignment
Initially, foreign policy experts expressed the need for a standing committee that exclusively looks after foreign affairs and defence issues.
But as usual, there was strong displeasure among politicians because they felt in a Parliamentary government there is no need for such committees.
They thought it was suitable in the United States where there is Presidents’ rule. At last after a great struggle and force from experts, the committee was formed.
The Parliamentary committees established for the Foreign affairs and Defence issues changed the influence of Parliament in formulating a foreign policy to a great extent.
The committees were not advisory committees or consultative committees they were known as selective committees. This newly formed committee examine and inspect the budget of the defence department and the Ministry of External Affairs.
As soon as the budget is presented, the Lok Sabha is adjourned and the Parliament meets to discuss and debate about the budget. This is usually done after a month after the Lok Sabha is adjourned.
The Parliamentary Committee on Foreign Affairs and Defence performs the major function of analysing and studying vital issues which the Parliament thinks is important.
Then the Committee supports the report to the Parliament and to the executive needed action is recommended by the executive and the action taken report is given to the Parliament.
Vital issues regarding security are usually scrutinised and if there is any doubt the government has to clarify to the standing committee.
There was a report submitted by the Parliamentary Committee on Defence in the year 1995. It stated that even though China is cordial with India at present it is a prime security threat to India, now and in future. MPSE 1 Free Solved Assignment
Since the Parliamentary Working Committees work efficiently. These committees should be made more powerful and strong. Permanent staff members should be appointed, these officers can be IFS officers who are in the middle level.
The important issues which the Parliament needs the committee to study can be studied by these staff members.
Another way is to exchange learned experienced ex-defence personnel and retired IFS officers should be motivated to join politics.
Thereby when they are in the Parliament their expertise and knowledge in foreign affairs issues will be very valuable in assessing these issues.
The committees formed help the Parliament in framing the foreign security policies.
In order to ensure that the committees work efficiently permanent staffs have to be strengthened by appointing permanent staff who have expertise in foreign affairs.
This will result in the member of Parliament fulfilling the roles given to them. The committee can be strengthened by increasing the activities performed by them.
Q. 4. Explain the India-America relations since the Cold War
Ans. India and the United States had political differences on various issues related to the Korean war, the Vietnam war, the Suez and Hungarian crises, the decolonization of colonial states, etc.
The main political difference between India and US during the cold war years due to the strength and were busy forming alliances.
The alliance politics conditioned the US thinking and non-alignment conditioned the Indian thinking. MPSE 1 Free Solved Assignment
When India became independent the United States was engaged information of military blocs and security alliances. India was totally against this.
During the cold war when all major countries of the world took either the Soviet Union’s or American side.
India did not want to get entangled with any military alliances which were formed by the United States and the Soviet Union after the end of the Second World War.
Pakistan joined the military alliance formed by the US but India was adamant in its stand. Again India refused to join the South East Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) and Central Treaty Organisation (CENTO).
This angered America and the political distance between India and America widened. By following non-alignment
policy India was independent in decision-making relating to foreign affairs and its own security issues. MPSE 1 Free Solved Assignment
This brought insecurity in the United States since they are the superpowers they wanted everybody to follow their path which was never followed by India.
This really showed in America’s step-motherly treatment towards the Kashmir issue where Pakistan was never warned even after sufficient evidence and in the nuclear issues.
India did not oblige to any pressure by America and continued its non-alignment policy successfully which is the main political difference between US and India.
The frictions which existed during cold war times between the United States and India slowly gave way for friendly ties in the new millennium.
Indian economy had grown largely without the American sanctions and global recession not affecting them.
America was attracted and saw a positive benefit in having ties with India who was strong economically, democratically and militarily.
It was President Bill Clinton who initiated the new approach to the Indo-US relationship by visiting India in March 2000. MPSE 1 Free Solved Assignment
During 1999 India and Pakistan stood against each other in the Kargil war front. India was supported by America which brought a fresh lease of life in the Indo-US relations.
Bill Clinton was given a warm and friendly welcome during his visit to India. He had warned Pakistan from stepping into Indian territory which boosted India-US ties.
Moreover, America appreciated India for not crossing the Line of Control (LOC). India and America signed various cooperative agreements when Clinton visited India.
The most important one was the joint vision statement on the future course of the relationship. Indo-US ties continued even after Bill Clinton’s tenure and when George Bush became the new President.
He went one step ahead by claiming China to be a strategic competitor and addressing India as the strategic partner.
Moreover, it was important for India and US to maintain its ties in order to maintain global stability in the millennium.
India was so pleased with America for supporting it through its ups and downs. In gratitude, India supported Bush’s National Missile Defence (NMD) which made India and the US strategic relationship very intense,
Q. 7. (a) SAARC and its role
Ans. SAARC is a manifestation of the determination of the peoples of South Asia to work together towards MPSE 1 Free Solved Assignment
finding solutions to their common problems in the spirit of friendship, trust and understanding and creating an order based on mutual respect, equity and shared benefits.
The promise of SAARC is its various objectives as per mentioned in the SAARC character:
•To promote the welfare of peoples of South Asia and to improve their quality of life.
• To accelerate economic growth, social progress and cultural development in the region and to provide all individuals the opportunity to live in dignity and to realize their full potentials.
• To promote and strengthen collective self-reliance among the countries of South Asia.
• To contribute to mutual trust, understanding and appreciation of one another’s problems,
• To promote active collaboration and mutual assistance in the economic, social-cultural technical and scientific fields.
• To strengthen cooperation with other developing countries.
• To strengthen cooperation among themselves in international forums on matters of common interests, and MPSE 1 Free Solved Assignment
• To cooperate with an international and regional organization with similar aims and purposes.
The main goal of the association is to accelerate the process of economic and social development in member states, through joint action in the agreed areas of cooperation.
(b) ASEAN and India
Ans. India and ASEAN: In 1967 ten countries formed the Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN) with an objective to enhance trade and investment.
ASEAN countries had good economic growth and wealth and they were in search of new pastures for trade and investment. MPSE 1 Free Solved Assignment
They zeroed in India and Vietnam to be their economic partners and as their political and security issues both the countries were found to be perfect.
It was during this period Vietnam and India were trying to bring about changes in their economy through liberalization, privatization and globalization policies.
Prime Minister Narsimha Rao and Finance Minister Manmohan Singh took the initiative in India. India encouraged foreign Investments through tax-free incentives.
These steps were appreciated by ASEAN who wanted to strengthen its ties with India.
ASEAN and India became partners in varied sections like trade, investment, science and technology, since it was based on the individual section it was called sectorial partnership.
This started during 1992 and progressed many other areas like economic, security and political partnerships were preferred by ASEAN.
India was honoured ASEAN in several ways, the former was invited for conferences and forums exclusively for ASEAN countries. This was possible because both shared similar interests and perceptions.
In order to have a concrete organisation to ASEAN-India cooperation the ASEAN-India cooperation committee, the India-ASEAN fund was started.
The ASEAN secretariat was in charge of allocating funds and it was supervised by a Joint Management Committee ASEAN-New Delhi Committee was also formed include diplomats of all the countries. MPSE 1 Free Solved Assignment
A scholarship was announced on behalf of the Indian Government by India’s foreign secretary. Both India and ASEAN can give doctoral fellowship to six months in the field of science and technology.
ASEAN and Indian leaders and intellectuals were invited to give guest lectures in India and in ASEAN countries.
This was done with air to help understand the objectives of the foreign policy of both the partners. MPSE 1 Free Solved Assignment
Q. 9. (a) India-China border dispute
Ans. The border issue and the states of Kashmir were the main causes that turned India and China’s initial friendship they forgot the principles that they agreed upon in the Panchsheel agreement.
They forgot about the Bandung Conference where they had bilateral ties which were organized for Afro-Asian countries.
What remained now was only bitterness. China suddenly started up the border issue and they refuse to agree with India that a border agreement existed at all between India and China.
The McMohan line is supposed to be the international border between both countries. But China refused to accept the McMohan line as its border.
China’s greed for the imperialistic procession was shown when it claimed a region in Kashmir called the Aksai-Chin region belonged to their Sinkiang province.
Last but not least China even challenged that Kashmir was not a part of India which really angered the indians. MPSE 1 Free Solved Assignment
China also declared Kashmir as a disputed territory. To date, any visa request to China from Kashmir is considered, but it is stapled with the passport which is not accepted by the Indian Government.
Usually, visa’s are pasted to the passport otherwise it is not legal. It means that Kashmiri cannot travel to China because it is a disputed territory.
Secondly, China supported the principle of self-determination in Kashmir.
They also started building roads in the Aksai Chin area in Kashmir and to top it all the border was between Indo-China wiped away the leftover relationship.
Firstly, it was a blow to Nehru’s image in India and in foreign countries.
His idealistic thought was criticized and Indian soldiers lost their confidence and morale when they lost to China Nehru had to leave alone his non-alignment policy and ask the USA for military assistance because they were not able to sustain the Chinese attack.
Moreover, India lost a large part of its territory to China. All these things led to the bitterness in India-China relationship.MPSE 1 Free Solved Assignment
(b) India-Nepal Relations
Ans. India and Nepal are united by history and geography and there are times that they are divided by the same. MPSE 1 Free Solved Assignment
Both the countries are bound to each other by ties of culture and religion. Buddha was born in Nepal and it is the only Hindu kingdom in the world.
Nepal is easily accessible from India because the two countries just extended into each other with the Himalayas as the natural termination point of both.
The countries had signed the Treaty of Peace and Friendship and Trade and Commerce.
Nepal looked forward to a securing arrangement with India because they feared threats from China and India was able to monitor that Nepal does not come under Chinese influence. The Treaty of Peace and Friendship ensured the above said.
The trade and commerce agreement obviously was related to trade co-operation between both the countries which also included the transit agreements with Nepal.
Later in ‘freedom to transit’ was changed to “right to transit’. Later on, Janta Government made two treaties are related to trade and the other dealing with transit.
Nepal feel insecure due to India’s dominance and keeping non-alignment
freedom to transit’ was changed to right to transit’. Later on, Janta Government made two treaties are related to trade and the other dealing with transit.
Nepal feels insecure due to India’s dominance and keeping non-alignment and peaceful co-existence as base wanted to establish a zone of peace in Nepal.
India rejected it by saying it was in favour of a Zone of Peace in South Asia. India is not pleased when Nepal buys arms from China and gives its road-building contracts to China.
India does not want Nepal to be very cooperative and cordial with China because India has an agreement with Nepal to share its intelligence. MPSE 1 Free Solved Assignment
The other matter of concern is Nepal is off-late becoming a military hub of the Pakistanis. When an Indian Airlines plane was hijacked from Nepal, India condemned Nepal for helping Pakistani ISI by letting them inside the territory.
Whatever is said and done Nepal and India share a special relationship and the socio-cultural ties remain the same. Nepal looks up to India for its trade and economic growth.
MPS 01 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022