INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS: THEORY AND PROBLEMS
MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment
MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022
Q. 1. Evaluate the role of UN to the concept of self-determination and its application.
Ans. In 19th century most of the countries came under imperialist rule and under colonialism. In 1492 Columbus discovered America so, whole of South America and Mexico came under Spanish rule except Brazil.
In 1498, Portuguese Vasco De Gama discovered India and Portugal established her rule in Goa, Daman and Dieu, Brazil, Morocco and lot of African countries.
In 1688, Britain, during the rule of Queen Elizabeth, defeated Spanish Armada and after that began her settlement in Canada, U.S.A. and when Captain Cook discovered Australia, then Brtish rule established in Australia and New Zealand also.
Britain established East India Company in 1600 which gradually conquered India. British Government also conquered South Africa, Egypt, Sudan, Nigeria, Rhodesia, and lot of other countries.
After First World War, it conquered Iraq, Israel and Jordan etc. and ruled over them as mandated territories.
In 1914 and 1939 i.e. before First and Second World War Britain was the greatest imperialist country having about 1/3 of world’s area and population having about 39 countries. They boasted that Sun never sets in British empire.
France emerged as rival to Britain but in 7 years of war of 1756 to 1763, France was defeated both in North America, Canada and India.
Inspite of all this, France conquered Indo-China containing Vietnam, Laos and Combodia etc. Morocco, African Sahara, Syria and Lebanan and many countries of African continent, so it became second greatest imperial and colonial power.
Netherlands i.e. Holland conquered Indonesia and many other countries. Portugal conquered many countries of Africa and retained Goa, Daman, Dieu in India and Macao in China. MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment
Russia conquered Lithuania, Lativia, Esthonia etc. Peter the great and Catherine the great conquered whole of Central Asia, so it possessed the greatest continuous area from Petrograde to Vlodivostak i.e. from Eastern Europe to whole of Central Asia.
After Second World War whole of Eastern Europe containing Poland, East Germany, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria and Romania etc. came under her sway and it became super power. It remained super power upto 1991 when her empire disintegrated.
Belgium too possessed territory of Ruanda Urundi and Belgian Congo in Africa.
Imperialist powers were challenged by Germany in alliance with Austria, Hungary and Turkey but they were defeated in First World War as U.S.A. helped Britain, France and Russia.
After First World-War, League of Nations was established to maintain peace and to strive for social welfare of mankind but U.S.A. did not participate in it.
Germany led by Hitler, Italy led by Mussolini and militorist of Japan challenged authority of League of Nations. MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment
Britain, France etc. followed appeasement policy, so Japan conquered Man conquered Ethiopia and Hitler got Austria and Czechoslovakia, but when Hitler attacked Poland then Britain and France declared war in September 1939 and Second World War began.
Hitler conquered most of the Europe, but was unable to conquer Britain and was defeated when he tried to conquer Russia.
Italy was defeated by AngloAmerican forces and Japan due to have to surrender due to havoc caused by atom bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945.
After Second World War countries which were under imperialist and colonial rule demanded independence on the basis of right To self-determination and goT independence so imperialism and colonism ended.
U.N.O. has accepted right of self-determination and played a most important role in getting right of selfdetermination to states whose claims were considered proper
Self determination means all people of one nationality are entitled to dwell together in order to govern themselves in a state of their own.
Basis of the self-determination. Basis may be religion as India and Pakistan, P.L.O. and Israel, Ireland and Northern Ireland etc. MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment
Geography language and culture as Pakistan and Bangladesh. It may be due to race and historical traditions and tribal differences, etc.
After the end of imperialism, most of the states are facing problems of self-determination. Self-determination may be defined to mean all people of one nationality are entitled to dwell together in order to govern themselves in a state of their own.
Self determination may be demanded on the basis of religion as India and Pakistan and P.L.O and Israel i.e. Arab Muslims and Jews, and of Roman Catholics and Protestant Christians in Ireland and Northern Ireland of geographical distance and of language and cultural setup as between Pakistan and Bangladesh.
Now self-determination have become very common. Czech and Slovaks have become two independent states without any proper ground.
Similarly, tiny state of Yugoslavia has been different states such as Yugoslavia-Bosnia, Herzegovina, Slovenia and Croatia, etc. and Kosovo is still demanding independence.
Stuggles are going on in Sri Lanka between government of Lanka and LTTE of Tamilians, of. Kurds in Iran, Iraq and Turkey, of Aceh in Indonesia, of Mindanao in Philipines, of Biafra in Nigeria, of Kachin-Karen Tribal belt in Myanmar (Burma) of North eastern tribal states of such as Nagaland, Manipur, Assam, Meghalya, Mizoram and of Arunachal in India and of Tibet in China.
Eriteria has achieved independence from Ethiopia and East Timor from Indonesia.
Right of self-determination succeeds in small states such as Ethiopia, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia and Indonesia, etc. but not against powerful states as Russia, China and India.
As such militant terrorism of Chechenya has not succeeded against Russia, of Tibet against China and of North-Eastern states against India.
Inspite of all this, right of self-determination has created problem in most of the states of the world. MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment
Q. 2. Explain the meaning of international terrorism. How does it impact border security?
Ans. International Terrorism Defined Meaning of Terrorism
Terrorism has been derived from Latin world terror and deterred which means tremble and frighten. It means to frighten people so much that they may began to tremble due to fear.
It is violent activity to break the peace and undermine authority of state whose duty is to preserve peace and to maintain law and order.
Now mightiest state of U.S.A., U.K. and Russia have not escaped from terrorism. Terrorist attacked World Trade Centre of New York, throw bombs in London and Chechen terrorists created horror in Russia. MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment
Terrorists by violent acts break the peace and create fear and terror among the people.
Terrorists try to throw existing political institutions as Maoist are doing in Nepal, Tamil Elamm in Sri Lanka and ULFA in Assam and various terroristorganization in Kashmir and Irag and in Afghanistan and in lot of African and Latin American states.
Cross-boarder Terrorism :
When one state supports and abets and resorts to terrorist activities against another state as Pakistan is doing in Kashmir, Chechen militant in Russia and PL.O. eto. in Israel, this is called cross-boarder terrorism.
Terrorism Near India:
On 21st August, 2005 Times of India published article Nasty Neighbourhood, so we are giving extracts from this article to give recent knowledge.
Blasts in Bangladesh, Maoists Insurgency in Nepal, Tiger’s threat in Lanka, Jehadi camps in Afghanistan along with Taliban are possible to threats to India along with Jammu and Kashmir, ULFA of Assam, Naxalities, P.W.G., etc. in Andhra, Bihar, Chhatisgarh, Orissa and U.P. along with terrorists of Nagaland, Manipur, Meghalya, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh, etc.
According to B. Raman, Strategic Analyst “Jehadies have been treated like weapons by Musharraf’s government. MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment
Now fundamentalist have more power than the state. Their penetration has spread from the military to the nuclear and scientific community”.
According to Times of India Pakistan is epicure of global terror.
Rampant terrorism in Pakistan has led to terrorism, organized crime, sectarian conflict and unremmiting hostility to India. Pakistan’s army, I.S.I., rulers have used terrorism, drugs and sectarianism to create trouble in India.
In India Head of State is a Muslims and there have been lot of Presidents, Vice President, Chief Justices of Supreme Court, Governor, Chief secretaries and highest Muslim officers and diplomates and ministers, etc.
But aim of Pakistan is to wipe out India or establish government of extremist group as they established Taliban government in Afghanistan.
To achieve control over India, I.S.I., Jehadi groups, Taliban, Al Quaida Head Osama bin Laden, mafia dons such as Daud Ibrahim etc. supported by all world fanatic groups are creating horror and are committing terrorists act.
Fundamentalism thrives in thousand of madrasas who train fanatics to commit horrible acts. MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment
Pakistan has fought three wars with India and is now engaged in deadly arms race and nuclear conflict is worsts scenario.
At present Pakistan is engaged in proxy war through Jehadi groups like Lashkar-i-Taiba and Jashi-Mohamad etc. Pakistan’s goal is destabilization of India and ultimately to capture or conquer India by force.
India’s strategy: India is trying to satisfy Pakistan and Indian Muslims by all possible means. India is providing all facilities to Indian Muslims, so in 50 or 60 years Muslim population will be more than non-Muslim population in India.
Muslim population of India is more than population of Pakistan. India is giving post of President and Vice President or Governors, Chief Ministers and of Ministers and highest posts to Muslims.
In Afghanistan there was chaos and anarchy, therefore, U.S.S.R. i.e. Soviet Union now Russia captured Afghanistan but Taliban supported and funded by Pakistan and terrorist groups forced Russia to withdraw troops from Afghanistan.
War lords added to chaos and anarchy through drugs and arms. Under these circumstances, U.N.O. intervened and U.S.A. and its supporters, forces conquered Afghanistan and established democratic government under Hamid Karzai.
But President Hamid Karzai’s government is too weak to maintain peace, law and order and to control terrorist group. As such Taliban, remanents of Al Quaida, war lords and drug mafia are flourishing. MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment
They are uncontrollable Neither U.S.A. and allied forces nor Hamid Karzails government is able to control them.
Taliban’s leader Mullah Omar and terrorist leader Osama-bin Laden’s followers are creating unstable environments, Terrorism and extremism in Afghanistan are creating trouble in India. It threatens instability and choas in India.
But India is trying to reestablish traditional linkages in Afghanistan and has become one of the most dependable donors to Afghanistan. But how far philanthrophic policy of India is correct only future will tell.
Q. 4. What is ethnicity? Explain the reasons of ethnic wars.
Ans. Meaning of Ethnicity: Ethnicity is Latin word which means common identity to differentiate themselves from other groups.
For example Jews of Israel possess common identity and differentiate themselves from Arab Muslims of Israel. In Lanka Tamilians differentiate themselves from Sinhals of Lanka.
Ideology Decline of Nationalism and Ethnic Resurgence:
Patriotism gave death blow to imperialism and colonialism, so national-states become independent but now ethnicity is fast emerging as the most solid basis for political formation. MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment
Ethnic Resurgence in Practice :
Ethnic resurgence have brought separation of Czechs and Slovaks and disintegration of U.S.S.R. and of Yugoslavia etc. Now it is found all over the world.
About 190 states only 15 are ethnically homogeneous but in most of the states ethnicity is negligible.
Violence For Searching Identity:
Individuals actively seek to identify in order to achieve psychological security, similarly ethnic homogeneous groups also seek identity as Naga and Manipurians conflicts are due to this search of identity.
Causes of Identity Wars:
Fear of loss of identity, fear of assimilation and of marginalization, discrimination, deprivation and sense of helpnessness etc. are main causes of identity wars.
Middle East: Iraq and Afghanistan, etc. Gulf Crises of 1990-91, Iraqi problem and its solution by U.N.O. MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment
Iraq is an ancient land situated on the banks of river Tigris and Empherates, so earlier it was called Mesopotamia i.e., land of two rivers. Jews Prophet Moses and Suleman and Hammuravi and Nebuchadnazar ruled here.
During Muslim rule it’s capital of Abbasid Caliphs and Caliph Harun-Al-Russhid of Arabian Knights fame, ruled here.
It remained under Turkish rule and under British mandate, but got freedom like India with the liquidation of British empires.
Anglo-American block wanted to make it centre of C.E.N.T.O. and Al-Baghdad Pact but Col. Kassim usurped power and gave a death blow to all the Pacts but he met a tragic end and later on Saddam Hussain after many feeble presidents became its rulers.
Rise of Iraq came under Saddam Hussain. Iraq whose population is only 2 crores and 35 lakhs and area is 434913 sq. kms. containing 55% Shia and 42% Sunni Muslim population and 3% Kurdis, came in Prominence during the rule of Saddam Hussain who made it powerful state.
The life of Iraqi president Saddam Hussain passed his early days in misery as he lost his father in childhood. MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment
He tried for coup but failed and had to pass his days in exile in Egypt.
He again tried for a coup but was captured and imprisoned but he escaped and took leading part in political activities and became president and later on President and virtually ruler of Iraq.
In Iran, due to Shia Muslim revolution, Ayatollah Khomeni came in power and he was unable to see Saddam Hussain, a Sunni, as a ruler of majority Shia state of Iraq and on the other hand Saddam Hussain, also did not like powerful Shia state under orthodox fanatic Shia leader Ayatollah Khomeni as it may prove dangerous to Arab states.
Another reason, was dispute and territorial dispute between Iraq and Iran. Thus both came in conflict and long war took place between them.
The minor skirmishes between Iraq-Iranian forces on border took shape of war on 22th Semptember, 1980. Thus Iraq-Iran war, conitnued for 8 years.
In this war, Iraq was financially helped by Kuwait and all Arab countries who feared Shia domination over Arabs if Iran won. U.S.S.R., also helped Iraq.
Later on U.S.A., Britain, France and Germany also helped Iraq and supplied best equipment.
Due to superiority of arms and chemical weapons, Iraq got an upper hand over Iran, so Iran had to eat a humble pie and had to accept a ceasefire due to mediation of U.N.O.
After humiliation of defeat, Ayatollah Khomeni of Iran died on 4th June, 1989, and Suddam Hussain became undisputed and powerful ruler of Middle East and Arab-Muslim states began to fear him. MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment
Attack over Kuwait, flushed with victory, Saddam Hussain, attacked over Kuwait on 2nd August, 1990, and annexed it on 8th August, 1990 declaring it as province and integral part of Iraq.
Conquest of a weak and small country of Kuwait by a powerful Arab country of Iraq brought U.N.O. to interfere and a new chapter in world history due to Iraqi occupation of Kuwait began and it brought intervention of U.N.O.
The Gulf Crises and the Iraqi Occupation of Kuwait and its Consequences
Gulf crises was created when Iraqi President Saddam Hussain who attacked a fellow Arab-Muslim tiny country of Kuwait on August 2, 1990 and annexed it on August 8, 1990.
It is ironic that Iraq that had become an Arab military shield against Shia Iran over the years, turned against a fellow Arab country, Kuwait, whose area is only 20150 kms. and population is only 21 lakhs as nearly two millions.
Iraq annexed Kuwait and declared it as 19th province of Iraq, but U.N.O. opposed this annexation vehemently. MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment
Causes of Conflict: The crisis began when Iraq accused Kuwait of sabotaging its economy by over producing oil and thus depressing prices and reducing Iraq’s earnings.
Iraq also desired cancellation of 10 billion dollar, interest free loan, which Kuwait had given to Iraq. Iraq also demanded Rumalia oil fields and strategic Buluyan island to improve Iraq’s access to the Gulf.
Main cause was that Iraq desired to annex Kuwait because it was a weak country but possessed 20% of the world known oil resources.
Iraq claimed Kuwait historically as a part of their ancient empire but U.N.O. refused to accept that plea.
U.N.O’s Stern Action: Conquest of a weak country by an armed and powerful country was against U.N.O.’s objectives.
It was direct defiance of U.N.O. by Iraq. As such U.N.O. Security Council on August 9, 1990, declared Iraq’s annexation of Kuwait unanimousis null and void but Iraq did not care it and Gulf crisis began. MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment
The Relations of Iraq and U.N.O. over Kuwait: Iraq’s occupation of Kuwait was direct defiance of U.N.O.. So U.N.O. Security Council on August 9, 1990, unanimously declared annexation of Kuwait ‘null and Avoid but Iraq refused U.N.O.’s mandate, but U.S.A. sent forces to defend Saudi Arabia.
As such on August 25, 1990, U.N.O. called fair use of the necessary naval forces to ensure compliance with mandatory economic sanctions imposed on Iraq for its invasion of Kuwait.
It is probably first time that the Security Council has authorised military action to enforce its own sanctions.
The U.S. sponsored resolution was adopted by Security Council by 13-0 votes with Yemen and Cuba abstaining.
The resolution called on foreign navals in the Gulf “to use such measures commensurate to the specific circumstances as may be necessary”, to stop ships, inspect their cargo as and determine their destinations to ensure compliance with U.N. trade embargo against Iraq.
The embargo was meant to force Iraq to leave Kuwait without war but it failed.
Only India was permitted to send medicine and grain on humanitarian basis but its ships Tippu’ and ‘Vishwajit’, etc. were searched by U.S.A., Dutch and British navies but India was allowed to evacuate about 1.5 lakh person from Kuwait. India followed neutral policy in this war.
Iraq and U.N.O.: U.N. Security Council of 15 members passed 12 resolutions on Gulf crisis between Iraq’s invasion on Kuwait on August 2, 1990 to January 16, 1991, the date of expiry of withdrawal. MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment
First resolution which came only hours after the invasion, demanded Iraqis unconditional withdrawal from Kuwait and allow to remain it independent.
Four days later stringent economic sanctions was imposed. To enforce these, the Security Council on August 25, 1990, empowered states to set up a naval blockade in the Gulf and imposed an air embargo also.
Lastly on November 29, 1990, the Security Council in resolution No. 678 authorised states to use all necessary means” against Iraq unless it withdrew from Kuwait on or before 15th January 1991.
Then vote was 12 to 2 as Cuba and Yamen opposed it and China abstained herself.
Efforts were made by all peace loving states and U.N.O. Secretary General, Perez-De-Cullar, himself, but all efforts of peace failed on sharp rocks of reality as Saddam Hussain refused to evacuate Kuwait.
He not only defied U.N.O. but imposed many conditions which were not connected with this Gulf Crisis, so there was no alternative except war.
Due to occupation of Kuwait U.S.A. led multinational forces declared war against Iraq and blame for Gulf crisis lies on Saddam Hussain because there was no alternative before U.N.O. except allowing use of force against Iraq for evacuation of Kuwait as Saddam Hussain did not care for U.N.O. at all.
He defied U.N.O. Saddam Hussain and U.S.A. and use of force against Iraq for evacuation of Kuwait MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment
League of Nations and U.N.O.’s main purpose and objective is to maintain world peace and to achieve this, only way is to safeguard weak nation against a powerful nation.
League of Nations showed weakness and allowed Japan to grab Manchuria, Italy to grab Ethiopia or Abyssinia and to Germany, Austria and Czechoslovakia. So League of Nations failed, but now world opinion favoured U.N.O.
U.N.O. was unable to take action due to cold war between U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. but situation changed when U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. minimised their differences and U.N.O. became powerful.
Defiance of U.N.O: Defiance of U.N.O. became common feature of newly emerged powerful nations. Arab powers constantly attacked Israel and tried to wipe out this tiny state created by U.N.O. MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment
But aggressors did not succeed because Israel proved a hard nut to crack but Vietnam’s forces occupied Cambodia, Cuba intervened in many African states but these interventions and defiance got set back when Russian forces were forced to leave Afghanistan.
Now U.S.A. and U.S.S R. came near and so U.N.O. get strengthened but Iran defying all norms of diplomacy and tradition caught U.S.A.
Embassy’s people and left them after great compensation and tried to curb freedom of speech by threatening British citizen Sullman punishable.
Inspite of all efforts of U.N.O., Iraq-Iran war continued for 8 years and U.N.O. was able to achieve success when both combatants became tried and desired peace.
Kuwait Episode: Saddam Hussain, president of Iraq, in direct defiance of U.N.O., conquered Kuwait by force, and contemptuously disregarded all peace efforts and cared a fig for world opinion and U.N.O. resolution.
In defiance of U.N.O. probably Saddam Hussain exceeded with Mussolini’s defiance of League of Nations and probably even more than Hitler.
Under these circumstances, there were only two alternatives before U.N.O. i.e., show weakness like League of Nations, who showed weakness before Mussolini and Hitler and meet its doom or to show courage and face aggressor.
U.N.O.’s Security Council unanimously choose to face aggressor and not to bow down to aggressor. MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment
As such all the peace efforts failed as Saddam Hussain was determined to defy and fight with U.N.O. As such for the very existence of U.N.O., it became necessary for U.N.O. to face challenge of Saddam Hussain.
Previous robbery by any robber did not confer right to another robber to commit robbery with defiance, so no argument of Saddam Hussain can be substained against U.N.O.
As such for the preservation of world peace, there was perhaps no alternative before U.N.O. except to authorise states “to use all necessary means” against the aggressor to deprive him from fruits of spoilation. As such war became inevitable.
The War between Iraq and Multinational Forces led by U.S.A.:
Due to obstinacy of president Saddam Hussain, all peace efforts failed and ultimatum’s deadline of 15th January, 1991 passed.
Under these circumstances multinational forces of 28 countries, led by U.S.A., came in conflict with Iraqi forces and war began.
It continued with all ferocity from both sides. Iraq attacked civilian and non-combatant Israeli people with scud missiles and committed all kinds of cruelties on foreign citizens and prisoners of war. MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment
Saddam Hussain’s forces made scud missile attacks on Saudi Arabia but these were mostly destroyed by Patriat missiles of U.S.A. and were unable to create harms and horror but air force of multinational forces bombarded Iraq successfully and were able to break concrete bunker.
Now Iraq demanded ceasefire and imposed many obnoxious conditions for its withdrawl from Kuwait.
These conditions for withdraw were rejected by U.S.A. and Britain and Saudi Arabia and other Arab countries but India and Russia made efforts to bring peace in the Middle East, but war took place in which Iraq was defeated and forced to quit Kuwait.
The Effect of Gulf Crisis of 1990-91 on Middle East, U.N.O. and World;
By meeting the challenge of aggressor, U.N.O., has strengthened itself. Now aggressor have realised that to break world peace and defiance of U.N.O. is not an easy task.
Five permanent members of U.N.O., i.e., U.S.A., U.S.S.R., Britain, France and China showed unusual unanimity in preserving world peace and honour of U.N.O. has now become an effective, competent and powerful world body if it is supported by U.S.A. and U.K., etc.
Effect on Middle East: Now Middle East which has become cockpit of the world, may get some respite from constant wars and it is expected in near future Middle East may get peace and prosperity, stability and respite from wars.
Effect over World: With Gulf crisis and successful action of U.N.O, small nation have got confidence that if these weak and small nations are attacked by a powerful nation, U.N.O. will come to their rescue. MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment
In this way U.N.O. has gained confidence of peace loving citizens of the world and hope for preservation of world peace through U.N.O. has increased.
With the preservation of peace and order in war-torn Middle East, a new era of peace and prosperity may emerge in Middle East in particular and world in general.
With peace, new horizon for progress of mankind may come. Now efforts are being made to establish democratic government in Iraq by U.S.A. and U.K.
Afghanistan, Israel and Iraq are the countries which are facing uneasy peace. In Afghanistan fanatic Taliban government has been overthrown and it is expected that new government may bring peace, progress and prosperity of Afghanistan.
With the establishment of autonomous state of Palestine and peace treaties between Israel, Egypt and Jordan, major war may be avoided though local conflicts may continue.
According to U.S.A. Iraq under Saddam Hussain is preparing destructive weapons so action should be taken against Iraq and rule of Saddam Hussain may be ended, but this proposal has not found favour in U.N.O. MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment
As such it was expected that conciliation may take place and major war may be avoided.
Greatest menace to Middle East and whole world is terrorism but it is expected that it may also be controlled with the co-operation of major world powers and peace loving countries and peace, progresss and prosperity may prevail all over the world as rule of Taliban has ended in Afghanistan and of Saddam Hussein in Iraq, so there is hope for peace.
SECTION – II
Q. 7. (a) The role of World Trade organisation
Ans. The World Trade Organisation (W.T.O.): After the Second World War the major economic powers of the world negotiated a set of rules for reducing and limiting trade barriers and setting trade disputes.
These rules were called the General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT). The headquarters to oversee the administration of the GATT were established in Geneva in Switzerland. MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment
Rounds of multilateral trade negotations under the GATT were carried out periodically. The eighth round, began in Punta Del Este in Uruguay, in 1986, was perhaps the most significant. It was called the Uruguay Round.
It lasted till 15 December, 1993 and involved 117 countries, the liberalisation agreement, which was eventually signed, is till date and most wide-ranging and involves minutes details aimed at addressing all the concerns of the world community.
During the Uruguay Round, many disputes arose between the world’s biggest trading countries and the newly freed nations, thus pitching the ‘North (developed world) against the South’ (developing countries) some of the key issues that camp up for extensive debate were.
Subsidies: Does a government have the right to subsidise the prduction or manufacture of certain product of commodity, thereby making a certain country, product cheaper than an other, whose government does not subsidise it?
This was not an issue only for the poor countries, who needed subsidies to help their industries but also the rich ones for instance, the agriculture sector of Europe enjoys huge subsidies from their governments.
But America objected to this saying unless the European governments reduced their subsidies, American agricultural products would not be competitive in the world market.
This particular debate almost caused GATT process to collapse. But, finally, a balance was struck, poor countries were allowed to continue with their subsidies up to ascertain level.
Patents: Is it ethical for manufacturers of certain products in developed countries to demand monopoly over their products of patents. MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment
Is it ethical for manufacturers of certain products in developed countries to demand monopoly over their products because the original registration of the invention took place there?
This debate shook the very foundations of the global free trade because a group of multinational companies demanded that trade in patented goods should not be carried out by national companies which have copied them.
This was a highly sensitive issue because many drugs and medicines are produced and sold cheaply in the developing countries by companies which have copied the manufacturing proceses of these patented products.
If the developed countries get a monopoly over them, then these life-saving drugs would become too expensive for consumers on the developing world to buy these costly drugs.
Quotas: Many poor countries depend on quotas, particularly in the area of textiles, to earn foreign exchange. MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment
Under the Multi-Fibre Agreement (MFA), rich countries allocate specific quotas to poor countries assuring them of a minimum of imports each year.
This helps poor countries a lot. But the manufacturers of these same products in the rich countries argue that this quota system defeats the purpose of free trade.
Finally, after bitter debate, it was decided that the MFA would continue till 2005 and is continuous in 2006.
Dispute Settlement: Free trade invariably leads to the need for a referee. Previously, disputes went for costly and time consuming litigation in courts, the Uruguay Round set up a transparent dispute settlement body within the World Trade Organisation (WTO) where any country aggrieved over the trade policy of another that leads to the restriction of its products there, may seek speedy redress through it.
Non-Tariff Barriers: Many issues like environment and labour also came for dispute during the GATT process. It was argued by several government representatives from the North that labour in the South is paid only a friction of wages that is given to labour in the North.
This pushes up production costs in the North and makes many of its products uncompetitive in the market, therefore they pleaded for parity in labour standards, the poor countries resisted this as their internal economies were not in a position to meet these demands.
Secondly, some Northern governments pointed out that the manufacturing processes in the South are relatively unsophisticated and often cause environmental degradation.
Thus, they argued that products made through environmentally unsafe systems should be banned, but the South argued that the North was using environmental concerns to protect its industries though the Uruguay Round, refused to consider this aspect, the debate is still going on.
Most favoured Nation Status: In the Uruguay Round it was decided that all the member states of the WTO would accord to each other the Most Favoured Nation (M.F.N.) status. They should not discriminate against each other.
However, a problem arose when it was seen that many of the member states are already members of large or small regional trade blocs link like the EEC, NAFTA, GCC, ASEAN etc. under these agreements they are already committed to giving their neighbours preferential trading rights this, paradox also continues to cause disputes within the WTO.
The name for GATE was later changed to World Trade Organisation (W.T.O) and it officially began its career on 1st January, 1995. MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment
It administers trade agreements and treaties examines the track of the various trade measures and statistics and settles trade disputes
(b) Issues of Human Rights
Ans. U.N.O. has declared human rights to be followed all over the world without any distinction of caste, creed, sex or race or religion.
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) and International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) confirmed and modified Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) of 1948.
Human rights are too many to be narrated here as most of the countries do not follow them. During emergency not only human rights but even fundamental rights of Indian Constitution were taken away.
In China and Russia and in other communists and socialist countries, there is right of property but in India it has been taken away.
Millions of undertrials remain in jail for many years and decades due to delay in judgement of courts without any access to human rights.
In lot of countries men and women are stoned to death. Thus, human rights lakes full implementation and enforcement.
Formerly East India Company of Britain, French and Dutch and other companies possessed more assets than many states. MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment
These companies conquered and established rule of their states in conquered territories, main aim of all these companies was trade but due to chance, opportunities taking advantage these companies established their rule and hegemony.
Now these have been replaced by Multi-national Corporations (M.N.Cs.). At present there are more than 40 thousands transnational parent companies with their more than 25000 foreign affiliates.
Some of them are very big; for example, combined revenue of General Motors is more than 168 billion dollars and of Ford Motors of more than 150 billion dollars which is nearly equal to India’s G.D.P. of 324 billion dollars.
The motive of Trans-National Corporation is profit making. Various TNCs Coca Cola, opposed Indian governments laws in favour of labourers.
These corporations do great damage by destroying livelihood of people through environmental practices that destroy forests, finishing stocks and pollute rivers, pools and lakes which were once source of water and fish.
Coca-Cola and Pepsi has given death blow to small scale soda water factories, I.T.C. to cigrette manufacturers, Bata to shoe manufacturers and Lever brothers to soap and detergent makers. MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment
Persons working in carpet manufacturing and in sports have been rendered unemployed due to legislation against employment of children and bandhua mazdoori, etc. power farming has been hit hard.
Q. 10. (a) Central Asian States
Ans. It has been said politics without History has no root; History without politics bears no fruits as such detailed past history is necessary.
Central Asian states were mostly inhabited by warrior tribes who were mostly Turks and Mongols.
These were conquered by Muslim Arab Caliphs. They all embraced Muslim religion and became fanatic bigot Muslims.
Mahmood Ghaznavi and Mohammed Ghori etc. were Turk warriors and conquerors. They ruled independently but acknowledged Caliphs of Baghdad as their overlords.
Mongol conqueror Chengiz Khan and Halaku Khan destroyed Khilafat. Chengiz Khan is considered one of the greatest conqueror known to History Mongols conquered a very great part of Asia and Russia. MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment
They embraced Muslim religion and began to marry with Turks. Taimur Lang, who was probable Turk, called himself Mongol and conquered a very great part of Asia. He is also considered a great conqueror. After him, his kingdom was divided.
Babar who had mixed blood of Turks and Mughals established Mughal rule in India which lasted upto 1707. But Central Asian states came under the rule of Sultan of Turkey whose Central Asian states were conquered by Russian.
Russia was under Mongol rule. It threw Mongol rule. Peter the Great and Catherine the Great made it a great power and extended its empire from Petrograde to Vladivostak. It emerged as superpower after Second WorldWar.
Even today scholars of the world heave a collective sigh at the suddenness and rapidity with which the Communist empire built by Joseph Stalin from Eastern Europe in the west to Mongolia in the east collapsed in 1991.
Colonialim of the Marxist-Leninist variety lasted for a brief period of only 74 years but left an indelible mark on mankind’s collective political experience and ideology and social and economic set up. MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment
The years between Stalin’s death in 1953 and the final denouncement of the Soviet Union are filled with glorious achievements climaxed by going to moon and mankind’s conquest of space. But there was also a darker side to it.
The U.S.S.R. was at its core was a totalitarian state where every kind of human freedom, be it in the form of free speech or individual enterprise or choice of profession was suppressed with much brutality.
This had a disastrous impact on the nation’s economic fundamentals which left the U.S.S.R. unable to compete with the Western world by the United State and European powers in the Cold War.
The satellite states of U.S.S.R. in Europe, known collectively as the East Bloc also found communism, which meant total subjugation to the USSR incompatible with their national pride and social set up and historical tradition.
After Second World War U.S.S.R. took East Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, etc. under her control. MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment
Lithuania, Latevia and Estonia etc. were already under her control. Yugoslavia, and Albania escaped from control of U.S.S.R. Revolts of Hungary and of Czechoslavakia were controlled by iron hands. Stalin was greatest dictator of U.S.S.R.
The death of Stalin is shrouded in Mystery
Recent researches point to the strong possibility that Joseph Stalin was probably poisoned by his close aides who were apprehensive of the USSR landing into another world war due to his aggressive policies whatever may be the truth,
the death of Stalin unleashed a power struggle within the Kremlin, the seat of Government of U.S.S.R. marked by considerable bloodshed conspiracies and silent coups.
Millions of Soviet citizens had known no other political leader and so were shocked at his death. But his close aides Le Lavrentiberia, the chief of the secret police organisation called the KGB; Geotgi Malenkov the premier and Nikita Khrushchev,
the senior party chief who in the late 1930s had overseen a brutal massacre of opponents of Stalin in Ukraine just led to fill up the vacuum left by their chief.
But within months Khrushchev emerged on top, Beria the hated police chief, who had personally overseen the death of millions, was shot dead. Malenkov was set aside, so Khrushchev became most powerful leader of U.S.S.R.
(b) Indigenous Movements
Ans. Indigenous people under the nation-state have experienced exclusion and dispossession. With the rise in globalization, the conditions indigenous populations live under have worsened. MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment
AT times, national governments are negotiating natural resources without taking into account whether or not these resources exist on indigenous lands.
In this sense for many indigenous populations, the effects of globalization mirror the effects of the conquest in the mid 16th century.
With the excesses of globalization greatly impacting indigenous populations, one finds that in recent decades there has been an emergence of indigenous movements in various countries on the North and South American continent.
If one were to take a look at these movements they would find that they share many similarities.
Many of these movements seek specific rights for the indigenous populations they represent. These rights include the right to self-determination and the right to preserve their culture and heritage. MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment
However, that is not to say that these groups do not differ. One of the main differences among these groups is not their objectives but the way in which they organize themselves to meet their objectives.
There has been a movement in Latin America to unite indigenous populations that are separated only by the borders of the countries that they live in.
These movements seek to have their message heard not just on a national level but on a trans-hemispheric level.
The following are examples of groups that have made the move to organize in order to be heard on a transnational level.
These movements do not call for indigenous rights to be contained within a certain country, but rather to have indigenous rights become a universal right to be acknowledged by all countries with indigenous populations. MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment
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