IGNOU MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23- Helpfirst

MPS 2

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS: THEORY AND PROBLEMS

MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment For July 2022 & Jan 2023

MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment

SECTION- I

Q 1. Explain the role of UN in the current world order.

Ans. The United Nations (UN) is a global organization founded in 1945 with the aim of promoting peace, security, and cooperation among nations. Its mission is to address and solve global issues, such as poverty, conflict, and humanitarian emergencies, in a way that promotes peace and respect for human rights.

In the current world order, the UN plays several critical roles, including:

Peacekeeping: The UN deploys peacekeeping forces to conflict zones around the world to help restore stability and protect civilians.

Conflict resolution: The UN works to prevent and resolve conflicts through diplomacy and negotiation, and it also mediates disputes between nations.

Humanitarian aid: The UN provides life-saving assistance to people affected by natural disasters, armed conflicts, and other emergencies.

Promoting human rights: The UN is the primary international organization responsible for promoting and protecting human rights around the world.

Climate action: The UN plays a key role in international efforts to combat climate change and promote sustainable development.

Global governance: The UN provides a forum for member states to discuss and coordinate their policies on a wide range of global issues, such as economic and social development, trade, and the environment.

International law: The UN plays a crucial role in the development and enforcement of international law, particularly through the International Criminal Court.

Overall, the UN plays a crucial role in promoting peace and stability, protecting human rights, and addressing global challenges in a way that is grounded in the principles of international cooperation and the rule of law.

The organization’s work is critical for maintaining a stable and peaceful world order and addressing the needs of people around the world.

MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment
MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment

Q 2. Define international terrorism. How does patriotism become the epicenter of terrorism?

Ans International terrorism refers to acts of violence committed by non-state actors that cross national borders and threaten the security of people and states.

This type of terrorism often involves the use of tactics such as bombings, assassinations, and hijackings to achieve political, ideological, or religious goals.

Patriotism can become the epicenter of terrorism when it becomes twisted into a dangerous form of nationalism that prioritizes the interests of a particular group or nation above all others. MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment

In such cases, individuals or groups may believe that violence is necessary to protect the nation or its people, even if it means attacking innocent people from other countries.

This distorted form of patriotism can provide a rallying cry for terrorist organizations and lead to a dangerous cycle of violence and retaliation.

It is important to note that patriotism and nationalism, when expressed in a peaceful and lawful manner, can be positive forces for good in society.

However, when they are distorted and used to justify acts of terrorism, they can have devastating consequences for global peace and stability.

In addition, when patriotism becomes the epicenter of terrorism, it can also lead to a disregard for human rights and international law.

Terrorist organizations that justify their actions as acts of patriotism may believe that they are above the law and that their actions are justified, no matter the harm they cause to innocent people. MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment

This can create a culture of impunity, where perpetrators of terrorism believe they can act with complete disregard for the rights and safety of others.

Moreover, when terrorism is committed in the name of patriotism, it can have a profound impact on international relations.

Countries that are targeted by terrorists often respond with increased security measures, which can lead to greater distrust and tension between nations.

In some cases, it can even lead to full-blown conflict and war, causing significant harm to regional stability and global peace.

Finally, it is important to note that terrorism, in any form, is a threat to the fundamental principles of human dignity and human rights.

When terrorism is committed in the name of patriotism, it represents a perversion of these values and a direct attack on the idea of a just and peaceful world.

It is crucial that nations work together to address the threat of terrorism and promote a culture of respect for human rights, regardless of political or ideological beliefs. MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment

Q 3. Do you think the world is unipolar, bipolar or multipolar? Explain with example.

Ans. The world can be characterized as being multipolar, meaning that there are multiple centers of power and influence that interact and compete with each other on the global stage.

This is in contrast to a unipolar world, where there is only one dominant power, or a bipolar world, where there are two main powers.

An example of the multipolar world can be seen in the current international system, where countries such as the United States, China, Russia, and the European Union, among others, are all major players on the global stage.

Each of these countries wields significant economic, military, and political influence, and they engage in a complex web of relationships and interactions with each other. MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment

For instance, the US and China are major economic powers and compete for influence in Asia and around the world, while Russia plays a major role in the Middle East and Eastern Europe.

The European Union, meanwhile, is a major economic bloc that wields significant influence in global trade and politics.

In a multipolar world, there is no one dominant power, and each country must navigate complex relationships and navigate the interests and actions of multiple actors.

This can lead to greater competition and friction, but it can also lead to cooperation and collaboration on global challenges such as climate change and terrorism.

Furthermore, the multipolar world also allows for a greater diversity of perspectives and interests to be represented on the global stage.

In a unipolar world, the dominant power would have a significant influence over global affairs and decisions, but in a multipolar world, multiple perspectives and interests are more likely to be taken into consideration.

This diversity of perspectives and interests can also lead to greater stability, as it makes it more difficult for any one power to unilaterally impose its will on the rest of the world. MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment

In a multipolar world, there are multiple checks and balances on the actions of individual countries, reducing the risk of conflict and ensuring that the international system remains stable.

Additionally, the multipolar world also provides greater opportunities for cooperation and collaboration on a range of global issues.

For example, the Paris Agreement on Climate Change was reached through a collaborative process involving multiple countries and international organizations, reflecting the multipolar nature of the world today.

However, it is also important to note that the multipolar world is not without its challenges. As countries compete for resources, influence, and power, tensions can rise and the risk of conflict increases. MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment

Moreover, in a multipolar world, it can be more difficult to reach consensus on key global issues, as countries may have conflicting interests and priorities.

In conclusion, the multipolar world presents both opportunities and challenges for nations and for the world as a whole.

The diversity of perspectives and interests, as well as the presence of multiple checks and balances, provides stability and helps to prevent conflict.

At the same time, the competition for resources and influence can lead to tensions and the risk of conflict.

Nevertheless, the multipolar world remains an important and dynamic aspect of the current international system. MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment

MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment
MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment

SECTION- II

Q 6. a) Realist Theory

Ans.Realist theory is a perspective in international relations that emphasizes the role of power and self-interest in shaping the behavior of states.

Realists view the international system as anarchic, meaning that there is no central authority to enforce rules or ensure stability.

As a result, states must rely on their own power and capabilities to protect their interests and ensure their survival. MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment

Realists view the state as the primary actor in international relations and believe that the behavior of states is driven by the pursuit of their own self-interest, including the pursuit of power and security.

They argue that states are primarily motivated by their own national interests and that they act to maximize their own power and security in an uncertain and potentially hostile international environment.

Realist theory also highlights the importance of power in shaping international relations.

Realists view power as the ability to influence others and to shape outcomes, and they believe that states compete for power to ensure their own security and interests. MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment

In this view, military power and economic power are both important sources of influence and states must be prepared to use them to advance their interests.

Realist theory has been a dominant perspective in international relations for much of the 20th century and continues to be influential today.

It has been used to analyze and understand a wide range of international events, from the Cold War to the rise of China as a major global power.

b) Democratic peace theory

Ans. Democratic peace theory is a concept in international relations that suggests that democracies are less likely to go to war with each other.

This theory argues that the values and institutions of democracy, including the rule of law, protection of individual rights, and peaceful resolution of conflicts through political means, create a peaceful relationship between democratic states.

Democratic peace theory is based on the idea that democracies have a fundamental commitment to the peaceful resolution of disputes and are more likely to resolve conflicts through diplomatic means rather than through military force.

The theory also suggests that democratic societies are more likely to have similar values and interests, reducing the likelihood of conflict.

Additionally, democratic peace theory suggests that the openness and transparency of democratic societies makes it more difficult for leaders to engage in covert or aggressive behavior, as they are held accountable to their citizens and the international community. MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment

The presence of free and independent media, an active civil society, and a vibrant political opposition also helps to check the actions of the government and prevent the escalation of conflicts.

While democratic peace theory is widely accepted, there are also critiques and limitations to the theory.

Some argue that it oversimplifies the complex factors that drive conflict and that it does not account for the role of non-democratic actors in shaping international relations. MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment

Others argue that the theory does not always hold up in practice, pointing to instances where democratic states have gone to war with each other or supported non-democratic regimes.

Q 7. a) The role of International Monetary Fund (IMF)

Ans.The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization that plays a key role in the global financial system.

The IMF’s primary purpose is to ensure the stability of the international monetary system—the system of exchange rates and international payments that enables countries to transact with each other. MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment

The IMF provides financial assistance to countries facing economic difficulties, such as balance of payments problems, high inflation, or economic recession.

The IMF provides loans to countries with the aim of helping them restore economic stability and growth.

In return, countries must agree to implement economic reforms, such as reducing government spending, increasing tax revenues, or implementing structural reforms to improve the efficiency of their economies.

The IMF also provides technical assistance and policy advice to its member countries, helping them to design and implement economic policies that promote sustainable economic growth and reduce poverty.

The IMF works closely with other international organizations, including the World Bank, to provide a coordinated response to global economic challenges.

The IMF also plays a key role in providing financial support to low-income countries, providing them with financial resources to help them achieve their development goals. MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment

The IMF provides financial assistance to these countries through its Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF) and the Extended Credit Facility (ECF).

In conclusion, the IMF plays a crucial role in the global financial system, providing financial assistance and policy advice to countries facing economic difficulties.

The IMF’s work helps to promote economic stability, reduce poverty, and support economic growth in its member countries.

b) Issues of Human Rights

Ans. Human rights are fundamental rights and freedoms that are inherent to all individuals, regardless of race, gender, nationality, religion, or other status.

The issue of human rights is a complex and multi-faceted one, affecting individuals and communities around the world. Some of the key issues related to human rights include: MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment

Discrimination: People are often denied their human rights due to discrimination based on race, gender, sexuality, religion, or other factors.

This can take the form of institutionalized discrimination, such as laws that restrict the rights of certain groups, or more subtle forms of discrimination, such as bias in the workplace.

Lack of access to justice: Many people around the world lack access to an effective justice system and are unable to protect their human rights through legal means.

This can lead to widespread human rights abuses, including extrajudicial killings, torture, and other forms of violence. MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment

Repression of dissent: Governments around the world have been known to restrict freedom of expression, assembly, and association to silence political opposition and other forms of dissent.

This can lead to the suppression of human rights, including the right to free speech and the right to participate in the political process.

Violations of civil and political rights: Human rights abuses often take the form of violations of civil and political rights, such as the right to life, liberty, and security of person, the right to a fair trial, and the right to freedom from torture.

Violence against women: Women around the world face widespread violence, including domestic violence, sexual assault, and human trafficking.

This is a violation of their human rights and can have a profound impact on their health and well-being. MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment

Child labor: Children are often forced to work in dangerous and exploitative conditions, in violation of their human rights.

This deprives them of their childhood and denies them the opportunity for education and personal development.

These are just a few of the many issues related to human rights that need to be addressed globally.

Addressing these issues requires the collective effort of governments, international organizations, civil society, and individuals to promote and protect human rights for all. MPS 2 Free Solved Assignment

MPS 01 FREE ASSIGNMENT 2022-23

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