IGNOU MPS 04 Free Solved Assignment 2022-23- Helpfirst

MPS 04

COMPARATIVE POLITICS: ISSUES AND TRENDS

MPS 04 Free Solved Assignment July 2022 & Jan 2023

MPS 04 Free Solved Assignment

SECTION-I

Q 1. Briefly describe the main approaches to nationalism

Ans. There are several approaches to nationalism, including:

Civic nationalism: This approach emphasizes the values and norms of a political community and the shared identity of its citizens, regardless of their ethnic background.

Ethnic nationalism: This approach asserts that the nation is based on common descent, language, culture, and history. MPS 04 Free Solved Assignment

Integral nationalism: This approach emphasizes a strong state that is responsible for preserving and promoting the nation’s cultural and political identity.

Left-wing nationalism: This approach combines elements of nationalism with leftist political ideologies such as socialism or communism.

Right-wing nationalism: This approach combines elements of nationalism with right-wing political ideologies such as conservatism or fascism.

National liberation nationalism: This approach focuses on the liberation and self-determination of oppressed national groups.

Global nationalism: This approach emphasizes the interconnectedness of nations and the importance of national identity in a globalized world.

Each approach to nationalism has its own unique characteristics, but they all share a common focus on the idea of the nation as a political and cultural entity.

Nationalism is a complex and multifaceted concept, and these approaches are not mutually exclusive, as many nationalist movements and ideologies incorporate elements of several different approaches. MPS 04 Free Solved Assignment

Q 2. Analyse the impact of regional integration on the state and its sovereignty.

Ans. Regional integration has both positive and negative impacts on the state and its sovereignty.

Positive impacts:

Enhanced economic cooperation: Integration can lead to increased trade and investment among member states, leading to economic growth and increased prosperity.

Increased political cooperation: Integration can facilitate cooperation on political and security issues, leading to greater stability and peace in the region.

Strengthened bargaining power: Integration can enhance the bargaining power of member states in international negotiations, as they can act collectively.

Negative impacts: MPS 04 Free Solved Assignment

Reduction of state sovereignty: Integration often requires the surrender of some elements of national sovereignty to supranational institutions, leading to a reduction in the power and autonomy of member states.

Conflicts between member states: Integration can lead to conflicts between member states over issues such as trade, immigration, and resource allocation.

Unequal distribution of benefits: Integration can result in unequal distribution of benefits among member states, leading to tensions and resentment.

In conclusion, regional integration has both positive and negative impacts on the state and its sovereignty. MPS 04 Free Solved Assignment

While integration can lead to increased economic and political cooperation, it also requires the surrender of some elements of national sovereignty and can result in conflicts and unequal distribution of benefits.

SECTION-II

Q 6. Write short notes on the following in about 250 words each:

a) Gramsci’s conception of civil society

Ans. Gramsci’s conception of civil society refers to the sphere of social life that is distinct from the state and the economic sphere.

According to Gramsci, civil society is the site of power struggles between dominant and subordinate groups, as well as a source of cultural and ideological formation.

He saw civil society as an arena where hegemonic ideas and practices are created, perpetuated, and challenged. MPS 04 Free Solved Assignment

Gramsci argued that civil society is not a neutral space, but rather one that is shaped by the interests and values of dominant groups.

He saw civil society as a crucial site for the struggle for hegemony, or the struggle for dominant ideas and practices to shape the values and beliefs of society.

He believed that those in power use institutions such as the media, education, and religion to maintain their dominance and shape the cultural and ideological outlook of society.

However, Gramsci also saw civil society as a site for resistance, where subordinated groups can challenge the dominant ideas and practices perpetuated by the ruling class. MPS 04 Free Solved Assignment

He emphasized the importance of civil society in creating a counter-hegemony, or an alternative set of values and practices that challenge the dominant ideologies.

Overall, Gramsci’s conception of civil society highlights the role of non-state actors and institutions in shaping the values and beliefs of society, and the importance of civil society as a site for both domination and resistance.

b) Marxist conception of political economy

Ans. The Marxist conception of political economy is a critical and historical analysis of capitalism as an economic system. MPS 04 Free Solved Assignment

According to Marxist theory, capitalism is characterized by the exploitation of the working class by the capitalist class, as capitalists own the means of production and extract surplus value from the labor of workers.

Marxists view political economy as the study of the relationships between the economic base (the means of production and the distribution of wealth) and the superstructure (the legal, political, and cultural institutions that shape society).

They argue that the economic base determines the superstructure, and that the dominant ideas and values in a society reflect the interests of the ruling class.

Marxists argue that capitalism is a historically specific form of society, marked by the emergence of the capitalist class and the commodification of labor and goods.

They see the system as inherently unstable, with periodic crises of overproduction and unemployment, and argue that the contradictions of capitalism will eventually lead to its downfall. MPS 04 Free Solved Assignment

Marxists believe that the end goal of the socialist revolution is the abolition of the capitalist system and the establishment of a socialist society, in which the means of production are owned and controlled by the working class.

In this society, the exploitation of labor and the production of surplus value will be abolished, and society will be organized based on the principles of equality, democracy, and cooperation.

In summary, the Marxist conception of political economy is a critical analysis of capitalism as an exploitative system, and a vision for a socialist alternative.

It emphasizes the relationships between the economic base and the superstructure and argues that the dominant ideas and values in a society reflect the interests of the ruling class. MPS 04 Free Solved Assignment

Q 7. Write short notes on the following in about 250 words each:

a) State building and nation building

Ans. State building refers to the process of creating and strengthening the institutions and structures of a centralized political authority, capable of exercising control over a defined territory and its population.

This includes the development of a legal and administrative system, a military, a police force, and other institutions that can enforce laws and regulations, and provide security and stability.

Nation building, on the other hand, refers to the process of promoting a common national identity and creating a sense of shared community among the people of a territory. MPS 04 Free Solved Assignment

This can include efforts to create a common language, culture, and history, as well as promoting civic values and political unity.

Both state building and nation building are important for creating a stable and functioning political entity, and are often interrelated.

A strong state is often necessary for promoting national unity, while a sense of national identity can help to support the legitimacy of the state.

However, state building and nation building can also be in tension with each other, as the promotion of national unity may require suppressing regional or ethnic identities, while the strengthening of the state may require limiting individual freedoms or suppressing dissent. MPS 04 Free Solved Assignment

In conclusion, state building refers to the process of creating and strengthening the institutions of a centralized political authority, while nation building refers to the process of promoting a common national identity and creating a sense of shared community.

Both processes are important for creating a stable and functioning political entity, but can also be in tension with each other.

b) Cultural deprivation as an inducement to ethnicity

Ans. Cultural deprivation refers to the idea that certain groups, usually from lower socio-economic backgrounds, are lacking in cultural and educational opportunities and experiences, which can result in a sense of cultural deprivation and social exclusion.

This idea can be an inducement to ethnicity in that individuals and communities may seek to reclaim their cultural heritage and identity as a way of overcoming their sense of cultural deprivation. MPS 04 Free Solved Assignment

Ethnic identities can serve as a source of pride, community, and belonging for individuals and communities that feel marginalized and excluded from mainstream society.

In some cases, cultural deprivation may also contribute to ethnic conflict, as groups may see their cultural and economic interests as being threatened by the dominant culture.

This can lead to competition for resources and political power, and to the assertion of ethnic identities as a means of resisting assimilation and preserving cultural heritage.

Q 10. Write short notes on the following in about 250 words each:

a) Relationship between parties and pressure groups

Ans. The relationship between political parties and pressure groups is complex and can vary depending on the context. MPS 04 Free Solved Assignment

In general, however, political parties and pressure groups are both actors in the political process, but they differ in terms of their structure, goals, and methods of influence.

Political parties are organized groups that compete for power through the election of their candidates to political office.

They have a hierarchical structure, a clear set of policies and goals, and seek to influence the government through the exercise of political power.

Pressure groups, on the other hand, are organizations that seek to influence the policymaking process, but do not compete for political power through elections.

They may have a more loosely structured membership, and focus on advocating for specific issues or policies, rather than having a broad set of policies and goals.

The relationship between political parties and pressure groups can be collaborative, competitive, or somewhere in between.

Pressure groups may provide political parties with information and resources, and may support or endorse political parties that share their goals and values.

Political parties, in turn, may incorporate the demands and perspectives of pressure groups into their platforms and policies. MPS 04 Free Solved Assignment

However, the relationship between political parties and pressure groups can also be competitive, as pressure groups may challenge the policies and positions of political parties, and political parties may resist the demands of pressure groups.

In conclusion, the relationship between political parties and pressure groups is complex and can vary depending on the context.

Political parties are organized groups that compete for political power through elections, while pressure groups are organizations that seek to influence the policymaking process without competing for political power.

The relationship between the two can be collaborative or competitive, depending on a variety of factors. MPS 04 Free Solved Assignment

b) Ecofeminism and its critics

Ans. Ecofeminism is a feminist perspective that sees the exploitation and degradation of the natural environment as being interconnected with the oppression of women and other marginalized groups.

Ecofeminists argue that the patriarchal and capitalist systems that have driven the degradation of the environment have also contributed to the oppression of women and other marginalized groups, and that these systems must be transformed in order to create a more just and sustainable world.

Critics of ecofeminism argue that the perspective oversimplifies the complex interconnections between environmental degradation, gender, and other forms of oppression. MPS 04 Free Solved Assignment

Some argue that ecofeminism oversimplifies the relationship between women and the environment by assuming a universal female experience, and ignoring the diversity of experiences and perspectives among women.

Others argue that ecofeminism can be exclusionary, as it may prioritize environmental concerns over other social and political struggles, and may neglect the needs and perspectives of marginalized groups other than women.

Critics have also raised concerns about the effectiveness of ecofeminism as a political strategy, arguing that it may be too idealistic, and may not be able to mobilize broad-based political support for environmental and social change.

In conclusion, ecofeminism is a feminist perspective that sees the exploitation and degradation of the environment as being interconnected with the oppression of women and other marginalized groups. MPS 04 Free Solved Assignment

Critics argue that ecofeminism oversimplifies the complex interconnections between environmental degradation, gender, and other forms of oppression, and may be exclusionary, idealistic, and ineffective as a political strategy.

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