INDIA: DEMOCRACY AND DEVELOPMENT
MPS 03 Free Solved Assignment
MPS 03 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022
Q. 1. Discuss how democracy and development are co-related to each other.
Ans. Towards Understanding of Democracy: Democracy has been defined government, of the people, by the people and for the people. As in indirect democracy governments are formed on the basis of votes, so will of majority prevails.
All over the world in democratic countries will of majority prevails and persons belonging to majority religion or sect or caste, creed or sex rule, but India is only country where safeguards, concessions and privileges have been provided to minorities, to weaker sections, to fair sex etc. and they rule and occupy highest offices as such India can be considered as a form of good governance that empowers the way of arriving at decisions among a group of individuals.
India lacks that virtue as corruption and inefficiency is rampant everywhere in every sphere of life and it also lacks unanimity, party in power uses all state machinery to curb opposition and topples opposition government of states by hook or crook and so riots, agitations, demonstrations and violence even in elected bodies is common.
Thus need of hour is that democracy should be understood in which both party in power and opposition should follow democratic norms and should act for welfare of all citizens.
DEMOCRACY AND DEVELOPMENT
Now this is an era of globalization, which means an upsurge of market economy with political democracy. MPS 03 Free Solved Assignment
India has made astonishing progress in this sphere and according to Indian ruling class and Indian newspapers it may become richest and most powerful country in near future leaving behind U.S.A. and China etc., in economic development.
India has achieved democracy and development in the post-colonial period and her economy is next to U.S.A and China.
As it is developing more rapidly than U.S.A. and China, so it may become richest country of the world.
It is believed that democracy is a form of good governance as in case of bad governance people exercise their power to change the government.
It is true for democratic countries like U.S.A., England, Canada and other countries but it is not true about India where votes are acquired through money, muscle and by dubious means and by booth capturing and on the basis of religion, caste and ethnicity etc.
Corruption, favouritism and nepotism etc., are prevailing, so people lack electricity and even water etc., corruption is prevailing even in judiciary, so 3 crore cases are pending.
Due to delay in cases, people are taking law in their own hands and terrorism is rising. As such democracy is a form of good governance and development where persons in power work for welfare of masses and for development of country.
Q. 2. Analyse the working of the federal system in India.
Ans. Characteristics of Indian Federalism The essence of Federal Union: Constitutional experts are of the opinion that India is not a Federal state. It is a unitary state or can be called a quasi-Federal state.MPS 03 Free Solved Assignment
1 After independence India was divided in A, B and C states. In 1956 whole structure was changed.
Later on lot of states have been created according to whim of the party in power at centre. In a country where states can be created or abolished at the whim of centre cannot be called a Federal state.
2 Governor is appointed by the centre and he acts according to wishes and dictation of party in power at centre because his appointment and tenure depends on the whim of persons in power.
Changes of State Governments has been followed by Congress and later on by Janta government, N.D.A. government and now it is being ruthlessly by U.P.A. government in centre. MPS 03 Free Solved Assignment
This continuous by frequent use of Article 356 to dismiss state governments has made Indian federalism useless.
3. In India all higher and important posts are filled by common All India service. During British rule most of the high posts were filled by English men and due to only about one thousand British officials it was called British rule,
now all higher posts are filled by ALL india services, so it is useless to call india as a Federal state as subordinate judicial officers are bound to obey the orders of their bosses.
4. There is centralized electoral machinery that manages election. It is said that Election Commissioners favoured Congress by all means in their power because like Governors, Election Commissioners and members of Election Commission are appointed by Central Government through President control planning of whole India.
In India, decisions of Supreme Court are binding in whole India. Not only this all the Judges of High Courts are appointed by Chief Justice of India in consultation with two other Supreme Court Judges.
In U.S.A. and in lot of other countries Judges are either elected by people or appointed by State authorities. MPS 03 Free Solved Assignment
Not only this during British rule there were only civil and criminal courts but now there are lot of Tribunals, Family Courts, Consumer Courts, Labour Courts, Municipal Courts, Taxation Courts of Income tax, Sales tax, Customs and Excise etc.,
who control every aspects of personal life and way of living through daily increasing central laws, so India cannot be considered a Federal state.
5 Financial dependence of States-Central Government possess enormous power of printing notes and of minting coins. Of most of the financial resources and of taxation have been given to centre.
Not only this Reserve Bank as well as the leading banks and financial institutions are under the control of Central Government so State Government have to depend on Central Government.
State Government are fully dependent on centre and through VAT Central government is trying to make state government fully dependent.
6 Central Government possesses full control over state laws through Governors who can disallow any law passed by state legislature or reserve it for approval of President.
7 In the educational field U.G.C., N.C.E.R.T., C.B.S.E. etc., have wiped out state control on education. MPS 03 Free Solved Assignment
8 Means of transport such as railway, and hospitals, health care and drug control etc., are with the Central Government.
9 Central Government can give any order or direction, and can send army to implement it or can dissmiss state Government’s so State Government power has became null and void.
10 President possess special powers welfare of Scheduled Tribes, backward classes and for minorities.
11 Similarly in case of calamities such as earth-quakes and riots etc. Central Government possesses full sovereign powers.
Finally, Central Government controls water, electricity, industrial development control over companies and share market etc.
SALIENT FEATURES OF INDIAN FEDERALISM
As India is quasi-Federal state, so it is useless to concoct arguments in favour of Federalism in India. Worst thing is that party in power in Central Government even if it does not possess majority at centre tries to impose its rule by hook or crook as is clear in 2005.
In centre Congress possesses 145 members and B.J.P. 138. but through Governor Sibte Razi tried to rule at Jharkhand in direct defiance of Constitution and succeeded through Governor Zamir in bringing downfall of ruling Government of Goa and imposed Governor Buta Singh’s rule in Bihar because
Lalu Prasad Yadav’s party lost election in Bihar. As Lalu Prasad Yadav is in Central Government so to please him, Bihar was under Governor Sardar Buta Singh’s Rule, who acted partially and had to quit due to unconstitutional.
WORKING OF FEDERAL SYSTEM
Planning Commission has become the economic Cabinet of the country as a whole The State Government have been dismissed by misuse of Article 356 more than 100 times.
VAT has crippled State Governments financially, so India has failed to maintain federal system with federal outlook. MPS 03 Free Solved Assignment
In concluding remarks it may be stated that India has failed to implement federalism. So there are violent conflicts in Manipur and Kashmir and N.E. States etc.
Government of India Act introduced federalism in India but Governor General i.e. Viceroy possessed very important imposing powers, so federalism did not succeed.
After 1947 Jawaharlal Nehru, Indira Gandhi and their dynasty imposed its rule.
They used Article 356 to topple state governments, so federalism remained a myth.
After this footsteps of Congress governments to topple State Governmets by article 356 were followed by Janta governments etc.
Now minority Congress government in power with the support of communists has used Article 356 to curb protest against railway accident to impose its rule in Gujarat like Goa and Bihar and Jharkhand. MPS 03 Free Solved Assignment
This has given much shock to Indian federalism, but federalism is still strong as in Gujarat, Jharkhand and Bihar, it emerged truimphant.
Q. 3. Discuss the significance of the 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendments in Indian democracy.
Ans. Constitutional Amendments: To make local self-government and Panchayati Raj system successful constitutional amendments and Rajiv Gandhi government introduced 64th Constitutional Amendment Bill in 1989.
THE 73rd AMENDMENT
After 1989, the Constitution 73rd Amendment Act of 1992 relating to village Panchayats and Municipalities in India was passed during the regime of Narsimha Rao government which defined Gram Sabha as a body consisting of persons registered in the electoral rolls relating to a village comprised within area of Panchyat at village level.
It stated that Panchayat means an institution of self-government constituted under Article 243B for rural areas.
In Article 243 A it was stated Gram Sabha may exercise such powers as legislature of state may be law provider.
The states of Punjab, Haryana and of Tamil Nadu gave power of approval of budget to Gram Sabha. MPS 03 Free Solved Assignment
The obligatory functions of Panchayat included maintenance of public wells, ponds, safe drinking water, dispensaries, schools and also development works like irrigation schemes, rural electrification, cottage and small industries and poverty alleviation programmes etc.
LIMITATION OF THE AMENDMENT
Greatest limitation on local self-government bodies is lack of finance, non-co-operation of bureaucracy and state governments, so they are unable to achieve targets and work efficiently.
THE 74th AMENDMENT
The 74th amendment provided three types of local self-governments for urban areas, Municipal Corporations for Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata, Allahabad, Kanpur, Lucknow and Patna etc.
Municipalities for other cities and Nagar Panchayats for town areas. Under Article 243ZF Committee for District Planning was provided to consolidate the plans prepared by Panchayats and Municipalities Article 2432FI provided continuance of existing laws of municipalities etc.
Some states provide a direct election of Mayors and some by elected councilor of Municipal Corporation.
municipalities elect chairman who possesses power of appointment of primary teachers etc., and carries on work with the help of executive officer and other employees Now houses connect pre-build without their permission.
Now municipalities and corporations have become most powerful as construction of roads, supply of water and electric etc. depend on them.
Indian government has conferred lot of power to local bodies such as District Boards, Municipal corporations, Municipal Committees and on village Panchayats, but these have not been successful due to lack of funds and non-co-operation of bureaucracy and political leaders and muscle power of mafia and terrorist organizations such as Naxalites, Maoists and People’s War Group (P.W.G.) etc.
The need of the hour is to lessen terrorists’ terror then to try for local self-government. Inspite of all hurdles local bodies have done very good work and the supply of water, electricity, construction of roads and houses, shops, etc., depends on them.
Q. 8. Discuss the Factors for the growth of regionalism in India.
Ans. Conceptualizing Region and Regionalism: The Indian Context: Idea of regionalism comes due to the distinctiveness of territory due to structure, history, language, culture, caste and community status and with hope of political and economic gain.
For regionalism after religion, language and geographical, historical, cultural, economic political-administrative, psychological factors and dominance of particular caste or community also count. MPS 03 Free Solved Assignment
Chhatisgarh and Jharkhand have been formed due to the domination of Adivasis whose leaders felt, they are being exploited by the leaders of Madhya Pradesh and Bihar.
REGIONALISM IN COLONIAL INDIA: HISTORICAL GENESIS
Regionalism came into existence as Burma was separated from India.
During British rule, Congress was the dominating party and another party Muslim League was a communal party so regionalism of political support still Dravida and Akali movements possessed a strong regional basis while the formation of Sindh and Orissa possessed regional, language, geographical, and historical and cultural basis, etc.
THE BASIS OF REGIONALISM:
THE 1950S- 1960S
In 1956, B was states abolished, and regional identities on the basis of economic, religion, language, tribal origin, etc., gained importance. These movements were supported by local leaders.
In the formation of Manipur, Meghalaya, Tripura and Arunachal Pradesh racially distinct Bodos, Meities, etc., and economic factors played a major role. For the formation of Goa and Pondichery history played a major role as Goa was under Portuguese rule upto 1962 and Pondichery was under French rule up to 1957.
Hindi was declared lingua franca of India but in India there are 22 languages, therefore, states opposed the imposition of Hindi. Consequently, Telugu speaking people opposed Tamil and formed Telugu-speaking Andhra. MPS 03 Free Solved Assignment
Karnatic formed Kannada-speaking state and Malayalam-speaking people formed Kerala, Punjabi-speaking people formed Punjab and Hindi-speaking people formed Haryana, Marathi-speaking people formed Maharastra and Gujarati-speaking people formed Gujarat.
Jharkhand and Chhatisgarh were formed due to identities based on tribal origin and Himachal Pradesh and Uttranchal due to being billy areas with a distinct culture and upper-class majority of Brahmins and of Kshatriyas.
RECENT GROWTH OF REGIONALISM
The factor of Economie Imbalance: After the abolition of feudalism and zamindari, rich landed peasantry gained importance and regional parties were formed to achieve economic gain, importance and identity, therefore, demands for formation of Telangana, Vidarbha, Saurashtra, Marathavada, of Harit Pradesh and of Bundelkhand etc., are gaining popularity and importance.
Q. 9. Explain the role of media in Indian democracy.
Ans. Media and Democracies: The press and politics have always been closely associated. The press became the vehicle to provide a theoretical base to political liberal, socialist and communist movements, so it has been given the status of the fourth estate.
The feudal system was overthrown to establish democracy on the basis of liberty, equality and fraternity.
Media has become the main vehicle of the ideological growth of liberal, socialist and communist democracies. MPS 03 Free Solved Assignment
In the U.S.A., it supports liberal democracy and in India secular and socialist democracy and in Pakistan Islamic rule is based on military dictatorship.
Thus, Media has become the main vehicle of ideological growth of democracy and communicates with the people on behalf of the authorities.
With the help of Media, those who enjoy power always claim that they are forming the government of the people, by the people, and for the people.
NEW MEDIA TECHNOLOGIES AND DEMOCRACY
Due to the development of technologies, computers and the internet also play an important part along with press in a democracy to mold public opinion and influence public policy and democratic setup..
In democratic set-up media through limited and partial news and views molds and forms public opinion. Press is the main vehicle to do this, so it has been called the fourth estate.
Press is a medium of supplying news, views, and entertainment. Media is so powerful that due to the support of Media D.T.C. possesses the greatest number of C.N.G. buses in the world. MPS 03 Free Solved Assignment
Delhi is the only place in the world where only C.N.G. vehicles are allowed while all over the world people possess the right to use petrol, diesel or C.N.G. for this vehicle.
Exclusive preference to C.N.G. has been achieved only in Delhi due to the support of the Media. A new bill giving the right of information to the public has been passed in May 2005, to support the media.
Demolition of buildings was achieved in Delhi as the media supported it. Advocates strike failed as media opposed it, S.B.I. bank strike succeeded as media supported it.
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