IGNOU MPS 01 Free Solved Assignment 2021-22-Help first

MPS 01

POLITICAL THEORY

MPS 01 Free Solved Assignment 2021 July and 2022 Jan session

MPS 01 Free Solved Assignment

SECTION – 1

Q. 1. Write a note on modern political theory.

Ans. Modern Political Theory: Modern Political Theory consists of an array of trends, streams of thoughts and schools of thought such as positivistic, empiricism, structural-functional.

Behavioural and post-Behaviouralism and other related theories. Modern political theory has been the most dominant theory of the 20th century.

The modern political theories may be categorized in mainly two streams: Liberal, including, individualistic, liberalism and pluralism, and Marxist including idealist, collectivist and socialist and E-Learning MPS 01 Free Solved Assignment

The modern theory, particularly the liberal one, has its roots in the 15th and 16th centuries.

Since then it has manifested in many forms and different streams such as positivist, structural, individualism, empirical-Behavioural and post-Behaviouralism.

The modern political theory is really modern in the true sense of the term as it is based on objectivity, scientific analysis, and process-oriented; it concentrates more on present realities and it is more humane and human behaviour-oriented.

It has many features, which can be enumerated as follows:

Firstly, it considers the facts and data as the basis of the study. The facts are first gathered, studied, explained and tested and verified.

Secondly, it believes that human behaviour can be put to the study and analysis. The regularities and the trends may be generalized, and a verifiable and testable theory can be built.

Thirdly, it is based on the objective study of the facts and trends. Subjectivity does not find any favour with modern theorists in general and those Behaviourist and post-Behaviourist in particular. MPS 01 Free Solved Assignment

It puts more emphasis on analytical explanation of the political phenomenon rather than that of philosophical thinking; it is processed or procedure-oriented.

It prefers observation to the descriptive method of the study and scientific to the normative one.

Fourthly, facts and values are never mixed, these two are viewed and treated as a separate entities.

However, the help of the values are taken into consideration to elucidate the facts. Its methodology is experimental, quantitative and empirical.

Moreover, it puts emphasis on interdisciplinary study and borrowing the tools and techniques of the natural sciences. In addition, the modern political theory puts greater emphasis on ‘What is rather than on ‘What should or ought to be!

MPS 01 Free Solved Assignment
MPS 01 Free Solved Assignment

Q. 2. Configure John Rawls’ theory of justice.

Ans. Rawls’s Liberal-Egalitarian Principles of Social Justice: Rawls’s theory of justice is based on the correction of the liberal-utilitarian principles of the greatest happiness of the greatest number of people. MPS 01 Free Solved Assignment

Differing from this principle, Rawl maintains that the liberal-utilitarian view of justice is morally wrong.

He appreciates their contribution to justice, it justifies the sacrifice of the good of some of the individuals for the happiness of the greatest number.

Rawl criticizes the utilitarian for their neglect to the welfare and justice for each member of the society for the aggregate sum of the utility and happiness.

It is more concerned about the happiness of the aggregate or the whole as against the each and every member of the society.

Rawl views it as morally flawed and provides an alternative to utilitarianism. His view of justice is inspired by the Kantian Moral Idea of equality of every man and freedom.

Kant opines that all men are equal because they enjoy the same capacity to be moral and formulate moral laws. Hence, everyone should have equality in every possible respect, and all men are equal, they should be treated equally.

As Rawls has maintained that justice is the first virtue of society, and it should always take priority over other good. MPS 01 Free Solved Assignment

It is nothing but the welfare in another sense Rawls put forward the theory of justice, which is in harmony with the needs and requirements of the welfare state.

As he has aptly commented: “If law and Government act effectively to keep the market competitive, resources fully employed, proper and wealth widely distributed over time and to maintain the appropriate social minimum, then if there is equality of opportunity underwritten by education to all, the resulting distribution will be just.”

Rawls stands for the privileges and inequalities, not for the maximisation of the social good as is the case with the utilitarian.

He champions the privileges and inequalities and positive discrimination for the improvement of the least advantaged and downtrodden people.

As he maintains that Social and economic policies be aimed at maximizing the long-term expectations of the least advantaged under conations of fair equality and opportunity.’

Rawls justified the welfare state on the ground of distributive justice. It harmonizes the relations between the state and the market. MPS 01 Free Solved Assignment

As a free-market economy results in the concentration of wealth and inequality, which undermines individual freedom and liberty, it must be regulated by the state.

It gives importance to the individuals and does not allow the market forces to undermine his individuality. If the market forces narrow down these choices, it is the duty of the welfare state to do away with factors.

The welfare state is that it increases individual liberty. The welfare state has to act as catalyst of socio-economic change in society.

It has only distributed the national wealth and resources, but also to provide services and goods to the society.

The welfare state, with its interventionist ideology to attain the maximum welfare of the people, is based on the foundations of equality.

Citizenship is one of the foundations of the welfare state. If it strengthens this foundation, it benefits itself as well as enriches citizenship.MPS 01 Free Solved Assignment

But the welfare state has failed to deliver the desired result. The all problems of the society, for which the welfare state was conceived-inequality, poverty, injustice, hunger and depredation, the concentration of wealth, etc. are far from being resolved.

Some thinkers like Barry maintain that integration of the welfare theory with the philosophy welfare state is an intellectual error.

This is so proper attention was not given to appropriate institutional mechanism, which resolves these burning issues of humanity.

This concept of state activities takes its inspiration from his concept of distributive justice.

He maintains that conditions for the success of this model is to ensure equal opportunities to all.

The state must provide and ensure equal opportunity. It insists that state should make investments in public health, education and other socio-economic infrastructures.

Thus, Rawls’ concept of justice is based on the main three main tenets: Principle of Fairness, Protective Discrimination and Social Justice.MPS 01 Free Solved Assignment

Q4. Discuss the Marxist view of state.

Ans. The Marxian Concept: The Marxian concept of the state reflects the class bias as existing in any society.

According to Marxism, the prevailing method and mode of production determine the nature and function of the state or any institution in society.

This prevailing method and mode of production has been creating the vertical division in human society.

Right from the agricultural to the industrial mode of production, there have been two classes -haves and haves-not or the exploiter and exploited or dominant and dominated.

These two classes have been in direct conflict with each other, resulting in the division in society.MPS 01 Free Solved Assignment

And the state, in Marxian concept, is related to this division or class antagonism. It is not an independent institution but rooted in the economic structure of the society. The existing mode of production like capitalism, neoimperialism determines its character.

And the state represents the interest of the dominant class of society. While in Feudalism it served the interests of the feudal class, in capitalism it served the purpose and interests of the capitalist class.

The Marxist concept of state is based on two sets of factors for analysing the nature and function of the state. One is general and the other is specific.

The general factor is that the state is an institution determined by the existing classes or class antagonism prevailing in a society.

And the state is an instrument of class domination, implying that the dominant class uses it for domination or exploitation of dominated class. The specific point is that every state evolves through a historical process, giving it a specific character.

Thus, the Marxian concept of the state is based on assumption that the state is created by the class struggle. MPS 01 Free Solved Assignment

It represents the interests of the dominant class and is an instrument of domination and exploitation. State most often not take the side of the dominant class.

Power is the basis of the state. It used brute and naked force to suppress the exploited, causing misery and penury in society.

Finally, the class antagonism between haves and haves-not would reach to such a stage when the state would cease to exist or wither away. It would establish the dictatorship of the Proletariat or working class.

The prevailing economic situation is not the only factor that influences the nature and function of the state. There are other factors as well.

The state instead of withering away has become more powerful. And it not only represents the interest of the dominant class, but that of dominated as well.

Moreover, the modern state has turned into a welfare state, doing out welfare measures to the working class or exploited class. The situation of working-class has improved.

MPS 01 Free Solved Assignment
MPS 01 Free Solved Assignment

Q. 6. (a) Fascist World view

Ans. The Fascist World View Core Ideas Irrationalism: Thus, Fascism stands for dictatorship or totalitarian state. Totalitarianism, as the very name implies, is based on complete and total restrictions. MPS 01 Free Solved Assignment

It puts more severe restrictions on individual rights and activities. It is generally guided and directed by an ideology that aims at the total and drastic reorganization of society.
The term ‘dictatorship’ is also used in the same sense.

But dictatorship is generally called one man-rule. Or a head of state assumes extra-constitutional powers.

As Alfred Cobban has said: “Dictatorship is the Government of one man who has not obtained his position by inheritance but by force or consent or a combination of both.

He possesses absolute sovereignty which is exercised in an arbitrary manner.”

As B.B. Majmudar rightly maintains that Fascism is a totalitarian state, which claims “Individuals are not an end in themselves.

The state alone is an end in itself. It is in and through the state that individuals can find fullness of their life and the full freedom.” MPS 01 Free Solved Assignment

The individual is nothing but just a cell in the organism of the state. This implies that individuals are expendable for the whole state.

Limited The state is a living organism, having the spiritual and moral facts in itself. It is one and same as the nationalism. The individuals are nothing but a in the wheel.

As Mussolini declared: The Italian Nation, is an organism with
purposes, a life and means of action transcending in power and duration, those individuals singly or grouped, which compose it.

It is a moral, political and economic unity, which realizes itself in the Fascist state.

The Fascist state guides the society, culture and the people. The society is organized in a strict hierarchical order wherein the leader or party is at the top.

Only their writ runs, irrespective the will of the people. Strong emphasis is placed on command, obedience, order and loyalties. MPS 01 Free Solved Assignment

(b) Gender-sex distinction

Ans. Sex is to Nature as Gender is to Culture
The feminist theory, among other things, has led to making a distinction between sex and gender.

While sex refers to the biological difference between men and women, the gender is the cultural manifestation of sex. MPS 01 Free Solved Assignment

For the feminist, this distinction is vital as the subjugation of the women is justified on the biological difference between males and females.

This has been the main ground on which women subjugation has been institutionalized in society. Hence, the first task before the feminist theory was to challenge this ground.

Masculinity, femininity and cultural difference

The leading feminist anthropologists like Margaret Mead have proved that the meaning of masculinity and femininity varies across cultures and different societies.

There is no universal standard for considering masculine what is considered feminine in all cultures and societies.

Hence, the feminists argue that biological determinism or the biological differences between males and females do not share a correlation between what is considered masculine and what is considered feminine.MPS 01 Free Solved Assignment

They further argue whatever differences exist between males and females are outcomes of gender-specific rearing of boys and girls from early childhood.

Any deviation is punished by society so that these differences can be perpetuated. That is why Simone de Beauvoir has said, ‘one is not born, but becomes, a woman’.

Sexual Division of labour and workplace

The sexual division is not limited to the home alone, it is prevalent in the workplace as well. This has nothing to do with the biological differences (sex), this segregation emanates from the cultural differences. Ideological Assumptions behind the sexual division of labour

This sexual division at home and the workplace is based on some ideological assumptions. This division does not emanate from biological differences, it has roots in ideological assumptions.

Q. 7. (a) Civil Disobedience

Ans. The concept of civil disobedience has become a well-established political theory in the modern world. MPS 01 Free Solved Assignment

It is regarded as a vital element of the power structure as prevalent in modern times. However, the most ardent propounder of the theory of civil disobedience has been Gandhiji, Martin Luther King and Tolstoy among others.

Underlining the significance of civil disobedience and Satyagrah as enunciated by Gandhism, Dr Daisaku Ikeda has said that “As we approach the end of the century of unprecedented wars and violence, we seek as our common goal the creation of a world without wars.”

The concept of civil disobedience found mentioned in the essay of Henry David Thoreau.

Though it has some or other manifestation in the thoughts and theories of all dominant streams of political thinking, ranging from Aristotle to the present day, it was elaborated by Gandhiji and Martin Luther King in modern times.

It is these two who translated the ideas and the principles of civil disobedience in reality. The concept of civil disobedience is based on the justice and common good.

The history of the concept of civil disobedience is traceable to ancient Greek thinking, Socrates, early Christian thinking and another ancient stream of thinking.

Later on, it was elaborated by Thoreau, who provided the libertarian concept of civil disobedience, Jeremy Bentham who maintained that citizens have the right to enter into measures of resistance as a matter of duty as well as interest’ and Thomas Aquinas who considered unjust laws as ‘acts of violence rather than laws.

However, it was the anarchist who maintained that man’s social self could be realized through civil disobedience. MPS 01 Free Solved Assignment

The theory of civil disobedience found another votary in modern existential philosophy.

Existentialism and its theme of alienation as enunciated by Sartre and Albert Camus have contributed to civil disobedience by believing that there is no valid basis for any moral or political authority’s claim authority and legitimacy.

(b) Weakest link of the Chain (V. I. Lenin)

Ans. Weakest Link of Chain: Marx has not formulated the detailed plans and strategy for the creation of a socialist state.

He has presented only some sketchy details and details of the state and society in a socialist state. Lenin provided a detailed strategy and plan for the establishment of the socialist revolution and its sustenance.

In his works on State and Revolution, he has dealt with the stately and plans for creating a socialist state in Russia. MPS 01 Free Solved Assignment

The Bolshevik Revolution in Russia in 1917 threw new challenges for Lenin. He had to reconcile the revolution in the under-developed country of Tsarist Russia with the Marxian concept of Revolution.

Hence, he had put forward the theory of the ‘Weakest Link of Chain’. He maintained that revolution would not first occur, as Marx had predicted, in the countries where capitalism was at an advanced stage.

It would first happen in a country where capitalism is in the lower stage of its development, where the bourgeoisie is not strong.

These countries constitute the weakest link of the imperialist chain and could be fit for the socialist proletariat revolution.

This would lead to the chain of socialist revolutions in other countries, and then may take up the countries where capitalism is at a higher stage, and the bourgeois is strong.

Lenin also differed from the Marxian concept of the withering of the state at the socialist stage of the revolution, Lenin believed that the state and its coercive apparatus would be needed in dealing with thratus would be needed in dealing with the reactionary and counter-revolutionary forces. MPS 01 Free Solved Assignment

The withering away of state would render the budding revolution vulnerable to the gimmick of the counterrevolutionary and reactionary forces.

Moreover, the socialist system would have to accept the reality of the co-existence of private and public capital until it becomes strong enough to take over the task of the socialist reconstruction.

Only then there might arise some possibility of the withering of the state.

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