IGNOU MPCE 13 Free Solved Assignment 2022- Helpfirst

MPCE 13

PSYCHOTHERAPEUTIC METHODS

MPCE 13 Free Solved Assignment

MPCE 13 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022

SECTION – A

Q1. Discuss the attachment based interventions for children.

Ans:- Attachment theory has become a major scientific theory of socio emotional development with one of the broadest, deepest research lines in modern psychology, attachment theory has, until recently, been less clinically applied than theories with far less empirical support.

This may be partly due to lack of attention paid to clinical application by Bowlby himself and partly due to broader meanings of the word ‘attachment’ used amongst practitioners.

It may also be partly due to the mistaken association of attachment theory with attachment therapy, also known as “holding therapy’, a group of unvalidated therapies characterised by forced restraint of children in order to make them relive attachment related anxieties; a practice considered incompatible with attachment theory and its emphasis on ‘secure base’.

The approaches mentioned below are examples of recent clinical applications of attachment theory by mainstream attachment theorists and clinicians and are aimed at infants or children who have developed or are at risk of developing less desirable, insecure attachment styles or an attachment disorder.

1) Dyadic Developmental Psychotherapy: – Dyadic developmental psychotherapy is an evidence-based treatment approach for the treatment of attachment disorder, Complex Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, and reactive attachment disorder.

It was originally developed by psychologist Dr. Daniel Hughes, as an intervention for children whose emotional distress resulted from earlier separation from familiar caregivers.

Hughes developed Dyadic developmental psychotherapy with the express intention of developing a therapy removed from the coercive practices of attachment therapy.

Hughes cites attachment theory and particularly the work of John Bowlby as the theoretical basis for dyadic developmental psychotherapy.MPCE 13 Free Solved Assignment

Other sources for this approach include the work of Stern, who referred to the Attunment of Parents to infants’ communication of emotion and needs, and of Tronick, who discussed the process of communicative mismatch and repair, in which parent and infant make repeated efforts until communication is successful.

Children who have experienced pervasive and extensive trauma, neglect, loss, and/or other dysregulating experiences may benefit from this treatment.

The basic principles of Dyadic Developmental Psychotherapy are

1) Safety

2) Self-regulation

3) Self-reflective information processing

4) Traumatic experiences integration

5) Relational engagement and

6) Positive affect enhancement

Dyadic developmental therapy principally involves creating a “playful, accepting, curious, and empathic” environment in which the therapist attunes to the child’s “subjective experiences” and reflects this back to the child by means of eye contact,

facial expressions, gestures and movements, voice tone, timing and touch, “co-regulates” emotional affect and “co-constructs” an alternative autobiographical narrative with the child. MPCE 13 Free Solved Assignment

Dyadic developmental psychotherapy also makes use of cognitive behavioural strategies.

MPCE 13 Free Solved Assignment
MPCE 13 Free Solved Assignment

Q2. Explain family therapy and describe the various models of family therapy.

Ans:- Family therapy refers to the joint treatment of two or more members of the same family in order to change unhealthy patterns of communication and interaction.

Family therapy is generally initiated because of psychological or emotional problems experienced by a single family member, often a child or adolescent.

These problems are treated as symptomatic of dysfunction within the family system as a whole.

The therapist focuses on the interaction between family members, analysing the role played by each member in maintaining the system Family therapy can be especially helpful for dealing with problems that develop in response to a particular event or situation, such as divorce or remarriage, or the birth of a new sibling.

It can also be an effective means to draw individuals who feel threatened by individual therapy into a therapeutic setting.MPCE 13 Free Solved Assignment

There are many models of family therapy and these are presented in the table below.

Theoretical Model :

. Adlerian Family Therapy
. Attachment Theory

. Bowenian Family Systems
. Cognitive Behavioural Family Therapy

. Collaborative Language Systems
. Communica-tions Approaches

Theorists :

. Alfred Adler
. John Bowlby, Mary Mary Ainsworth

. Murray Bowen, Betty Carter, Philip Guerin, Michael Kerr, Thomas Fogarty,Monica McGoldrick, Edwin Friedman, Daniel Papero
. John Gottman,Albert Ellis,Albert Bandura

. Harry Goolishian, Harlene Anderson, Tom Andersen, Lynn Hoffman,Peggy Penn,
. Virginia Satir,John Banmen,Jane Gerber,Maria Gomori

Summary :

. Also known as “Individual Psychology” Sees the person as a whole. Ideas include compensation for feelings of inferiority leading to striving for significance toward a fictional final goal with a private logic. MPCE 13 Free Solved Assignment

Birth order and mistaken goals are explored to examine mistaken motivations of children and adults in the family constellation.

. Individuals are shaped by their experiences with caregivers in the first three years of life. Used as a foundation for Object Relations Theory.

The Strange Situation experiment with infants involves a systematic process of leaving a child alone in a room in order to assess the quality of their parental bond.

. Also known as “Intergenerational Family Therapy” (although there are also other Therapy” (althoug schools of intergenerational family therapy).

Family members are driven to achieve a balance of internal and external differentiation, causing anxiety, triangulation, and emotional cut-off.

Families are affected by nuclear family emotional processes, sibling positions and multigenerational transmission patterns resulting in an undifferentiated family ego mass.

. Problems are the result of operant conditioning that reinforces negative behaviours within the family’s interpersonal social exchanges that extinguish desired behaviour and promote incentives toward unwanted behaviours.

This can lead to irrational beliefs and a faulty family schema.

. Individuals form meanings about their experiences within the context of social relationship on a personal and organisational level. MPCE 13 Free Solved Assignment

Collaborative therapists help families reorganise and dissolve their perceived problems through a transparent dialogue about inner thoughts with a “not knowing” stance intended to elicit new meaning through conversation.

Collaborative therapy is an approach that avoids a particular theoretical perspective in favour of a client-centered philosophical process.

. All people are born into a primary survival triad between themselves and their parents where they adopt survival stances to protect their self-worth from threats communicated by words and behaviours of their Family members.

Experiential therapists are interested in altering the overt and covert messages between family members that affect their body, mind and feelings in order to promote congruence and to validate each person’s inherent self-worth

Techniques :

. Psychoanalysis, Typical Day, Reorienting Re-educating
. Psychoanalysis, Play Therapy MPCE 13 Free Solved Assignment

. Detriangulation Nonanxious Presence Genograms, Coaching
. Therapeutic Contracts Modelling Systematic Desensitisation Shaping, Charting, Examining Irrational Beliefs

. Dialogical Conversation, Not Knowing, Curiosity, Being Public, Reflecting Teams
. Equality, Modeling Communication,Family Life Chronology,family Sculpting, Metaphors, Family Reconstruction

MPCE 13 Free Solved Assignment
MPCE 13 Free Solved Assignment

Q3. Explain the application of cognitive behavior therapy in children.

Ans:- CBT has been successfully used to help people with a range of clinical and nonclinical problems, using a variety of modalities. Typical clinical applications include:

• Depression

• Anxiety disorders, including obsessive compulsive disorder, agoraphobia, specific phobias, generalised anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, etc.

• Eating disorders

• Addictions

• Hypochondriasis

• Sexual dysfunction

• Anger management

• Impulse control disorders MPCE 13 Free Solved Assignment

• Antisocial behaviour

• Jealousy

• Sexual abuse recovery

• Personality disorders

• Adjustment to chronic health problem, physical disability, or mental disorder

Aaron Beck is considered to be the father of Cognitive Therapy, and his focus was initially on targeted treatment of depression.

He thought that in depression there is a distortion of thoughts that is mainly focused on the negative perception of themselves, negative interpretation of the environment and the negative expectations in the future [1].

High efficacy of Cognitive Bihevioral Therapy is demostrated in the treatment of depression, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depressive and anxiety disorders in children.

Generally, Meltzoff & Kornreich [2] found 80% of positive outcome after psychotherapy (80% of behavioral therapy, and 70% of psychodynamic and phenomenological approach) while about 75% of patients progression is observed in the treatment (regardless of therapy approach), compared to patients outside the treatment.

According to more recent meta-analyzes of Clark [3], 74-94% of patients diagnosed with panic disorders, noticed improvement, while Tolin [4] in a meta-analysis of 21 studies of anxiety and depressive disorders found slightly to moderately better outcomes of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in comparison to other forms of treatment and taken the conclusion that the effects of psychotherapy is visible after 6-8 sessions in 50% of clients,

while 75% showed improvement up to 26 sessions. Range effects have been confirmed in the treatment of partner problems, anger control, child physical disorders, chronic pain, obsessive-compulsive disorder and bulimia nervosa.

American Psychiatric Association in recommendations for treatment suggests use of cognitive-behavioral techniques in 80% of a variety of disorders,

which represents the most recommended psychotherapeutic approach [5]. Although it is often disputed that this approach ignores the therapeutic relationship, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy is well accepted among patients, MPCE 13 Free Solved Assignment

it is seeking to establish cooperative relations based on trust and consensus on issues on which we want to work on,

it questions the patient’s expectations and set goals. Patient is taught to work actively during therapy, and after therapy, in order to become independent and to prevent recurrence of symptoms.

SECTION – B

Q4. Differentiate between Id, Ego and Superego.

Ans:- The Ego’s job was to satisfy the Id’s impulses, not offend the moralistic character of the Superego, while still taking into consideration the reality of the situation.

We also stated that this was not an easy job. Think of the Id as the devil on your shoulder and the Superego as the ‘angel of your shoulder.’

We don’t want either one to get too strong so we talk to both of them, hear their perspective and then make a decision. This decision is the Ego talking, the one looking for that healthy balance.

Before we can talk more about this, we need to understand what drives the Id, Ego, and Superego.

According to Freud, we only have two drives; sex and aggression. In other words, everything we do is motivated by one of these two drives.

Sex, also called Eros or the Life force, represents our drive to live, prosper, and produce offspring. MPCE 13 Free Solved Assignment

Aggression, also called Thanatos or our Death force, represents our need to stay alive and stave off threats to our Death force, represents our need to stay alive and stave off threats to our existence, our power, and our prosperity.

Now the Ego has a difficult time satisfying both the id and the superego, but it doesn’t have to do so without help.

The ego has some tools it can use in its job as the mediator; tools that help defend the ego. These are called Ego Defense Mechanisms or Defences

Q5. Explain Freud’s psychosexual stages and their implications for development.

Ans:- Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) is probably the most well known theorist when it comes to the development of personality.

Freud’s Stages of Psychosexual Development are, like other stage theories, completed in a predetermined sequence and can result in either successful completion or a healthy personality or can result in failure, leading to an unhealthy personality.

This theory is probably the most well known as well as the most controversial, as Freud believed that we develop through stages based upon a particular erogenous zone.

During each stage, an unsuccessful completion means that a child becomes fixated on that particular erogenous zone and either over- or under-indulges once he or she becomes an adult. MPCE 13 Free Solved Assignment

Oral Stage (Birth to 18 months): During the oral stage, the child is focused on oral pleasures (sucking).

Too much or too little gratification can result in an Oral Fixation or Oral Personality which is evidenced by a preoccupation with oral activities.

This type of personality may have a stronger tendency to smoke, drink alcohol, over eat, or bite his or her nails.

Personality wise, these individuals may become overly dependent upon others, gullible, and perpetual followers.

On the other hand, they may also fight these urges and develop pessimism and aggression toward others.

Anal Stage (18 months to three years): The child’s focus of pleasure in this stage is on eliminating and retaining faeces. Through society’s pressure, mainly via parents, the child has to learn to control anal stimulation.

In terms of personality, after effects of an anal fixation during this stage can result in an obsession with cleanliness, perfection, and control (anal retentive).

On the opposite end of the spectrum, they may become messy and disorganised (anal expulsive). MPCE 13 Free Solved Assignment

Phallic Stage (ages three to six): The pleasure zone switches to the genitals.
Freud believed that during this stage boys develop unconscious sexual desires for their mother.

Because of this, he becomes rivals with his father and sees him as competition for the mother’s affection.

During this time, boys also develop a fear that their father will punish them for these feelings, such as by castrating them.

This group of feelings is known as Oedipus complex (after the Greek Mythology figure, who accidentally killed his father and married his mother).

Q6. Explain Jung’s Analytical psychology.

Ans:- Carl Gustav Jung (1887-1961) was one of the close associates of Sigmund Freud who decided to branch out on his own. He defined analytical psychology, which is a mixture of Freudian and humanistic psychology.

Jung believed that the role of the unconscious was very important in human behaviour. In addition to our unconscious, Jung said there is a collective unconscious as well,

which acts as a storage area for all the experiences that all people have had over the centuries. MPCE 13 Free Solved Assignment

He also stated that the collective unconscious contains positive and creative forces rather than sexual and aggressive ones, as Freud argued.

Carl Jung believed that all persons have masculine and feminine traits that can be blended within a person and opined that the spiritual and religious needs of humans are just as important as the libidinal, or physical, sexual needs.

Analytical psychology organises personality types into groups such as the “extroverted,” or acting out, and “introverted,” or turning oneself inward.

These are Jungian terms used to describe personality traits. Developing a purpose, decision making, and setting goals are other components of Jung’s theory.

While Freud believed that a person’s current and future based on experiences of the past, Jungian theorists often focus on dreams, fantasies, and other things that come from or involve the unconscious. MPCE 13 Free Solved Assignment

Jungian therapy, therefore focuses on an analysis of the patient’s unconscious processes so that the patient can ultimately integrate them into conscious thought and deal with them. Much of the Jungian technique is based on bringing the unconscious into the conscious.

In explaining personality, Jung said that there are three levels of consciousness, viz.,

i) the conscious,
ii) the personal unconscious, and
iii) the collective unconscious.

The conscious is the only level of which a person is directly aware. This awareness begins right at birth and continues throughout a person’s life.

At one point, the conscious experiences a stage called individuation, in which the person strives, to be different from others and assert himself as an individual.

The goal of individuation is to know oneself wholly and completely. This is accomplished, in part, by bringing unconscious material to the conscious.

Q7. Describe the techniques of IP therapy given by Klerman and Weissman.

Ans:- Klerman and Weissman describe the following techniques as applicable (though not unique) to IPT. MPCE 13 Free Solved Assignment

Directive and non-directive exploration: At the beginning of sessions, non directive techniques are used to gather information.

Ask open ended questions and use verbal and non verbal communication to encourage the person to continue what he or she is saying.

Therapist may repeat what the person has just said or refer back to something said earlier. Later in the session, he/she may need to use more directive techniques.

For example, therapist might use closed questions to clarify the details of an interpersonal dispute.

Clarification: Therapist might ask a man to repeat what he just said, or paraphrase his statement and check if that is what he meant.

Therapist may wish to clarify how a person felt— ‘You felt very frustrated?’ Point out the logical consequences of what the person has said.

He might draw attention to apparent contradictions to clarify what the person means or feels—’It is interesting that in the last session you said you had never enjoyed his company, but today you say you did have a good time together last weekend.’

Cognitive techniques are used to identify and challenge irrational automatic thoughts and underlying assumptions. MPCE 13 Free Solved Assignment

Encourage the expression of affect: Some patients will benefit from being encouraged to acknowledge and experience negative affects such as guilt, shame or anger, especially in grief work. Promote a detailed discussion of the relationship in question.

Ask directly how the person feels. Remind him or her that certain negative feelings are normal, that is *Anybody would feel angry if they were treated like that’.

People are sometimes afraid to acknowledge unwanted feelings and impulses for fear that they might act upon them. Reassure them about the difference between feeling and acting.

Other patients may need to be taught more effective ways of controlling their moods and impulses.

It is sometimes best for the person to avoid situations that arouse painful affect. Conflict is often more effectively resolved after both parties first take some time to calm down and get their feelings under control. MPCE 13 Free Solved Assignment

Help the person to identify the thoughts that accompany a negative affect. Then use structured problem solving to deal with the underlying stressors.

Help patients to identify and question irrational thoughts they have when they feel anxious or depressed.

Q8. Explain the seven inferential distortions of Beck.

Ans:- In everyday life, events and circumstances trigger off two levels of thinking: inferring and evaluating.

At the first level, we make guesses or inferences about what is going on – what we think has happened, is happening, or will be happening.

Inferences are statements of ‘fact’ (or at least what we think are the facts – they can be true or false). Inferences that are irrational usually consist of ‘distortions of reality’ like the following:

1) Black and white thinking: This refers to seeing things in extremes, with no middle ground that is either good or bad, perfect versus useless, success or failure, right against wrong, moral versus immoral, and so on. This is also known as all ornothing thinking.

2) Filtering: This refers to seeing all that is wrong with oneself or the world, while ignoring any positives. MPCE 13 Free Solved Assignment

3) Over-generalisation: This refers to building up one thing about oneself or one’s circumstances and ending up thinking that it represents the whole situation.

For example: ‘Everything’s going wrong’, ‘Because of this mistake, I’m a total failure’. Or, s believing that something which has happened once or twice is happening all the time,

or that it will be a neverending pattern: “I’ll always be a failure’, ‘No-one will ever want to love me’, and the like.

4) Mind-reading: This involves making guesses about what other people are thinking, such as: ‘She ignored me on purpose’, or ‘He’s mad with me’.

MPCE 13 Free Solved Assignment
MPCE 13 Free Solved Assignment

SECTION – C

Q9. Treatment principles of Solution focused therapy

Ans:- The goals of the therapy are the goals which clients bring with them, providing they are ethical and legal. The counselor’s role is to help clients to begin to move or continue to move in the direction they want.

They do this by helping:

• to identify and utilise to the full the strengths and competencies which the client brings with him; MPCE 13 Free Solved Assignment

• to enable the client to recognise and build upon exceptions to the problem, that is, those times when the client is already doing (thinking, feeling) something which is reducing or eliminating the impact of the problem;

Q10. Double-standard dispute as a CBT technique

Ans:- If the client is holding a ‘should’ or is self-downing about their behaviour, ask whether they would globally rate another person (e.g. best friend, therapist, etc.) for doing the same thing, or recommend that person hold their demanding core belief.

When they say ‘No’, help them see that they are holding a double standard This is especially useful with resistant beliefs which the client finds hard to give up.

Q11. Group therapy vs. Individual therapy

Ans:- Group therapy is different from individual therapy in a number of ways, with the most obvious difference being the number of people in the room with the psychologist.

Originally,Group therapy was used as a cost-saving measure, in institutional settings where many people needed psychological treatment and there were too few psychologists to provide the treatment. MPCE 13 Free Solved Assignment

However, in conducting research on the effectiveness of these therapy groups, psychologists discovered that the group experience benefited people in many ways that were not always addressed in individual psychotherapy.

Likewise, it was also discovered that some people did not benefit from group therapy.

Q12. In groups and Out groups

Ans:- These groups can be based on almost any criteria such as socioeconomic status, athletic or artistic accomplishments, a particular ability, etc.

In-groups are characterised by associations largely limited with peers of like characteristics where as out groups consist of those excluded from in groups.

Social Networks: These result from the choices that individuals make in becoming members of various groups.

As counsellors, we may be concerned with how these choices are made and their impacts on individuals. MPCE 13 Free Solved Assignment

Q13. Projective identification

Ans:- Interpersonal conflict reflects the transposition of intrapsychic conflict within each partner on to the couple relationship.

The mental mechanism that is responsible for this transformation is projective identification, the core concept of the object relations approach.

Melanie Klein (1946) defined projective identification as “a combination of splitting off parts of the self and projecting them onto another person,” later desci identification with other people because one has attributed qualities or attributes of one’s own to them”.

Klein saw this as a defensive mode evolving from an early infantile developmental stage in which anxiety is warded off by experiencing intolerable affects, especially aggression, as if they resided in a space external to the self.

This defensive “splitting” thereby creates the first “me-not me boundary.” As the infant matures, and a self-object boundary develops, the preobject “not me” realm fuses with the object world, and what is projected is now directed into the mental image of the other.

However, what is projected, is not only the disavowed aspects of the self but also those aspects that are cherished. MPCE 13 Free Solved Assignment

Q14. Multisystemic therapy

Ans: This is an integrative and comprehensive approach to treating youth conduct problems and antisocial behaviour.

Unlike traditional, comprehensive treatments that remove the adolescent from his or her social environment through placement in residential treatment settings,

MST aims at restructuring multiple levels of the youth’s environment in order to promote pro-social functioning.

Based on Bronfenbrenner’s (1979) ecological model of development, individual behaviour is viewed within the context of multiple, nested contexts.

Relevant context is not limited to the family, as in functional family therapy, but extended to the school, neighborhood, peer group, and broader community, as well as to linkages among these systems. MPCE 13 Free Solved Assignment

MST draws upon methods from a number of empirically-based treatments. For example, interventions at the family level might include communication training as well as methods from strategic or structural family therapy.

Integration of specific interventions is guided by a core set of principles. MST begins with the assumption that the purpose of assessment is to understand the fit between identified problems and the functioning of multiple systems

Q15. Cognitive analytic therapy

Ans:- Cognitive analytic therapy (CAT) is an integrative approach developed in the UK by Anthony Ryle (1990) and further extended both theoretically and clinically by others Ryle and kerr 2002.

Ryle aimed to integrate the effective elements of various preceding traditions not simply at the level of therapeutic technique, but in the underpinning theory of development, personality, and psychopathology. MPCE 13 Free Solved Assignment

CAT theory is rooted in Kelly’s personal construct theory, cognitive and developmental psychology and in psychoanalytic object relations theory.

Theoretically it emphasises repetitive aim-directed sequences of cognition, emotion, behaviour and their consequences (called as procedures),

similar to Goldfried’s (2003) ‘STAIRCASE’ (Situation, Thought, Affect, Intention, Response, Consequence, and Self Evaluation) CBT model.

However, CAT theory also draws on object relations theory and Vygotsky’s activity theory to assert the pervasively dialogic nature of the human world,

where internalised self-other relationship patterns become the basis of reciprocal role procedures governing intrapersonal as well as interpersonal relationships.

Q16. Goals of therapy with dying persons

Ans:- The major goals of therapy with the dying patient can be summarized in a few simple statements. MPCE 13 Free Solved Assignment

• To allow open communication with patients regarding their conditions, and to provide honest, factual information about those conditions.

• To facilitate the expression of important emotions and to help patients learn to manage these emotions as well possible under the circumstances.

• To provide a relationship in which patients can experience support in the confrontation with death.

Q17. Five stages of dying by Kubler-Ross

Ans:- The best known theory of the dying process is that of Kubler-Ross, who proposes that many dying people progress through five stages of dying, described below:

Stage 1: Denial: Initially the reaction is “No! Not me!” Though the denial is rarely complete, most people respond with disbelief in the seriousness of their illness.

Stage 2: Anger: In this stage the dying person expresses anger, resentment, and hostility at the “injustice” of dying, and often projects these attitudes onto others

Stage 3: Bargaining: The dying person tries to “make deals” to prolong life, e.g., making promises to God. MPCE 13 Free Solved Assignment

Q18. Extinction vs Spontaneous recovery

Ans:- Extinction:- Respondent conditioning is accomplished by establishing a contingency (relationship) between the CS and the UCS

The CS predicts to a certain degree the onset of the UCS. If we terminate this contingency so that the CS is not associated with the UCS, eventually the CS will no longer elicit the CR. This process is called extinction.

Spontaneous Recovery – If a small child is scratched (UCS) by a cat (CS) and hurt (UCR), then the child may develop a fear (CR) of cats.

If the child now onwards encounters cats without anything bad happening, then the fear may extinguish.

Sometimes following extinction, the CR may gain in strength over time. This is called spontaneous recovery. MPCE 13 Free Solved Assignment

However, in practical situations, this is usually minimal; and with further extinction the CR will no longer reappear.

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