IGNOU MPCE 12 Free Solved Assignment 2022- Helpfirst

MPCE 12

PSYCHODIAGNOSTICS

MPCE 12 Free Solved Assignment

MPCE 12 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022

SECTION – A

Q1. Describe the various data sources for psychological assessment.

Ans: By a rough estimate, more than 80% of all published assessment methods will be questionnaires or objective tests. As we shall see in this section, the range of possible assessment data sources extends considerably farther though.

And in practical assessment work too psychologists tend to complement (cross-check or simply expand) their assessment by some or several non-questionnaire and nontest methods.

For example, in clinical assessments behaviour observation and interview data, often also psycho physiological data are considered essential additional information, as is interview and actuarial/biographical data in industrial/ organisational assessments.

You can refer to Pawlik (1996, 1998) for details of this classification of data sources.

1 Actuarial and Biographical Data : This category refers to descriptive data about a person’s life history, educational, professional and medical record, possibly also criminal record.

Age, type and years of schooling, nature of completed professional education/vocational training, marital status, current employment and positions held in the past, leisure activities, and past illnesses and hospitalisations are examples of actuarial and biographical data.MPCE 12 Free Solved Assignment

As a rule, such data is available with optimum reliability and often represents indispensable information, for example, in clinical and industrial/organisational assessments.

Special biographical check list-item assessment instruments may be available in a given language and culture for special applications.

2 Behaviour Trace : This refers to physical traces of human behaviour like handwriting specimen, products of art and expression (drawings, compositions, poems or other kinds of literary products),

left-overs after play in a children’s playground, style (tidy or untidy, organised or ‘chaotic) of self-devised living environment at home, but also attributes of a person’s appearance (e.g., bitten finger nails!) and attire.

While at times perhaps intriguing, also within a wider humanistic perspective, the validity of personality assessments based on behaviour traces can be rather limited.

For example, graphology (handwriting analysis) has been known for a long time to fall short of acceptable validity criteria in carefully conducted validation studies (Guilford, 1959; Rohracher, 1969). MPCE 12 Free Solved Assignment

On the other hand, behaviour trace variables may provide valuable information in clinical contexts and at the process stage of developing assessment hypotheses.

3 Behaviour Observation : In some sense, behaviour observation will form part of each and every assessment.

In the present context the word observation is used in a more restricted sense, though, referring to direct recording/ monitoring, describing, and operational classification of human behaviour, over and above what may be already incorporated in the scoring rationale of a questionnaire, an interview schedule, or an objective test.

Examples of behavior observation could be: studying the behaviour of an autistic child in a playground setting; monitoring the behaviour of a catatonic patient on a 24-hour basis;

observing a trainee’s performance in a newly designed work place; or self monitoring of mood swings by a psychotherapy patient in administering questionnaires and objective tests, starting in the 1920s and 1930s,has pushed careful, systematic behaviour observation to the side of the assessment process.

Only in recent years, especially within clinical assessment and treatment contexts following behavior therapeutic approaches, is the potential value of behaviour ratings for the assessment process being re-discovered. MPCE 12 Free Solved Assignment

MPCE 12 Free Solved Assignment
MPCE 12 Free Solved Assignment

Q2. Define creativity. Discuss the ways to assess creativity.

Ans:- Creativity is defined as the tendency to generate or recognize ideas, alternatives, or possibilities that may be useful in solving problems, communicating with others, and entertaining ourselves and others.

Three reasons why people are motivated to be creative:

. Need for novel, varied, and complex stimulation

. Need to communicate ideas and values

. Need to solve problems

In order to be creative, you need to be able to view things in new ways or from a different perspective. Among other things, you need to be able to generate new possibilities or new alternatives.

Tests of creativity measure not only the number of alternatives that people can generate but the uniqueness of those alternatives, MPCE 12 Free Solved Assignment

the ability to generate alternatives or to see things uniquely does not occur by change; it is linked to other, more fundamental qualities of thinking, such as flexibility, tolerance of ambiguity or unpredictability, and the enjoyment things heretofore unknown.

Assessing creative work has been a bugaboo for a good long time. In schools it’s the constant refrain: “How can you grade creative writing?”

“It’s a poem: however it comes out is right.” In businesses and elsewhere, people demand innovation–and are stymied with understanding how to measure it.

But this is not the bugaboo we think it is in the classroom, or in the broader world of creative work. Here are four different ways to assess creativity, each designed for different settings:

  1. Measuring How Creative a Person Is – The Guilford Model
  2. Measuring How Creative a Work Is – The Taxonomy of Creative Design
  3. Measuring Creative Work Against a Program – The Requirements Model
  4. Measuring the Social Value of Creative Work – Csikszentmihalyi’s Model

Notably, in each of these cases, what we mean by “creative” changes a little. Sometimes “creativity” refers to divergent production (how much one produces, or how varied it is). Sometimes “creativity” refers to novelty in form.

Understanding this–understanding the reason for measuring creativity or the kind of creative work one aims to assess–is the first step to demystifying the creative space. Each definition is included in the measures below.

The Guilford Measures: measuring a person’s creativity : Psychologist J. P. Guilford devised four measures of a person’s divergent production.

Each of the measures can be practiced and improved, and each focuses on creative output in the context of a prompt (any prompt) that asks for a quantity of responses. Here’s an overviewMPCE 12 Free Solved Assignment

. Fluency: how many responses

. Flexibility: how many types of responses

. Originality: the unusualness of the responses

Q3. Describe any three projective tests.

Ans:- There are a number of different types of projective tests. Some of the best-known examples include:

The Rorschach Inkblot Test

This test was one of the first projective tests developed and continues to be one of the bestknown and most widely used.

Developed by Swiss psychiatrist Hermann Rorschach in 1921, the test consists of 10 different cards that depict an ambiguous inkblot.

People are shown one card at a time and asked to describe what they see in the image. The responses are recorded verbatim by the tester. Gestures, the tone of voice, and other reactions are also noted.

The results of the test can vary depending on which of the many existing scoring systems the examiner uses. MPCE 12 Free Solved Assignment

The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

In the TAT test, people are asked to look at a series of ambiguous scenes and then to tell a story describing the scene. This includes describing what is happening, how the characters are feeling, and how the story will end.

The examiner then scores the test based on the needs, motivations, and anxieties of the main character, as well as how the story eventually turns out.

The Draw-A-Person Test

This type of projective test involves exactly what you might imagine. People draw a person and the image that they created is then assessed by the examiner.

MPCE 12 Free Solved Assignment
MPCE 12 Free Solved Assignment

SECTION – B

Q4. Discuss the types and disadvantages of direct observation.

Ans:There are two commonly used types of direct observations:

Continuous Monitoring: This involves observing a subject or subjects and recording (either manually, electronically, or botlı) as much of their behaviour as possible.

Continuos Monitoring is often used in organisational settings, such as evaluating performance. Yet this may be problematic due to the Hawthorne Effect.

The Hawthome Effect states that workers react to the attention they are getting from the researchers and in turn, productivity increases.

Observers should be aware of this reaction. Other CM research is used in education, such as watching teacher-student interactions. Also in nutrition where researchers record how much an individual eats. MPCE 12 Free Solved Assignment

CM is relatively easy but a time consuming endeavor. You will be sure to acquire a lot of data.

Time Allocation: This involves a researcher randomly selecting a place and time and then recording what people are doing when they are first seen and before they see you.

This may sound rather bizarre but it is a useful tool when you want to find out the percent of time people are doing things (i.e. playing with their kids, working, eating, etc.).

Thereare several sampling problems with this approach. First, in order to make generalisations about how people are spending their time the researcher needs a large representative sample.

Sneaking up on people all over town is tough way to spend your days. In addition, questions such as when, how often, and where should you observe are often a concern.

Many researchers have overcome these problems by using nonrandom locations but randomly visiting them at different times.

Q5. How is therapy planned and conducted in a psychological treatment?

Ans:• Planning therapy for patients who need and want to receive psychological
treatment involves.

• Deciding on the appropriate setting in which to deliver the treatment,

• Estimating the duration of the treatment, and

• Selecting the particular type of treatment to be given,

With respect to deciding on the treatinent setting, assessment data provide reliable information concerning the severity of a patient’s disturbance,

the patient’s ability to distinguish reality from fantasy, and his or her likelihood of becoming suicidal or dangerous to others, all of which bear on whether the person requires residential care or can be treated safely and adequately as an outpatient.

The more severely disturbed people are, the farther out of touch with reality they are, and the greater their risk potential for violence, the more advisable it becomes to care for them in a protected environment. MPCE 12 Free Solved Assignment

Regarding treatment duration, clinical experience and research findings consistently indicate that mild and acute problems of recent onset can usually be treated successfully in a shorter period of time than severe and chronic problems of longstanding duration.

A variety of psychodiagnostic measures provide clues to the chronicity as well as the severity of symptomatic and characterological mental and emotional problems, and pretreatment data obtained with these measures can accordingly help clinicians formulate some expectation of how long a treatment is likely to last.

Having available such assessment-based information on expected duration in turn assists clinicians in presenting treatment recommendations to prospective patients (Hurt, Reznikoff & Clarkin, 1991).

Q6. Discuss the characteristics of Stanford- Binet Test.

Ans:
• The Stanford – Binet Intelligence Scales are designed to measure five factors of cognitive ability.

• These five factors include; MPCE 12 Free Solved Assignment

  1. Fluid reasoning
  2. Knowledge
  3. Quantitative reasoning
  4. Visual-spatial processing
  5. Working memory

Some other features:

✓ This test measures things that are necessary for school success.
✓ Binet’s test is a set of age-graded items
✓ Binet assumed that children’s abilities increase with age.

• Both verbal and nonverbal responses are measured.

  1. Fluid reasoning :

• Fluid reasoning is the ability to solve abstract problems in which
no prior knowledge is required.

• Nonverbal fluid reasoning is tested with object series matrices.

• Verbal absurdities are simply statements that are silly or impossible.

For example;

  • “an apple is to fruit as celery is to______” (vegetable).
  • what is wrong with a sentence like: “I put ink on my hairbrush
    and cleaned my teeth.”
  1. Knowledge MPCE 12 Free Solved Assignment

Knowledge is defined as someone’s accumulated stock of general information that has been committed to long-term memory

• For example, a young test subject might be asked to explain basic human needs, like eating, using gestures. The verbal subtest includes vocabulary questions, which may be administered using toys or flash cards.

For example; – Explain differences (between a fish and a horse);

  1. Quantitative Reasong

• Quantitative reasoning measures a person’s numeracy.

• Questions in this section can include basic counting, addition and subtraction.

• At higher levels, measurement, geometry and word problems
are included.

• Math concepts are presented in both verbal and nonverbal formats.

Q7. Explain Mental Status Examination as a diagnostic tool for a clinical psychologist.

Ans:- The mental status examination (MSE) is an important diagnostic tool in both neurological and psychiatric practice. MPCE 12 Free Solved Assignment

MSE is used to describe a patient’s mental state and behaviors, both quantitatively and qualitatively, at a specific point in time.

The main components of an MSE are appearance and behavior, mood and affect, speech, thought process and content, perceptual disturbances, sensorium and cognition, and insight and judgment.

The clinician conducting an MSE collects data by observing the interviewed individual’s behavior and asking specific questions.

The findings of the MSE summarize the results of a psychiatric examination on a comprehensive, cross-sectional level.

When integrated with the interviewee’s biographical information and psychiatric history, MSE findings form the basis for diagnostic and therapeutic decisions.

A thorough MSE also provides essential information for establishing a diagnosis according to DSM-5 criteria. MPCE 12 Free Solved Assignment

Q8. How is psychodiagnostic assessment conducted of children?

Ans:- Dimensional and Categorical Approaches provides comprehensive guidelines for assessing and diagnosing a broad spectrum of childhood disorders.

In this groundbreaking new text. Randy Kamphaus (coauthor of the BASC and BASC-II) and Jonathan Campbell discuss both theoretical and practical aspects of the field.

Their detailed coverage provides students and professionals with important research findings and practical tools for accurate assessment and informed diagnosis.

This monumental new work begins by explaining dimensional (e.g., classification methods that emphasize qualitative assessment measures such as clinical observation and history-taking) methods of assessment and diagnosis.

It then highlights assessment interpretation issues related to psychological assessment and diagnosis. MPCE 12 Free Solved Assignment

The remainder of the text covers constructs and core symptoms of interest, diagnostic standards, assessment methods, interpretations of findings, and case studies for all of the major childhood disorders.

Q9. Psychophysiological assessment

Ans:- Psychophysiological assessment involves recording and quantifying various physiological responses in controlled conditions using electromechanical equipment (e.g., electromyography, electroencephalography, electrodermal activity, respiratory activity, electrocardiography).

Which response or response system is measured depends on the purpose of the assessment.

Psychophysiological measurement has been used to assess autonomic balance (e.g., heart rate, diastolic blood pressure, salivation), habituation to environmental stimuli, reactivity to traumatic imagery, orientation response, and other physiological systems.

Q10. Ethical principles in using psychological tests

Ans:The Ethics Code contains six general principles:

1) Competence: Psychologists maintain high standards of competence, including
knowing their own limits of expertise. MPCE 12 Free Solved Assignment

Applied to testing, this might suggest that it is unethical for the psychologist to use a test with which he or she is Not familiar to make decisions about clients.

ii) Integrity: Psychologists seek to act with integrity in all aspects of their professional roles. As a test author for example, a psychologist should not make unwarranted claims about a particular test.

iii) Professional and scientific responsibility: Psychologists uphold professional
standards of conduct. In psychological testing this might require knowing
when test data can be useful and when it cannot.

This means, in effect, that a practitioner using a test needs to be familiar with the research literature on that test.

Q11. Application of psychodiagnostic testing

Ans:Psycho diagnostic testing is a widely recognised diagnostic procedure that is used in a variety of non-medical settings. Examples include:

1) Forensics: In this context, 80% of psychological testing is ordered when the
defendant’s psychiatric condition is seen important in a criminal case.

Other legal uses of psycho diagnostic testing include child custody evaluations, contested estates, wrongful termination and harassment cases, etc.

2) Insurance Settlements: Insurance companies rely on psycho diagnostic testing for a variety of disability and Workman’s Compensation cases.

Similarly, the Department of Social Services routinely uses psycho diagnostic tests to make Social Security determinations. Psycho diagnostic testing is particularly
useful in ruling out malingering. MPCE 12 Free Solved Assignment

3) Employment Environments: Psychodiagnostic testing was originally
developed during World War II a screening device to increase the efficacy in deploying military personnel in stressful situations.

It is still used extensively by police departments, the military, and other employers to ensure that recruits are psychologically suited to the required tasks.

Q12. Use of test battery

Ans:- A test battery consists of a series of tests administered to assess different facets of a child’s or adult’s functioning (e.g., psychological functioning).

A test battery is utilized by a professional (e.g., a psychologist) to assist in decision making, such as making a about an individual and determining whether there is a need for services and supports for that person.

Introduced by Francis Galton in 1884, the initial test battery was used to measure an individual’s sensory and motor abilities.

Once the battery of tests was administered, a report was written to summarize the findings. Test batteries have evolved over time. MPCE 12 Free Solved Assignment

Q13. Semi-structured interview

Ans:- A semi-structured interview is a method of research used most often in the social sciences.

While a structured interview has a rigorous set of questions which does not allow one to divert, a semi-structured interview is open, allowing new ideas to be brought up during the interview as a result of what the interviewee says.

The interviewer in a semi-structured interview is open, allowing new ideas to be brought up during the interview as a result of what the interviewee says.

The interviewer in a semi-structured interview generally has a framework of themes to be explored. MPCE 12 Free Solved Assignment

Semi-structured interviews are widely used in qualitative research;[1] for example in household research, such as couple interviews.

A semi-structured interview involving, for example, two spouses can result in “the production of rich data, including observational data.”

Q14. Referral question

Ans:The referral question sets the stage for the rest of the report. It is therefore especially important to make sure it is as clear and specific as possible (i.e. ‘My understanding is that you would like me to evaluate Mr. X with particular reference to the nature and severity of his deficits,

the extent of care he would require, ability to work, personality functioning, and the likelihood of any further improvement’).

Often clarifying the referral question will require discussions with the referral source since it is not unusual to have an initially poorly articulated (or at least partially developed) referral question. MPCE 12 Free Solved Assignment

One means of assisting with this is to ask the referral source what decisions they need to make related to the client.

Sometimes discussions with the referral source will mean indicating the sorts of questions that can and cannot realistically be answered through formal assessment.

Such discussions may even result in a mutual decision that formal assessment is not appropriate for the case.

A clearly articulated referral question will carry through to the rest of the report in that it provides a frame of reference for this material as well as a rationale for what is relevant to include in the sections on background information (history), impressions / interpretation, and especially the summary / recommendations section.

Q15. Characteristics of tests of abstraction

Ans: Characteristics of Tests of Abstraction

1) Learning to identify a relevant attribute or multiple attributes to solve a
problem or make an accurate generalisation.

2) Learning a rule or set of rules that solve a problem.

3) Concept formation or spontaneous generation of hypotheses that relate
disparate material. MPCE 12 Free Solved Assignment

4) Inductive reasoning through spontaneous formation of hypotheses that rule
out alternative possibilities for a solution, and that finally lead to a correct

5) Having an “attitude toward the possible” or forming and manipulating a
mental representation of an object that is not physically present.

Q16. Tests of Implicit Memory

Ans:Implicit memory tests are those in which subjects are asked to respond to test stimuli (e.g. generate a word, classify an object, perform a motor task) without making reference to prior events.

The impressive experimental evidence available about dissociations between implicit and explicit memory tasks warrants the assumption that there are fundamental differences between mnemonic information assessed by implicit and explicit memory tests.

For example, numerous studies have documented across diverse tasks that amnesic patients (and other special populations) exhibit preserved mnemonic functioning when they are assessed with tests of implicit memory, and a memory severely impaired when tests of explicit memory are given.

Studies with normal subjects have also shown that under some conditions (e.g. effects of alcohol, psychoactive drugs, general anesthesia, or certain experimental manipulations) normal’s exhibit implicit memory for information that they cannot explicitly remember.

The most important and theoretically relevant conclusion from these findings is that implicit memories are explicitly inaccessible and vice versa, because (a) different aspects of events are encoded by distinct but interacting neuro cognitive systems, and (b) diverse tasks tap different memory systems. MPCE 12 Free Solved Assignment

Therefore, an adequate memory assessment requires of experimenters and clinicians to make use of explicit memory tests as well as implicit memory tests.

Q17. California Psychological Inventory

Ans:- The California Psychological Inventory (CPI) is a self-report inventory created by Harrison G. Gough and currently published by Consulting Psychologists Press.

The text containing the test was first published in 1956, and the most recent revision was published in 1996.

It was created in a similar manner to the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory MMPI)—with which it shares 194 items.

But unlike the MMPI. which focuses on maladjustment or clinical diagnosis, the CPI was created to assess the everyday “folk concepts” that ordinary people use to describe the behavior of the people around them.

Q18. Purpose of neuropsychological assessment

Ans:- The major purposes of a neuropsychology assessment are to assist with questions about: MPCE 12 Free Solved Assignment

Integrity of cognitive functions

The evaluation is helpful to determine the presence, nature, and severity of cognitive dysfunction. We provide a baseline to monitor future changes in cognitive abilities, mood and personality, including treatment effects.

Differential diagnosis – to confirm or clarify a diagnosis

Regarding differential diagnosis, we help evaluate neurological and psychiatric disorders. One unique contribution of the neuropsychological assessment is the detection and evaluation of cerebral dysfunction in the absence of clear anatomical evidence of alterations.

We also identify psychological factors such as depression that contribute to cognitive dysfunction.

Treatment planning

We provide treatment recommendations for cognitive disorders and psychological adjustment, including a profile of strengths and weaknesses to guide rehabilitation, educational, vocational, or other services.

We also determine levels of cognitive functioning as they relate to work, school, and independent living.

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