IGNOU MPCE 11 Free Solved Assignment 2022- Helpfirst

MPCE 11

PSYCHOPATHOLOGY

MPCE 11 Free Solved Assignment

MPCE 11 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022

Q1. Compare and contrast the humanistic approach and behavioural approach in explaining abnormal behavior.

Ans:- Humanistic Approach : Humanistic view puts emphasis on the positive aspects of life, free choices and personal growth experiences. According to this approach abnormality results from refusal to accept personal responsibility for one’s own actions and thoughts.

So human behaviour is caused by the choices we make voluntarily. The humanistic theorists assume that human nature is inherently good and abnormal/aggressive behavior is caused is by the society but not by the individual.

Carl Rogers, along with Abraham Maslow, rejected the deterministic nature of both psychoanalysis and behaviorism and maintained that we behave as we do because of the way we perceive our situation.

As no one else can know how we perceive, we are the best experts on ourselves. Like Freud, Rogers developed his theory based on his work with emotionally troubled people but unlike Freud, Rogers claimed that we have a remarkable capacity for self healing and personal growth leading towards self-actualisation.

Freud emphasised the importance of psychological continuity and hence believed our past to be a strong determinant of the present, whereas Rogers placed emphasis on the person’s current perception and how we live in the here-and-now.

i) Self and Congruence: Central to Rogers’ theory is the notion of self or self-concept. This is defined as “the organised, consistent set of perceptions and beliefs about oneself”.

It consists of all the ideas and values that characterise l’ and ‘me’ and includes perception and valuing of ‘what I am’ and ‘what I can do’.MPCE 11 Free Solved Assignment

Consequently, the self-concept is a central component of our total experience and influences both our perception of the world and perception of oneself.

For instance, a woman who perceives herself as strong may well behave with confidence and come to see her actions as actions performed by someone who is confident.

The self-concept does not necessarily always fit with reality, and the way we see ourselves may differ greatly from how others see us.

According to Rogers, we want to feel, experience and behave in ways which are consistent with our self-image and which reflect what we would like to be like, our ideal-self.

The closer our self-image and ideal-self are to each other, the more consistent or congruent we are and the higher our sense of self-worth.

A person is said to be in a state of incongruence if some of the experience are unacceptable and are denied or distorted in the selfimage.

MPCE 11 Free Solved Assignment
MPCE 11 Free Solved Assignment

Q2. Discuss the etiology and treatment of phobic disorder.

Ans:- Etiology (pronounced /i:ti plədzi/; alternatively: aetiology or ætiology) is the study of causation or origination. The word is derived from the Greek aitiolovia (aitiología) “giving a reason for” (aitia, aitia, “cause”; and -Noyia, -logía).

More completely, etiology is the study of the causes, origins, or reasons behind the way that things are, or the way they function, or it can refer to the causes themselves.

The word is commonly used in medicine (pertaining to causes of disease) and in philosophy, but also in physics, psychology, government, geography, spatial analysis, theology, and biology, in reference to the causes or origins of various Phenomena

In the past, when many physical phenomena were not well understood or when histories were not recorded, myths often arose to provide etiologies.

Thus, an etiological myth, or origin myth, is a myth that has arisen, been told over time or written to explain the origins of various social or natural phenomena.

For example, Virgil’s Aeneid is a national myth written to explain and glorify the origins of the Roman Empire. In theology, many religions have creation myths explaining the origins of the world or its relationship to believers.MPCE 11 Free Solved Assignment

In medicine, the etiology of an illness or condition refers to the frequent studies to determine one or more factors that come together to cause the illness.

Relatedly, when disease is widespread, epidemiological studies investigate what associated factors, such as location, sex, exposure to chemicals, and many others, make a population more or less likely to have an illness, condition, or disease, thus helping determine its etiology. Sometimes determining etiology is an imprecise process.

In the past, the etiology of a common sailor’s disease, scurvy, was long unknown. When large, ocean-going ships were built, sailors began to put to sea for long periods of time, and often lacked fresh fruit and vegetables.

Without knowing the precise cause, Captain James Cook suspected scurvy was caused by the lack of vegetables in the diet.

Based on his suspicion, he forced his crew to eat sauerkraut, a cabbage preparation, every day, and based upon the positive outcomes, he inferred that it prevented scurvy, even though he did not know precisely why.

It took about another two hundred years to discover the precise etiology: the lack of vitamin C in a sailor’s diet.MPCE 11 Free Solved Assignment

Q3. Explain generalized anxiety disorder with a case study. Discuss the etiology.

Ans:- The nomenclature itself that Generalised Anxiety Disorder (popularly known as GAD) is an over generalised anxiety over many things.

GAD is characterised by excessive and irrational anxiety over minor things. The DSM IV -TR characterises GAD in terms of persistent excessive anxiety and worries which the person finds difficult to control.

There are 6 specific symptoms among which at least 3 must be present to be diagnosed as GAD. These are:

. Restlessness or feeling keyed up

. Being easily fatigued

. Difficulty in concentrating

. Irritability

. Muscle tension

. Sleep disturbance MPCE 11 Free Solved Assignment

GAD is also known as free floating anxiety in psychodynamic terms, because the anxiety does not seem to be bound to one or few specific issues.

The person typically is terrified of different possible mishaps. If you convince the person of the irrationality of one issue, or if, in the course of natural affairs, one issue is resolved, the person takes up a second and a third issue and focuses on them.

Concentration to anything for a given period of time becomes extremely difficult, as some or other point of anxiety always comes up.

Somatic complaints like sweating, flushing, palpitation, upset stomach, lump in throat, frequent urination, rapid breathing, twitches and tics are common.

The person becomes fidgety, irritable and easily fatigued. Often vivid imageries of the disaster accompany the restlessness. Impatience, anger outbursts and insomnia are common.

Many persons with GAD lead their life more or less normally without consulting any doctor. They have some functional impairment and difficulties within the family; but the problems may be somewhat manageable with some support from the close ones.

For about one third cases, spontaneous recovery takes place at some point in life. For others the problem is severe enough to seek medical consultation, although the chief complaint is often presented as somatic problems or insomnia.

Fatema, now a housewife of 35 years of age, had always been nervous since her childhood. During her school days, she had been anxious for her studies and examinations.

She was also extremely upset if any of her friends talked ill about her or the teachers scolded her. At home she became greatly worried if her father came home later than usual.

She apprehended some accident. She was admitted to college, but did not finish her graduation. She married at the age of 22. MPCE 11 Free Solved Assignment

Her husband had a small business in the town. Fatema was from the very beginning apprehensive about the possible failure of her husband’s business and worried over any temporary loss that occurred.

Initially her husband was glad to see her worried, as he interpreted it as her attachment to him. Gradually he became irritated at the constant worry and negative predictions she had.

MPCE 11 Free Solved Assignment
MPCE 11 Free Solved Assignment

Q4. Explain the role of parenting styles and inadequate communication in the causation of psychopathology.

Ans:- Parenting Styles:- There are also less extreme differences in parenting styles than may occur with various forms of parental psychopathology that nonetheless can have a significant impact on a child’s development and increase their risk for psychopathology.

In the past, discipline was conceived of as a method for both punishing undesirable behaviour and preventing or deterring such behaviour in the future.

Discipline is now thought of more positively as providing needed structure and guidance for promoting a child’s healthy growth. MPCE 11 Free Solved Assignment

The authoritative style is one in which the parents are both very warm and careful to set clear limits and restrictions regarding certain kinds of behaviour, but also allow considerable freedom within certain limits.

This style of parenting is associated with the most positive early social development, with the children tending to be energetic and friendly and showing development of general competencies for dealing with others and with their environments (Baumrimd, 1975).

When followed into adolescence in a longitudinal study, children of authoritative parents continue to show positive outcomes.

Parents with an authoritarian style are high on control but low on warmth and their children tend to be conflicted, irritable, and moody (Baumrind, 1975).

When followed into adolescence, these children had more negative outcomes, with the boys doing particularly poorly in social and cognitive skills.

If such authoritarian parents also use overly severe discipline in the form of physical punishment as opposed to the withdrawal of approval and privileges, the result tends to be increased aggressive behaviour on the part of the child.

Q5. Provide the clinical picture of autism spectrum disorder.

Ans:- Symptoms of autism :The current revision of Diagnosis and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, DSMIV-TR identifies three features that are associated with autism:

.Impairment in social interaction MPCE 11 Free Solved Assignment

.Communication and

.Behaviours

Impairment in social interaction:- Individuals with autism fail to develop normal personal interactions in virtually every setting.

This means that affected persons fail to form the normal social contacts that are such an important part of human development. This impairment may be so severe that it even affects the bonding between a mother and an infant.

It is important to note that, contrary to popular belief, many, if not most, persons with this disorder are capable of showing affection, demonstrating affection bonding with their mothers or other caregivers.

However, the ways in which individuals with autism demonstrate affection and bonding may differ greatly from the ways in which others do so.

Their limited socialisation may erroneously lead parents and paediatricians away from considering the diagnosis of autism. MPCE 11 Free Solved Assignment

As the child develops, interaction with others continues to be abnormal. Affected behaviours can include eye contact, facial expressions, and body postures.

There is usually an inability to develop normal peer and sibling relationships and the child often seems isolated. There may be little or no joy or interest in normal age-appropriate activities.

Affected children or adults do not seek out peers for play or other social interactions. In severe cases, they may not even be aware of the presence of other individuals.

MPCE 11 Free Solved Assignment
MPCE 11 Free Solved Assignment

Q6. Analyze the psychological factors in the causation of obsessive compulsive disorder.

Ans:- 1) Psychoanalytical theory: Psychoanalytical approach attributes obsession to
a fixation to the anal phase of life. Too strict toilet training predisposes the child toward over-conscientiousness.

The unconscious impulse to soil and play with filth, natural in a child of anal phase is so strongly prohibited that the child takes recourse to defenses like reaction formation by being overly clean and undoing by rituals.MPCE 11 Free Solved Assignment

Paradoxically, obsession also provides a way of vicarious satisfaction of the prohibited impulse. If you are thinking for the whole day about how to stay away from dirt, you are, in a way, thinking of dirt only.

2) Learning theories: Neutral stimuli may be associated through classical conditioning with frightening ideas and become capable of eliciting intense anxiety.

For example, Raj may have acquired the fear of dirty things on the street because he was thinking of something negativ while walking on the street, and the object on the street became associated with it.

Since the connection was not logical, Raj could not explain it. Learning theory further states that since compulsions reduce anxiety to a large extent, they become reinforced and continue in a cyclic manner.

One implication of this theory is that if you expose the person to the object that provokes obsession, and then prevent the ritualistic compulsive behaviour, the reinforcement of the compulsion would be withdrawn.

Gradually, the person would be able to understand that anxiety reduction is possible without compulsive acts.

Q7. Discuss the treatment for major depressive disorder.

Ans:- Various psychological treatments are available for depressive disorders. Some of them are briefly listed below.

In general, a combination of an antidepressant plus a psychological treatment is better than either treatment alone. Typically, most psychological treatments for depression last in the range of 12-20 weekly sessions of 1-2 hours per session.

Those most commonly used for moderate or severe depression are:

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT):- Briefly, cognitive behavioural therapy is based on the idea that certain ways of thinking can trigger, or fuel, certain mental health problems such as depression. The therapist helps the client to understand his thought patterns.

In particular, to identify any harmful or unhelpful ideas or thoughts which the client has that can make him depressed. MPCE 11 Free Solved Assignment

The aim is then to change his ways of thinking to avoid these ideas. Behavioural therapy aims to change such behaviours which are harmful or not helpful.

CBT is a combination of cognitive therapy and behavioural therapy. In short, CBT helps people to achieve changes in the way that they think, feel and behave.

Q8. Describe the characteristic features and types of delusional disorder.

Ans:- Characteristic Features

Unlike most other psychotic disorders, the person with the delusional disorder typically does not appear obviously odd, strange or peculiar during periods of active illness.

Yet the person might make unusual choices in day-to-day life because of the delusional beliefs.

Expanding on the previous example, people who believe they are under government observation might seem typical in most ways but could refuse to have a telephone or use credit cards in order to make it harder for those Federal agents” to monitor purchases and conversations.

Most mental health professionals would concur that until the person with delusional disorder discusses the areas of life affected by the delusions,

it would be difficult to distinguish the sufferer from members of the general public who are not psychiatrically disturbed.MPCE 11 Free Solved Assignment

Another distinction of delusional disorder compared with other psychotic disorders is that hallucinations are either absent or occur infrequently.

The person with delusional disorder may or may not come to the attention of mental health providers.

Typically, while delusional disorder sufferers may be distressed about the delusional “reality,” they may not have the insight to see that anything is wrong with the way they are thinking or functioning.

Regarding the earlier example, those suffering delusion might state that the only thing wrong or upsetting in their lives is that the government is spying, and if the surveillance would cease, so would the problems.

SECTION – C

Q 9 Neurotic anxiety

Ans:- This is a form of anxiety which comes from an unconscious fear that the basic impulses of the Id (the primitive part of our personality) will take control of the person, leading to eventual punishment (this is thus a form of Moral Anxiety).

The unconscious worry that we will lose control of the id’s urges, resulting in punishment for inappropriate behavior MPCE 11 Free Solved Assignment

Q10. Asperger syndrome

Ans:- Asperger syndrome (AS), also known as Asperger’s, is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significant difficulties in social interaction and nonverbal communication, along with restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior and interests.

It is an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but differs from other ASDs by relatively unimpaired language and intelligence.

Although not required for diagnosis, physical clumsiness and unusual use of language are common. Signs usually begin before two years of age and in many cases never resolve.

The exact cause of Asperger’s is unknown. While it is largely inherited, the underlying genetics have not been determined conclusively.

Environmental factors are also believed to play a role. Brain imaging has not identified a common underlying condition.MPCE 11 Free Solved Assignment

Q11. Panic attack

Ans:- A panic attack is a brief episode of intense anxiety, which causes the physical sensations of fear. These can include a racing heartbeat, shortness of breath, dizziness, trembling and muscle tension.

Panic attacks occur frequently and unexpectedly and are often not related to any external threat.

A panic attack can last from a few minutes to half an hour. However, the physical and emotional effects of the attack may last for a few hours.

Panic attacks are common. Up to 35% of the population experience a panic attack at some time in their lives. A panic attack can also be called an anxiety attack.

Q12. Aversion therapy

Ans:- Aversion therapy is a form of psychological treatment in which the patient is exposed to a stimulus while simultaneously being subjected to some form of discomfort.

This conditioning is intended to cause the patient to associate the stimulus with unpleasant sensations with the intention of quelling the targeted (sometimes compulsive) behavior.

Aversion therapies can take many forms, for example: placing unpleasant-tasting substances on the fingernails to discourage nail-chewing; pairing the use of an emetic with the experience of alcohol; or pairing behavior with electric shocks of mild to higher intensities.

Q13. Covert sensitization

Ans:- Covert sensitization is the first of a family of behavior therapy procedures called covert conditioning initially developed by Joseph Cautela in the 1960s and 1970s.

The covert conditioning procedures involve the use of visualized imagery and are designed to work according to operant conditioning principles. When working with cooperative clients to treat MPCE 11 Free Solved Assignment

maladaptive approach behaviors, covert sensitization has been found to be a humane and effective alternative to in vivo aversion therapy procedures that emplov aversive stimuli such as chemicals and electric shock.

This primer describes covert sensitization, provides examples and notes representative research. Guidelines for use and suggestions for further readings are also included.

Q14. Kinds of paranoia

Ans:- Persecutory paranoia : This is the most prevalent type of paranoia, and in this patient makes himself believe that all those around him are his enemies, bent on harming him or even taking his life.

In this delusion people of an aggressive temperament often turns dangerous killers.

Religious paranoia : Here the patients suffer from a permanent delusion of a primarily religious nature. He for example believes, that he is the messenger of God who has been sent to the world to propagate some religion.MPCE 11 Free Solved Assignment

Reformatory paranoia : In this the patient turns to considering himself a great reformer. He accordingly looks upon all those around him. As suffering from dangerous disease, and believes that he is their reformer and curator.

Q15. Diagnostic features of narcissistic personality disorder

Ans:- DSM-IV-TR specifies nine diagnostic criteria for narcissistic personality disorder. For the clinician to make the diagnosis, an individual must fit five or more of the following descriptions:

He or she has a grandiose sense of selfimportance (exaggerates accomplishments and demands to be considered superior without real evidence of achievement).

He or she lives in a dream world of exceptional success, power, beauty, genius, or “perfect” love. MPCE 11 Free Solved Assignment

.He or she thinks of him or herself as special” or privileged,

.He or she can only be understood by oher special or high status people.

.He or she demands excessive amounts of praise or admiration from others.

Q16. Dissociative amnesia

Ans:- Amnesia means inability to remember. Amnesia may appear as a psychological escape from stress. But it may be a symptom in many organic diseases also.

Dissociative amnesia has been defined by DSM IV – TR as a disturbance in one or more episodes of life or inability to recall significant events.

How would you differentiate between the amnesia caused due to actual brain damage and due to psychological causes? Of course neurological investigation would give you the first lead. But there are other functional differences as well.

When amnesia has an organic basis usually you will find that the person is unable to remember all or most of the recent or remote past, or is unable to retain newly acquired information. MPCE 11 Free Solved Assignment

Contrarily in Dissociative amnesia, the person is unable to retrieve selective portions of personal history and that forgetting is not explained by biological causes.

This usually happens following some stressful condition. The information is not permanently lost. These can be retrieved by hypnosis, narcotic analysis and sometimes spontaneously.

Q17. Diagnostic criteria of schizoid personality disorder

Ans:- The DSM-IV-TR defines schizoid personality disorder (in Axis II, Cluster A) as:

A pervasive pattern of detachment from social relationships and a restricted range of expression of emotions in interpersonal settings, beginning by early adulthood (age eighteen or older) and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by four (or more) of the following:

. Neither desires nor enjoys close relationships, including being part of a family;

. Almost always chooses solitary activities; MPCE 11 Free Solved Assignment

. Has little, if any, interest n having sexual experiences with another person;

. Takes pleasure in few, if any, activities;

. Lacks close friends or confidants other than first degree relatives;

. Appears indifferent to the praise or criticism of others;

. Shows emotional coldness, deachment, or flattened affectivity.

. It is a requirement of DSM-IV that a diagnosis of any specific personality disorder also satisfies a set of general personality disorder criteria.

Q18. Clinical picture of children with PTSD

Ans:- A child victim of a trauma, you may observe that they express the responses in a manner different from the adults.

Children often have greater difficulty in verbally expressing their pain, especially when physical or sexual abuse has been involved. You may have heard of horrible experiences of children during riots. MPCE 11 Free Solved Assignment

They may have been subject to assaults themselves or have witnessed their parents assaulted.

If you visit some of the rescue camps after the riots you may observe a numbness in children. Often the experiences are beyond their understanding and they simply lack the language. Sleep disorder and nightmares are very common.

Some smaller children lose the already acquired developmental skills. For example the child may lose speech or forget toilet training.

Change in behaviour is also more common in children. A happy outgoing child may become introvert or a shy child may become unduly aggressive.

MPCE 12 Free solved assignment 2021-22

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