PERSONALITY: THEORIES AND ASSESSMENT
MPC 03 Free Solved Assignment
MPC 03 Free Solved Assignment july 2021 & jan 2022
Q 1 Define personality. Discuss the main determinants of personality development.
The word personality itself stems from the Latin word persona, which refers to a theatrical mask worn by performers in order to either project different roles or disguise their identities.
At its most basic, personality is the characteristic patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that make a person unique.
It is believed that personality arises from within the individual and remains fairly consistent throughout life.
The nature of personality and to show the role of culture and social experience in the formation of personality along with the problem of personality disorganization.
Since socialization plays the most important part in the development of personality and we have discussed it already, the present discussion, therefore, can only be brief.
Main determinants of personality development:
The development of personality has been a topic of interest for the personality psychologists right from the time the term came into existence.
Psychologists have tried to identity those factors which directly or indirectly influence the growth and development of personality. MPC 03 Free Solved Assignment
Although there are a large number of factors, which influence the development of personality, such factors have been broadly grouped into three general categories and these are given below.
- Biological Factors: Biological determinants also called as physical determinants emphasise that physique and body functioning are directly responsible for personality development. Some of these factors are:
i) Physical attractiveness: Physical attractiveness is another physical component that affects the development of personality. An attractive person of any age is more appealing than a person who is unattractive.
ii) Body build: Body build influences personality directly by determining what an individual can and cannot do, as well as what the individual’s reaction will be to all those whose body builds are superior or inferior.
Some of the known body builds are (i) ectomorph (ii) endomorph, and (iii) mesomorph. Ectomorphs are persons who are tall and thin in their body builds..
iii) Homeostasis: Homeostasis is another important determinant. It refers to the maintenance of a stable internal environment through relatively having normal temperature, normal level of blood sugar, normal level of blood pressure, proper water balance, etc.
iv) Physical defects: Physical defects are another determiners. The first scientific study showing the impact of physical defect upon personality has come from Alfred Adler’s theory of organ inferiority. MPC 03 Free Solved Assignment
Today several studies have been conducted to examine the direct and indirect impact of physical defects upon personality.
(2. Psychological Factors: Several psychological factors tend to determine the development of personality. Among those factors the following can be specially discussed because of their importance. These include:
i) Intellectual Determinants: These are one of the important factors which influence the development of personality.
Researchers are of view that intellectual capacities influence personality through various kinds of adjustments in life and indirectly through the judgments other persons make of the individual on the basis of the person’s intellectual achievements.
ii) Emotional Determinants: These are other important factors that shape the development of personality. Emotions are considered important personality determinants because they affect personal and social adjustment.
Research has shown that several aspects of emotions like dominant emotions, emotional balance, emotional deprivation, excessive love and affection, emotional expressions, emotional catharsis and emotional stress directly and indirectly affect the development of personality.
iii) Excessive Love and Affection: This also has psychologically negative effect. Sigmund Freud had earlier cautioned that too much parental love and affection awakens a disposition for neurotic disorders, spoils the child and makes the individual a problematic adolescent.MPC 03 Free Solved Assignment
iv) Self-disclosure: Self disclosure is considered basic to mental health and such disclosure helps to bring about a healthy personality pattern which is a guarantee for a socially desirable and favourable reactions from others.
Emotional stress expressed in the form of anxiety, frustration, jealousy and envy also affect the development of personality.
v) Aspiration and Achievements: These also have an effect on the development of personality. Aspiration means a longing for and striving for something higher than one’s present status.
Thus aspirations are the ego-involved goals that persons set for themselves. The more ego-involved the aspirations are, the more will be the impact upon behaviour and therefore, greater will be the impact upon personality.
Environmental Factors: Besides physical and psychological factors, some environmental factors have been isolated and shown to have a significant impact upon the development of personality.
Under environmental determinants, the following four sets of factors have been primarily emphasised:
i) Social Acceptance: These are one of the major environmental determinants. Every person lives in a social group, which judges the person’s behaviour in terms of the person’s conformity to group expectations regarding proper performance behaviour and appropriate role playing.
Thus social judgement serve as basis for self-evaluation. Social Deprivation This is another environmental factor, which is said to influence the development of personality in massive and significant way. MPC 03 Free Solved Assignment
Social deprivation means being deprived of opportunities for various types of social contacts including love and affection. Social deprivation causes social isolation which has an adverse effect on personality.
ii) Educational Factors: Another important factor, which influences the development of personality is the educational factors. Schools, colleges and teachers have significant impact upon the individual’s development of personality.
The impact of educational institution upon personality development is largely determined by the students’ attitude towards school and colleges, towards peers, towards
teachers and also toward the value of education.
iii) Family Determinants: This is another important class of factors that influence development of personality. The influence of family on personality development is maximal at all ages. The family affects the development of personality both directly or indirectly.
iv) Size of the Family: This factor also affects the development of personality. In larger families parents have little time to protect any child.
As such, children learn to be independent and show maturity in their behaviour at an earlier age as compared to children of smaller families.
Q 2. Describe the administration of Rorschach Inkblot Test.
Ans:The Rorschach Inkblot Test: Rorschach inkblot test was developed in 1921 by Swiss psychiatrist Hermann Rorschach. It consists of 10 inkblots, five in black ink on a white background and five in colored inks on a white background.
The Rorschach test is a measure of both the intellectual and non intellectual personality traits. MPC 03 Free Solved Assignment
While developing this technique, Rorschach experimented with a large number of ink blots which were administered to different psychiatric groups.
On the basis of such clinical observations various psychiatric syndromes that differentiate response characteristics were taken up in the scoring system.
In the test, the subjects are asked to simply state whatever each inkblot looks like to them.
Responses are scored by the psychologists using predetermined categories, on key factors such as color and shape, movement, whether the whole or part blot has been seen, and whether the response is given in content to the whole or to peculiar details in the blot.
Administration of Rorschach Inkblot Test: The administration of the Rorschach test can be put be up in two stages as given below.
a) Performance proper: The examinee is asked to get seated and rapport is established with him. First plate is then handled to the client with the question “What do you think this could be?” During the process the examinee needs to be careful about the following things:
1) Reaction time which means the time gap between the card presentation and examinee’s response. Exclamations and comments are excluded from scoring.
2) The position of the card is also taken account of while examinee is responding and are scored as v,^, .depending on the direction in which the card is turned.
3) The responses are recorded verbatim for the reason that the examiner can read it and analyse the same effectively. MPC 03 Free Solved Assignment
4) The total time for which the card is kept by the subject is also recorded. The time lapsed between the presentation of the card and the first response the subject gives is called the reaction time.
On completion of the first plate, the second plate is given to the examinee and similarly all the 10 plates are presented in a sequential manner.
The total number of responses is also termed as response productivity ratio and is coded as R. On a Rorschach protocol, for most adults the score varies from 15 to 30.
Vague and uncertain response by the examinee is noted down to be clarified in the second stage of administration, that is, the inquiry stage.
Inquiry: It is the second stage of administration of the Rorschach test. It is taken up after obtaining responses on all the ten cards during “performance proper”.
The basic purpose of conducting inquiry is to collect all the necessary information for the accurate scoring of the responses.
Here, a location sheet is presented before the examinee and he is asked to locate the part on the basis of which he has responded, Assessment of Personality so as to maintain a permanent record of the area of the blot used by the subject in responding.
The questions framed for the inquiry stage are based on the examiner’s skill and expertise.
Scoring of Rorschach test: The major differences among the various scoring systems of the Rorschach test flourished in 1930s to the 1960s.
There is also the focus of concern for Rorschach interpretation based either on the content of the responses or on their formal characteristics, such as location, determinants, form quality, and the various quantitative summaries derived from the responses, that is, the content. Scoring of location is important.
Location refers to that part of the plot with which each response of the subject is associated. For example, whether the whole blot or a common detail or a usual detail has been used by the respondent and are scored as W, D ,d, Dd etc.
The determinants of the response include form, color shading and “movement” and are coded as F,C,S,M etc. MPC 03 Free Solved Assignment
The respondent’s perception of the blot as a moving object is scored in context of “movement”.
The various types of movement include human movement, animal movement etc. The form quality of responses may depict the precision with which the response match the location used, to their originality.
The treatment of content also varies from one Rorschach system to another except some major regularly employed categories.
Some of the main categories are human figures, human details, animal details etc. and are coded as H, A, Hd, Ad etc. Some other broad scoring categories may include art objects, plants, maps, landscapes, clothing etc.
For each of the 10 cards, certain specific responses are scored as popular because of their common occurrence and thus, constitute the popularity
Qualitative interpretations of the Rorschach scores include the association of “whole” responses with conceptual thinking. The colour responses given by the subject are indicative of the subject’s emotionality and fantasy life.
The entire response for all the 10 cards including the enquiry are integrated together to interpret the psychodynamics underlying the problem and also decide upon the diagnostic issues.
However, after a prolonged use of the Rorschach test as a psychometric instrument, some of the researchers found a number of difficulties inherent in the method itself, such as the variability in the total number of responses, examiner effects and interdependence of scores etc.
The five major Rorschach systems in use developed in the United Sates show vast differences which were documented by John E. Exner, Jr. (1969).
He, with his extensive investigations of clinical use of the Rorschach Test came up with a single, distilled system encompassing all the useful features being possessed by the method.
Questions are also asked about the reliability and validity of the assessment done through the Rorschach Test. MPC 03 Free Solved Assignment
In this context, it is pertinent to mention here that the Rorschach Ink blot test was never developed as a psychometric tool, rather, it was developed as an instrument to aid in the clinical diagnosis.
To briefly state about this test, it can be concluded that more research still needs to be conduced to invent a standard method of administration and scoring of the Rorschach Test.
Q 3. Discuss neurophysiological basis of traits and types.
Ans:Neurophysiological basis of traits and types:According to Aleksandrov and Shchukina, the neurophysiological indices of neurotic patients with different types of individual character and their dynamics are important factors of personality.
They took 107 patients with different patterns of neuroses, who underwent group psychotherapy (a personalityoriented (reconstructive) variety).
Analysis of the dynamics of the neurophysiological characteristics, made during group psychotherapy, supported the clinical data on varying curability of neurotic patients with different types of character accentuations.
For instance, Patients with the hysteroid type character accentuation appeared more resistant to psychotherapy. Eysenck also made an attempt to specify a
neurophysiological basis for each of his three personality super traits or types.
According to him, the super trait Introversion-extraversion is closely related to levels of cortical arousal as indicated by electroencephalographic recordings.
Eysenck(1982) used the term arousal to denote a continuum of excitation, ranging from a lower extreme (e.g.,sleep) to an upper extreme (e.g., state of panic).
He was of the view that introverts are over aroused and thus are highly sensitive to incoming stimulation. For this reason, they avoided situations that are apt to overwhelm them.
Extraverts are under aroused and thus are highly insensitive to incoming stimulation and thus they constantly seek out situations that are apt to excite them.
Eysenck hypothesized that individual differences in stability vs neuroticism reflected the degree to which the autonomic nervous system reacts to stimuli.
He linked this dimension with the limbic system, the brain’s visceral or feeling system, which influences motivation and emotional behaviour.
He pointed out that persons high on neuroticism tend to react more quickly to painful, novel, disturbing, or other stimuli than do more stable persons.
Such persons also exhibit a more persistent reaction (even after the stimulus has disappeared) than do highly stable persons.
Eysenck’s neurophysiological interpretation of the dimensions of personality is closely related to his theory of psychopathology. MPC 03 Free Solved Assignment
He was of the view that the symptoms or disorders that befall a person are related to the combined impact of personality traits and nervous system functioning.
For instance, the person who is high on the dimensions of introversion and neuroticism is more prone to develop anxiety disorders such as phobias, obsessions, and, compulsions.
On the other hand, the person who is high on the extraversion and neuroticism dimensions is at a risk for psychopathic (antisocial) disorders.
Eysenck stated that psychological disorders do not automatically occur as a result of genetic predisposition.
These genetic predispositions when interact with the environment or a certain situation produce psychological disorders.
Extraversion and Cortical Arousal: According to the arousal theory, Eysenck provides a biological explanation of extraversion in terms of cortical arousal via the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS).
Activity in the ARAS stimulates the cerebral cortex, which, in turn, leads to higher cortical arousal.
Cortical arousal can be measured by skin conductance, brain waves, or sweating,
Because of the different levels of ARAS activity, “introverts are characterised by higher levels of activity than extraverts and so are chronically more cortically aroused than extraverts”.
Based on the Yerkes-Dodson law, which suggests that arousal and performance have an inverted-U relationship, the arousal theory of the PEN model assumes that “some intermediate level of arousal is optimal for performance”.
Neuroticism and Visceral Brain Activation: Eysenck also explains neuroticism in terms of activation thresholds in the sympathetic nervous system or visceral brain.
The visceral brain is also referred to as the limbic system, which consists of the hippocampus, amygdala, septum, and hypothalamus, and regulates such emotional states as sex, fear, and aggression.
It is responsible for the fight-or-flight response in the face of danger. Heart rate, blood pressure, skin conductance, sweating, breathing rate, and muscular tension in the forehead can measure activation levels of the visceral brain.
Neurotic individuals have greater activation levels and lower thresholds within the visceral brain. They are easily upset in the face of very minor stresses.
However, emotionally stable people are calm under such stresses because they have lesser activation levels and higher thresholds.MPC 03 Free Solved Assignment
Psychoticism and Gonadal Hormones: Eysenck also provides a biological explanation of psychoticism in terms of gonadal hormones such as testosterone and enzymes such as monoamine oxidase (MAO).
Eysenck reports that “low platelet monoamine oxydase (MAO) has been found in psychotic patients, and also in their relatives and inpatients who have recovered, suggesting that low MAO activity may be a marker for ‘vulnerability” (p.774).
All things considered, the PEN model has contributed to the study of personality in three distinctive ways.
1) It combines both descriptive and causal aspects of personality in one theory. This characteristic clearly distinguishes the PEN model from most other trait theories such as the five-factor model.
2) It provides causal explanations in addition to the description of personality.
3) The PEN model is supported by more credible evidence than purely descriptive models.
4) The PEN model is comprehensive in description by proposing a hierarchy of four levels and by making a clear distinction among those levels.
5) Finally, the PEN model becomes most compelling because of its experimental approach to the study of personality, which makes the model more testable. Consequently, the PEN model is likely to generate more specific predictions about personality.
Thus the essence of Eysenck’s Trait-Type theory is that:
1) Elements of personality can be arranged hierarchically.
2) Certain supertraits or types, such as extraversion, exert a powerful influence over behaviour.
3) These supertraits comprised of several component traits, and these component traits either are more superficial reflections of the underlying type dimension, or are specific qualities that contribute to that dimension.
According to Eysenck, traits are composed of numerous habitual responses, which, in turn, are derived from a multitude of specific responses.
The trait of sociability correlates with such response dispositions as activity, liveliness, assertiveness etc. Taken together, these traits define a super trait or type Eysenck calls extraversion.
In considering Eysenck’s hiearchichal model of personality structure, it should be noted that the word “type” refers to dimensions of personality that he regards as normally distributed along a continuum. MPC 03 Free Solved Assignment
This is almost equivalent to traits. Thus, for example, the type concept of extraversion is a dimension with a low end and a high end along which people may fall at various points between the two extremes.
It is not a dimension on which people can be classified as either low or high. Eysenck does not imply discontinuity when he uses the word “type”.
SECTION – B
Q 4. Explain Cattell’s trait approach of personality.
Ans:Cattell’s trait approach of personality: Raymond Cattell considered personality to be a pattern of traits providing the key to understanding it and predicting a person’s behaviour.
According to him, traits are relatively permanent and broad reaction tendencies of personality. They serve as the building blocks of personality.
He distinguished between (i) surface trait and source trait, (ii) constitutional and environmental-mold traits (iii) ability, temperament and dynamic traits.
i) Surface traits and source traits: The observable qualities of a personality like kindness, honesty,helpfulness, generosity, etc. are named as surface traits.
Allport has called these qualities or traits as central traits. Using questionnaires and observations, Cattell studied several thousand people and he reported certain cluster of surface traits that appeared together from time to time.
He further reported that these were the clear evidence of some deeper, more general underlying personality factors, and he referred to these as source traits.
Source traits make up the most basic structure of personality and are the underlying factors that are responsible for the inter-correlation among surface traits.
Although source traits are smaller in number than surface traits, yet they are better predictors of human behaviour. We all possess the same source traits but we do not possess them in the same amount.
For example, intelligence is an example of source trait and everyone of us possesses this but we all do not possess intelligence in the same amount.
ii) Constitutional and environmental traits: Cattell also distinguished between constitutional traits and environmental mold traits.MPC 03 Free Solved Assignment
Constitutional traits are those traits which are determined by nature or biology whereas environmental mold traits are those which are determined by nurture that is by experience gained in interaction with environment.
iii) Ability, temperament and dynamic traits: Cattell has further subdivided traits into ability traits, temperament traits and dynamic traits.
Ability traits refer to the person’s skill in dealing with the environment and the goals set therein. Intelligence is an example of ability trait.
Temperament traits refer to stylistic tendencies that largely show how a person moves towards a goal.
Being moody, irritable, easygoing are examples of temperament trait. Dynamic traits are the person’s motivation and interest which set the person in action toward the goal.
A person may be characterised as being power-seeking, ambitious or sports-oriented. This relfects the dynamic trait.
Q 5. What is the aim of personality assessment? Discuss some important methods for personality assessment.
Ans:Aim of personality assessment: Nunnally has opined that personality measurement aims at studying the four broad types of traits, viz., social traits, motives, personal conceptions and adjustment.
These are being discussed in the following section.
Social traits: Social traits are those traits, which determine how persons interact with other persons in society. MPC 03 Free Solved Assignment
Examples of typical social traits are friendliness, honesty, dominance, responsibility, shyness, etc.Thus, within social traits are included traits related to temperament and character.
Motives: Motives here include the non-biological drives such as the need to earn money and prestige, need for the academic, achievement, need for affiliation, aggression, etc.
These non-biological needs are often said to constitute what is known as personality dynamics.
Personal conceptions: Under the trait of personal conceptions are included those methods which determine people’s attitude toward self and others, a person’s values, interests, etc.
Adjustment: Adjustment in psychology refers to the establishment of a satisfactory relationship representing harmony, conformance, adaptation or the like.
It is a process of finding and adopting modes of behaviour suitable to the environment or the change in the environment.
Adjustment is the process by which a living organism maintains a balance between its needs and the circumstances that influences the satisfaction of these needs.
Adjustment includes traits like the freedom from emotional worries or instability and other related aspects of behaviour
Some important methods for personality assessment:
Some of the important tests and techniques measuring personality include
(i) Interviews (ii) Projective techniques (iii) Association techniques
(iv) Expressive techniques MPC 03 Free Solved Assignment
Interviews: Interview is a method of personality assessment in which the interviewee has to answer the questions asked by the professional, in a structured or unstructured fashion.
Some therapists note down the answers of the interviewee in a survey process. This type of interview is unstructured in manner and moves naturally
Projective Techniques: These techniques are assumed to reveal those central aspects of personality that lie in the unconscious mind of an individual.
Unconscious motivations, hidden desires, inner fears and complexes are presumed to be elicited by their unstructured nature that affect the client’s conscious behaviour.
The assignment of a relatively unstructured task is a major distinguishing feature of projective techniques.
Rather than measuring the traits separately the attention is focused on the composite picture.
Finally, projective techniques are an effective tool to reveal the latent or hidden aspects of personality that remain embedded in the unconscious until uncovered.
These techniques are based on the assumption that if the stimulus structure is weak in nature, it allows the individual to project his/her feelings, desires and needs that are further interpreted by the experts
Q 6. Explain Karen Horney’s theory of personality.
Ans:Karen Horney’s theory of personality: Karen Horney was born on 16 September 1885 in Hamburg, Germany. Horney’s career began at the Institute for Psychoanalysis in Berlin, where she taught from 1920 to 1932.
Karl Abraham worked with her and regarded her as one of his most gifted analysts. Karen’s first American job was as the Associate Director of the Chicago Institute for Psychoanalysis, a position she held for two years.
The family eventually settled in what was then thought of as the intellectual capital of the world, Brooklyn.MPC 03 Free Solved Assignment
There, Karen became colleagues with distinguished men as Erich Fromm and Harry Stack Sullivan. She also had the opportunity to develop her own theories on neurosis, based on her experiences as a psychotherapist.
In addition, she taught at the New York Psychoanalytic Institute.
By 1941, Horney established and became Dean of the American Institute for Psychoanalysis, a training institute for those interested in her own Association for the Advancement of Psychoanalysis, a program that resulted from her dissatisfaction with the orthodox approach to psychoanalysis;
the negativity surrounding her for deviating from Freud had forced her to resign. She also founded the American Journal of Psychoanalysis.
Shortly after, she began teaching at the New York Medical College. Karen practiced, taught, and wrote up until her death in 1952.
Horney often criticized the work of Sigmund Freud. For instance, she opposed Freud’s notion of penis envy, claiming that what Freud was really detecting was women’s justified envy of men’s power in the world.
While penis envy might occur occasionally in neurotic women, she said, womb envy occurs just as much in men. MPC 03 Free Solved Assignment
Horney felt that men were envious of a woman’s ability to bear children.
The degree to which men are driven to succeed and to have their names live on, she said, is mere compensation for their inability to more directly extend themselves into the future by means of carrying, nurturing, and bearing children.
She did not understand why psychologists found the need to place much emphasis on men’s sexual apparatus. Horney was also a pioneer in the discipline of feminine psychiatry.
As one of the first female psychiatrists, she was the first of her gender to present a paper regarding feminine psychiatry.
The fourteen papers she wrote between 1922 and 1937 were amalgamated into a single volume titled Feminine Psychology.
In her personality theory, Horney reformulated Freudian thought and presented a holistic, humanistic perspective that emphasised cultural and social influences, human growth, and the achievement of self-actualization.
Horney’s theory can be explained under the following three main headings:
ii. Neurotic Needs MPC 03 Free Solved Assignment
iii. Measures to cope with anxiety
Q 7. Discuss behavioural assessments in personality.
Ans:Behavioural assessments in personality:
The underlying principle of behavioural assessment is that past behaviour is a valid predictor of future behaviour.
The scope of behavioural assessments extends from ‘low fidelity simulations in the form of Situational Judgement Tests where Participants provide a multiple choice response indicating the effectiveness of specified actions,
to ‘high fidelity simulations’ in the form of assessment centre exercises, to on-the-job assessments such as 360 degree feedback questionnaires.
According to the behaviorists, personality is shaped out of the habits and behaviour of a person, which he learns through life while giving responses to the various stimuli,
therefore the situations in which he finds himself in according to them the study of the behaviour of the individual is a better method to study personality.
To study behaviour, the some behaviorists advocate direct observation in which the psychologist observes the behaviour of the individual in day-to-day living, their behaviour at their workplace, home, school or any other place they are in.
Behavioural therapists also use other some other methods like rating scales and frequency counts.
The rating scale is one of the oldest and most versatile of assessment techniques. Rating scales present an observer with scalar dimensions along which those who are observed are asked to be placed. MPC 03 Free Solved Assignment
A teacher, for example, might be asked to rate the students on the degree to which the behaviour of each reflects leadership capacity, shyness or creativity.
The psychologist or client is asked to rate numerically some specific behaviour. Several standardized rating scales are available for describing the behaviour of psychiatric hospital patients.
In frequency count, the number of times a certain behaviour is repeated in a given time limit is counted.
Both the above techniques are very much in use by educators to diagnose behavioural problems like attention deficit disorders in children.
It is clear that behavioural assessments have benefits when compared with other assessment methods.
However, the evidence shows that predictive power can be maximised when behavioural assessments are used with other forms of assessment.
Limitations of Behavioural Assessment:
The following are the main limitations of behavioural assessment.
i.The person observing the behaviour becomes biased and is not able to judge behaviour correctly.
ii. Since, the examiner has no control over the situation or the environment in which the behaviour of the examine is being observed, it may be a pointless task unnecessary directionless exercise. MPC 03 Free Solved Assignment
Q 8. Elucidate the scientific criteria essential for assessment techniques before they are acceptable.
Ans:Scientific criteria essential for assessment techniques:
These assessment efforts have generated several broadly accepted “best practice” principles. For example, the National Science and Technology Council (1996:xii) set forth the following nine principles for assessment of fundamental science programs:
i.Begin with a clearly defined statement of program goals.
ii. Develop criteria intended to sustain and advance the excellence and responsiveness of the research system.
iii. Establish performance indicators that are useful to managers and encourage risk-taking.
iv. Avoid assessments that would be inordinately burdensome or costly or that would create incentives that are counterproductive.
v. Incorporate merit review and peer evaluation of program performance.
vi. Use multiple sources and types of evidence, for example, a mix of quantitative and qualitative indicators and narrative text.
vii. Experiment in order to develop an effective set of assessment tools.
viii. Produce assessment reports that will inform future policy development and subsequent refinement of program plans. MPC 03 Free Solved Assignment
ix. Communicate results to the public and elected representatives.
These principles are generally sensible, but they leave some important questions unaddressed. One of these is how to establish useful performance indicators and incorporate peer review and evaluation at the same time.
Developing an effective tool is a challenging task. You have to follow scientific and systematic procedure to develop or standardize a tool.
To get accurate results, you have to prepare or select a proper tool. Before selecting a tool for certain purpose, you have to look into the criteria or qualities of the tool.
The essential qualities or criteria of an effective tool may be as follows:
ii. Validity iii. Usability
iv. Objectivity V. Norm
Constructively aligned assessment criteria begin with a noun that complements the verb in the assessment tasks objective.
For example, if the objective is for students to “explain how concepts in the subject interrelate” one of the criteria might be “Clarity of explanation”.
That is, the criterion describes the quality in the assessment task that will be judged during marking. Other commonly used quality words used in criteria include:
i. Accuracy MPC 03 Free Solved Assignment
ii. Currency iii. Depth iv. Impact
V. Legibility vi. Originality vii. Succinctness
Q 9. Aptitudes
Aptitudes are natural talents, special abilities for doing, or learning to do, certain kinds of things easily and quickly. They have little to do with knowledge or culture, or education, or even interests.
They have to do with heredity. Musical talent and artistic talent are examples of such aptitudes. Some people can paint beautifully but cannot carry a tune.
Others are good at talking to people but slow at paperwork. Still others can easily repair a car, but find writing difficult.
Q 10. NEO-PI
Ans:NEO-PI: A third objective test, the NEO-Personality Inventory, is used to measure aspects of personality that are not linked to psychological disorders.
Specifically, it tends to measure the “big five” dimensions of personality, as these dimensions appear to represent basic aspects of personality.
The NEO-PI is a highly-regarded assessment of personality. Based on the Five Factor model, the NEO PI-R measures the interpersonal, motivational, emotional, and attitudinal styles of adults and adolescents. MPC 03 Free Solved Assignment
Q 11. Limitations of personality inventories
Ans:Limitations of personality inventories:
Personality inventories have certain advantages over projective tests and interviews in the sense that inventories are standardised.
Also, observer bias and interpretation bias are not possible due to their objective frame. Inventories are also superior to projective tests in terms of validity and reliability.
However, there are some problems with inventories too. Even though, good at validity end, some people still fake their answers and respond in socially acceptable ways.
Also, some people follow a regular course of answering the statements without actually considering them, there as others may pick statements to answer at random rather than answering each and every statement
Q 12. Ayurvedic body types
Ans:Ayurvedic body types:The key to Ayurvedic wellness and healing is the knowledge that health is not a “one size fits all”proposition.
One must understand the unique nature of each person and situation, taking into account the individual, the season, the geography, and so on.
Have you ever wondered why some people are hyperactive while others stay calm?
Why some people do not put on weight despite eating more than what is required while others gain weight by eating a simple three-course meal?
Ayurveda resolves all these questions with the three doshas or body types.
Q 13. Senior Apperception Test
Ans:Senior Apperception Test: MPC 03 Free Solved Assignment
The 16 stimulus pictures on this test, which was designed specifically for older adults, reflect themes of loneliness, uselessness, illness, helplessness, and lowered self-esteem, in addition to positive and happier situations.
As in the case of the Gerontological Apperception Test, a similar instrument, responses to the pictures on the Senior Apperception Technique reflect serious concerns over health, getting along with other people and being placed in a nursing or retirement home.
Both tests have been criticized for inadequate norms and possible stereotyping of the elderly.
Q 14. Holtzman Inkblot Test
Answer:Holtzman Inkblot Test:
The Holtzman Inkblot Technique is a projective personality assessment test for persons ages five and above.
The main purpose of this test is to assess personality structure of a subject. It is also used as a diagnostic test particularly assessing schizophrenia, depression, addiction and personality disorders. MPC 03 Free Solved Assignment
This test requires a clinically trained examiner. The HIT should be administered and interpreted by a trained psychologist, psychiatrist, or appropriately trained mental health professional.
Q 15. Growth needs
A growth need is part of Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, which are called self-actualization needs.
Abraham Maslow, who lived from 1908-1970, was an American psychologist and a key figure in the transpersonal psychology school of thought.
He is most noted for the development of a five-step hierarchy of needs.
Q 16. Reciprocal determinism
Answer:Reciprocal determinism: MPC 03 Free Solved Assignment
A concept that opposes exclusive emphasis on environmental determination of responses and asserts that a reciprocal relationship exists among environment, behavior, and the individual.
That is, instead of conceptualizing the environment as a one-way determinant of behavior, reciprocal determinism maintains that the environment influences behavior, behavior influences the environment, and both influence the individual, who also influences them.
This concept is associated with social learning theory.
Q 17. Principles of behaviour modification
Answer:Principle 1: Negative consequences sometimes change behavior, but they do not change attitude. MPC 03 Free Solved Assignment
Principle 2: Only positive reinforcement strategies produce long-term attitudinal change.
Principle 3: Negative consequences do not improve the behavior of impulsive children and frequently increase the frequency and intensity of misbehavior.
Principle 4: Cognitive control of behavior can be learned through the use of appropriate positive reinforcement systems.
Principle 5: Positive reinforcement systems must be incremental in nature such that the child can directly observe even small improvements in behavior.
Principle 6: You must always reinforce the final compliance with adult authority no matter how long it takes to get there.
Q 18. Personifications
Personification is a figure of speech in which an idea or thing is given human attributes and/or feelings or is spoken of as if it were human.
Personification is a common form of metaphor in that human characteristics are attributed to nonhuman things. MPC 03 Free Solved Assignment
This allows writers to create life and motion within inanimate objects, animals, and even abstract ideas by assigning them recognizable human behaviors and emotions.
MPC 02 Free Solved Assignment jan 2022
MPC 01 Free Solved Assignment jan 2022