IGNOU MPC 02 Free Solved Assignment 2022- Helpfirst

MPC 02

LIFE SPAN DEVELOPMENT

MPC 02 Free Solved Assignment

MPC 02 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022

SECTION – A

Q 1 Discuss the characteristics of prenatal development. Explain the environmental influences during prenatal development.

Ans: Prenatal development:

Prenatal development, also called antenatal development, in humans, the process encompassing the period from the formation of an embryo, through the development of a fetus, to birth.

The human body, like that of most animals, develops from a single cell produced by the union of a male and a female gamete.

This union marks the beginning of the prenatal period, which in humans encompasses three distinct stages:

(1) the pre-embryonic stage, the first two weeks of development, which is a period of cell division and initial differentiation.

(2) the embryonic period, or period of organogenesis, which lasts from the third to the eighth week of development,MPC 02 Free Solved Assignment

(3) the fetal period, which is characterized by the maturation of tissues and organs and rapid growth of the body.

Characteristics of prenatal development:

The prenatal development has some important characteristics, each of which has a long lasting effect on development during the life span.

(i.This is the most important and first period of development in the life span.

(ii. It is the first but shortest period for the new born baby or infancy, which starts from the conception and ends at the birth time of baby. This period is approximately 270 to 280 days or nine months of a calendar.

(iii. Heredity factors are also important for prenatal development; it serves as the foundation for later development.

While favourable or unfavourable conditions both before and after birth may and probably will affect to some extent the physical and psychological traits that make up this heredity endowment. The changes will be quantitative and not qualitative.

(iv. Favourable and unfavourable conditions of the mother’s body can foster the development of hereditary potentials.

Some times the hereditary potentials are so influenced by environmental conditions that they affect the embryo or the fetus as the case may be affecting the development adversely.

(v. At the time of conception, the sex of the baby is fixed. Except when surgery is used for sex transformation, the sex of the individual, determined at the time of conception, remains the same and does not change. MPC 02 Free Solved Assignment

(vi. During the prenatal period, proportionally greater growth and development take place than any other time throughout the entire life of human.

(vii. Before birth (during nine month) the child grows from microscopically small cell to an infant who measures approximately twenty inches in length and weight, on the average 7 pounds.

It is observed that during this time weight increases 11 million times.

(viii. Many believe that this time is more hazardous than other periods of the life span. It certainly is a time when environment or psychological hazards can have marked effect on the pattern of later development.

(ix. During the prenatal period, the attitudes of people towards the newly created individual has significant impact on the development.

For example the mother’s positive attitude is essential to the normal development of the newly created individual.

Environmental influences during prenatal development:

So far in today’s advanced technology, the fetus has been considered to be an active part of research in its own development.

Many scientists believe that anything that affects the environment of the fetus can have an effect upon the development beginning at conception and not at birth.
Environment does indeed begin to influence the individual as soon as he or she is conceived.

i) Mother’s diseases: Mother’s diseases is the main cause of fetal death and their possible effects. MPC 02 Free Solved Assignment

German measles or rubella and cytomegalovirus diseases are among the most potentially dangerous of the infectious diseases in mothers.

ii) Drugs and Chemicals: For a healthy delivery it is necessary to avoid any kind of drugs and chemicals unless they are professionally recommended by the doctors.

MPC 02 Free Solved Assignment
MPC 02 Free Solved Assignment

Alcohol, antihistamines, aspirin, barbiturates, heroin, lead, quinine, thalidomide, insulin and tobacco are the drugs and chemicals which affect the possible prenatal period development.

iii) Radiation: Radiation is responsible for causing damage to the fetus. Larger doses of therapeutic radiation may be injurious to the fetus and sometimes cause spontaneous abortion.

There really seems to be no completely safe level of radiation.

Even the various levels of natural radiation found in different parts of the world can be correlated with higher or lower chances of babies born in those parts of the world to have congenital abnormalities.

iv) Abortion: Termination of pregnancy could be due to natural causes or a pregnancy may be terminated come to know of the child’s sex, they may request the doctor to carry out abortion.

Abortion procedure is pregnancy advances beyond a specified number of weeks.

v) Age of the mother: The maternal age have a higher risk for infant defect, prematurity and infant death. MPC 02 Free Solved Assignment

In older woman the ova, which have been present in an immature state from birth, may have been affected by aging or exposure to chemicals, drugs and other harmful agents.

In young women (women under 18 years) the reproductive system may not be fully developed.

vi) Nutrition/ Diet of the mother: The mother is the only sole source of nutrition for the unborn child, a diet providing the proper balance of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, minerals, and vitamins is vital.

Many correlational studies of humans indicate a relationship between maternal diet deficiencies and prematurity, low birth weight, stillbirth, growth retardation, and poor mental functioning.

vii) Stress in the mother: The effects of maternal stress are less important than the effects of maternal nutrition but some studies strongly believe that maternal stress may affect the fetus development.

It seems that maternal emotions could influence the growing child.

viii) The Rh Incompatibility: The Rh factor, is an inherited protein found in the blood of 85% of the population.

The problem arises when the male carries the Rh positive factor, the female does not carry the Rh negative factors and the child develops as Rh positive.

Q 2. Explain identity crisis during adolescence.

Ans:Identity in Adolescence:

Identity is a new way of thinking about oneself that emerges during adolescence. Identity involves a sense of self-unity, accompanied by a feeling that the self has continuity over time. MPC 02 Free Solved Assignment

A firmly established identity also provides a sense of uniqueness as a person. According to Erikson’s psychosocial model of development, identity must be perceived by the individual, but also recognised and confirmed by others.

Thus, the process of establishing an identity involves “Integrating into a coherent whole one’s past experiences, ongoing personal changes, and society’s demands and expectations for one’s future”

The process of developing an identity begins with the infant’s discovery of self, continues throughout childhood, and becomes the focus of adolescence.

Erik Erikson, identified the goal of adolescence as achieving a coherent identity and avoiding identity confusion.

Identity is multidimensional and may include physical and sexual identity, occupational goals, religious beliefs, and ethnic background.

Adolescents explore these dimensions, and usually make commitments to aspects of their identity as they move into early adulthood. Identity development begins with children’s awareness that they are separate and unique individuals.

First indications of this awareness are evident in infancy when children begin to recognise themselves. They recognise the reflected image as themselves. Also, the words “me,” “I” and “mine” emerge very early in children’s language.

These findings are consistent with Erikson’s psychosocial stage of autonomy versus shame and doubt, when infants establish their identity as independent persons. During childhood, self-awareness grows and changes. MPC 02 Free Solved Assignment

Preschoolers describe themselves in terms of observable characteristics and behaviours, including physical attributes (“I have brown eyes”), preferences (“I like to ride my bike”), and competencies (“I can sing ‘Itsy, Bitsy Spider”‘).

Between ages six and twelve, children begin to include less concrete aspects of the self in their descriptions.

Schoolaged children talk about their feelings (“I love my dog”) and how they fit into their social world (“I’m the best fielder on my team”).

During Erikson’s stage of initiative versus guilt children explore their skills, abilities, and attitudes and incorporate the information into their view of self.

The physical, cognitive, and social changes of adolescence allow the teenager to develop the identity that will serve as a basis for their adult lives.

During Erikson’s stage of identity versus role confusion, adolescents’ description of self expands to include personality traits (“I’m outgoing”) and attitudes (“I don’t like stuckup people”).

The emergence of abstract reasoning abilities allows adolescents to think about the future and experiment with different identities.

Identity development involves two steps. First, the adolescent must break away from childhood beliefs to explore alternatives for identity in a particular area.

Second, the adolescent makes a commitment as to their individual identity in that area.

Some aspects of identity, especially among young adolescents, may be foreclosed. The foreclosure status is when a commitment is made without exploring alternatives.

Identity achievement during adolescence serves as a basis for our adult expectations and goals for us. MPC 02 Free Solved Assignment

As individuals enter early adulthood they use their current understanding of whom they are to develop a lifespan construct which serves as the link between the identity developed in adolescence and the adult self.

The lifespan construct is an integration of an individual’s past, present, and culture.

Identity Crisis:

An identity crisis is a developmental event that involves a person questioning their sense of self or place in the world.

The concept originates in the work of developmental psychologist Erik Erikson, who believed that the formation of identity was one of the most important conflicts that people face.

According to Erikson, an identity crisis is a time of intensive analysis and exploration of different ways of looking at oneself.

While developing a sense of identity is an important part of the teenage years, Erikson did not believe that the formation and growth of identity were confined to adolescence only.

Instead, identity is something that shifts and changes throughout life as people confront new challenges and tackle different experiences.

Are you unsure of your role in life? Do you feel like you don’t know the ‘real you’? If you answer yes to the previous questions, you may be experiencing an identity crisis.

Theorist Erik Erikson coined the term identity crisis and believed that it was one of the most important conflicts people face in development.

According to Erikson, an identity crisis is a time of intensive analysis and exploration of different ways of looking at oneself. MPC 02 Free Solved Assignment

Erikson’s interest in identity began in childhood. Erikson described identity as “a subjective sense as well as an observable quality of personal sameness and continuity, paired with some belief in the sameness and continuity of some shared world image.

As a quality of unself-conscious living, this can be gloriously obvious in a young person who has found himself as he has found his communality.

In him we see emerge a unique unification of what is irreversibly given-that is, body type and temperament, giftedness and vulnerability, infantile models and acquired ideals-with the open choices provided in available roles, occupational possibilities, values offered, mentors met, friendships made, and first sexual encounters.”

In Erik Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development, the emergence of an identity crisis occurs during the teenage years in which people struggle between feelings of identity versus role confusion.

Researcher James Marcia has expanded upon Erikson’s initial theory. James Marcia argued that identity could be viewed as a structure of beliefs, abilities and past experiences regarding the self.

“The better developed this structure is, the more individuals appear to be of their own strengths and weaknesses. MPC 02 Free Solved Assignment

The less developed this structure is, the more confused individuals seem to be about their own distinctiveness from others and the more they have to rely on external sources to evaluate themselves.”

Identity is a dynamic, not static psychological structure. The formation of identity in adolescence sets the stage for continual changes in the content of identity through the adult years.

There’s a good reason to overcome an identity crisis. Researchers have found that those who have made a strong commitment to an identity tend to be happier and healthier than those who have not.

Q 3. Discuss psychosocial changes during early adulthood.

Ans: Psychosocial changes during early adulthood:

Early adulthood is the stage of our life between the ages of about 20-40 years old, who are typically vibrant, active and healthy, and are focused on friendship, romance, child bearing and careers.

It is the first stage of adulthood in which the body physically changes and is one of the hardest times in our lives after teenage years.

One has to deal with so much in this time and it seems to be the time for self search as well as preparation for the future coming years of old age.

During this time in one’s life, people find themselves with a new sense of independence and for the first time in life they really feel free.

However, along with that comes a lot of added personal responsibility to both individuals and others and the persons really start learning more about themselves as well as others through social interaction.

  1. Eric Erikson’s Theory:

According to Erikson, the socialisation process consists of eight phases – the “eight stages of man.”

His eight stages of man were formulated, not through experimental work, but through wide-ranging experience in psychotherapy, including extensive experience with children and adolescents from low – as well as upper – and middle – social classes.

Each stage is regarded by Erikson as a “psychosocial crisis,” which arises and demands resolution before the next stage can be satisfactorily negotiated. Some of the important crises of the adulthood include the following:

Intimacy vs. Isolation: Intimacy requires that an independent persons give up some of their independence and redefine their identity to include the interests of another person or others in their lives.

The adult life is a conflict of intimacy vs. independence, and includes differing needs for connection, fears of abandonment or being overwhelmed, and it’s a challenging work in progress.

People who have achieved intimacy are cooperative, tolerant, and accepting of differences.

They can accept times of aloneness without fear of loneliness. If there is too great a sense of isolation, there will be fears of forming close ties, due to fears of loss of identity or freedom.

  1. Levinson’s Seasons of Life Theory: Levinson sought to find a common path of change in adulthood. He believed that there were stages with tasks inherent to each one.

He was of the view that each stage began with a transition, lasting about 5 years. Between transitions there are periods of 5 – 7 years that are stable, during which a person builds a life structure.

Life structure is the underlying design of a person’s life, which involves relationships with significant others and occupations.

This structure is designed to harmonize inner and outer demands to enhance quality of life. Early adulthood is the time of greatest energy, contradiction and stress.

It is also a time of intense satisfaction, as a person charts his/her own course in love, sexuality, family, occupation, setting life goals, etc.

Dreams and mentors: In Levinson’s theory, during the early adult transition most people construct a dream, an image of themselves in the adult world that will guide their decision making.

Continued instability for Women occurs as women often get side-tracked from a professional focus by child-bearing and family responsibilities.

Most women don’t attain the stability that men achieve in the early 30s until middle age.

The Social clock is the age-graded expectations that we hold for life events, such as first job, getting married, having children, buying a house, retirement.

Women who followed a feminine social clock are considered to be responsible, self-controlled, tolerant, and caring, but do seem to feel their selfesteem decline, and are said to feel more vulnerable as they aged.

Women who followed a masculine social clock (early career development) became more dominant, sociable, independent, and intellectually effective.

Companionate love is formed with intimacy and commitment, as partners develop warm, trusting affection and offer caregiving.

Solid long-term relationships involve both types of love at different stages. It requires this glue to hold a couple together as the newness of a relationship wears off.

Commitment determines if a relationship will survive. Communication of commitment requires warmth, forgiveness, sensitivity, acceptance, and respect.

  1. Attachment Patterns and Romantic Relationships: Early attachment patterns predict the quality of later intimate relationships.

That early attachment bond sets up an internal working model, or expectations about love figures.

It also relates to quality of parenting and attachments formed in those relationships. The attachment is itself of various types which
are discussed below:

i) Secure attachment: those with secure attachments to a caregiver viewed themselves as likable, open to others, comfortable with intimacy, with few fears of abandonment or intimacy.

They describe their love relationships as trusting, happy, and the partner as a friend. They were willing to turn to the partner for comfort, and they described satisfying sexual behaviour.

ii) Resistant attachment: this includes parents who were unpredictable or unfair. These people set up intense relationships characterised by fears of abandonment and smothering of the partner.

They experienced extreme highs and lows in a relationship. They have poor boundaries with others, disclosing inappropriately to others too early in the relationship.

SECTION – B

Q 4. Discuss the main interactive forces and issues in life span development.

Ans:Main interactive forces in life span development:

There are four interactive forces that combine to shape human development and these are :

(i) Biological

(ii)Psychological

(iii) socio cultural and

(iv) Life cycle forces.

i) Biological structure or environment of human includes glands, nervous system, respiratory system etc. All these affect the individual’s personality.

For example, if pituitary glands do not work in normal ways then the individual’s physical growth will be affected and this will bring about a change in the person’s personality.

Biological forces include all genetic and health related factors that affect development.

ii) Psychological forces include all internal perceptual, cognitive, emotional and personality factors that affect development.

These factors determine variations among individuals. Example for this would be Intelligence, self confidence, honesty, self esteem.

Although a child’s mental development presupposes a kind of network in which internal and external factors are intertwined, it is possible to unravel their distinct, respective roles.

iii) Socio-cultural forces include interpersonal, societal, cultural and ethnic factors that affect development.

To understand development we need to know how people and environments interact and relate to each other. The family, peers, coworkers and social institutions and culture influence development.

iv) Life cycle forces reflect differences in how the same event affects people of different ages.

Each individual is a product of a unique combination of these forces. No two individuals even in the same family experience these forces in the same way.

Issues in Life Span Development:

A number of major issues have emerged in the study of human development. These issues include the following: Is development due more to genetics or environment? Does development occur slowly and smoothly, or do changes happen in stages? Do early childhood experiences have the greatest impact on development, or are later events equally important?

i. Continuity and Discontinuity: The question of whether development is solely and evenly continuous, or whether it is marked by age-specific periods.

Developmental Psychologists who advocate the continuous model describe development as a relatively smooth process, without sharp or distinct stages, through which an individual must pass.

ii. Stability and Change: Another issue which is of importance to developmental psychologists is the issue of stability versus change.

Whether development is best characterised by stability, for example, does a behaviour or trait such as shyness stay stable in its expression over time or change example: Could a person’s degree of shyness fluctuate across the life span?

iii. Nature vs. Nurture: Whether the behaviour ultimately developed by the child is due to hereditary factors or environmental factors.

This issue of great to psychologists. The debate over the relative contributions of inheritance and the environment is one of the oldest issues in both philosophy and psychology

MPC 02 Free Solved Assignment
MPC 02 Free Solved Assignment

Q 5. Explain cognitive development during infancy.

Ans:Cognitive development during infancy:

Cognitive development refers to the growth and change in the mental capacity that begins in infancy and reaches maturity in adolescence.

It involves many abilities such as attention, perception, memory, thinking, problem solving and intelligence. A neonate is able to see and hear.

But the capacity to look at an object carefully or with interest (attention) develops at a later age.

The child begins to recognize the shapes (triangle, rectangle, cylindrical) and sizes (big, small) of tile objects before s/he learns different colours (red, blue, green), numbers (1,2,3), alphabets (A, B, C) and keeps them in memory.

Babies are not only growing physically during the first 2 years of life, but also cognitively (mentally).

Every day while they interact with and learn about their environment they are creating new connections and pathways between nerve cells both within their brains, and between their brains and bodies.

While physical growth and change is easily observed and measured in precise terms such as in inches and pounds, cognitive change and development is a little harder to determine as clearly.

The child develops the ability to store learned materials in his/her memory. The full span of memory, however, develops with age.

The infant makes discrimination between strangers and familiar faces (discrimination). You must have seen a child reacting warmly to a lady who looks like his/ her mother (generalization).

On the basis of similarities and differences the child classifies objects/events into different categories (concept learning).

For example, all objects made of wood and having four legs can be labelled as furniture. Therefore, furniture is a concept which would include chair, table, almirah, bed, etc.

At a later age the child begins to reason what is right what is wrong. S/he solves simple and complex problems of daily life (problem solving).

S/he develops the ability to perform goal-directed behaviour, do logical thinking and manipulate his/her environment effectively (intelligence).

At the pre-primary stage the child’s thinking is largely guided by what she sees rather than based on concepts of reasoning.

It is only at the primary stage that the thinking becomes more logical. But even at this stage the child is able to think logically only with respect to concrete objects and events.

Abstract thinking comes still later after the age of eleven or twelve years. Therefore, at the primary stage when children have to learn basic concepts they should be taught through play and activities and not through the ‘chalk and talk’ method.

Q 6. What are the types of motor development during early school years?

Ans:Types of motor development during early school years:

The truly attention-getting change in children will probably be associated with the first signs of puberty. MPC 02 Free Solved Assignment

For girls, breast development may start as early as 8 years, although 10 is the average.

For boys, enlargement of the testicles and thinning and reddening of the scrotum, (the pouch of skin that holds the testicles) marks the beginning of puberty.

Male puberty may begin as early as 9, although 11 is the average. During these years, children of the same age are frequently at different points in their growth and sexual development.

School-age children typically have fairly smooth and strong motor skills. However, their coordination (especially eye-hand), endurance, balance, and physical tolerance vary.

Fine motor skills may also vary widely and influence a child’s ability to write neatly, dress appropriately, and perform certain chores, such as making beds or doing dishes.

There will be significant differences in height, weight, and build among children of this age range.

It is important to remember that genetic background, as well as nutrition and exercise, may influence a child’s growth.

There can also be a big difference in the age at which children begin to develop secondary sexual characteristics.

Girls will grow buds of breasts at ten or eleven, her hips will take shape and she may begin to menstruate at eleven or twelve. MPC 02 Free Solved Assignment

Eleven is an early start for a first period and even at twelve and thirteen girls are not always emotionally prepared and welcoming of this powerful sign of approaching fertility.

When her periods begin the girl may be proud and excited to be growing up like all her friends or she may, in the back of her mind, be anxious about approaching adolescence and the complications that this introduces into her life.

Her biology demands that she be a woman soon – whether she likes it or not.

Fine motor skills may also vary widely and influence a child’s ability to write neatly, dress appropriately, and perform certain chores, such as making beds or doing dishes.

There will be significant differences in height, weight, and build among children of this age range.

It is important to remember that genetic background, as well as nutrition and exercise, may influence a child’s growth.

There can also be a big difference in the age at which children begin to develop secondary sexual characteristics.

Girls will grow buds of breasts at ten or eleven, her hips will take shape and she may begin to menstruate at eleven or twelve. MPC 02 Free Solved Assignment

Eleven is an early start for a first period and even at twelve and thirteen girls are not always emotionally prepared and welcoming of this powerful sign of approaching fertility.

When her periods begin the girl may be proud and excited to be growing up like all her friends or she may, in the back of her mind, be anxious about approaching adolescence and the complications that this introduces into her life.

Her biology demands that she be a woman soon – whether she likes it or not.

Q 7. Elucidate Kohlberg’s idea on moral development.

Ans:Kohlberg’s idea on moral development:

Lawrence Kohlberg sought to refine and extend the ideas of Piaget and the pioneering work of James M.Baldwin by creating a comprehensive three-stage theory.

Kohlberg studied moral development by posing moral dilemmas to groups of children as well as adolescents and adults.

These dilemmas take the form of stories, one of Kohlberg’s best known dilemmas involves a man named Heinz, who must choose between stealing medicine and letting his wife die.

In Europe, a woman was near death from a special kind of cancer. There was one drug that the doctors thought might save her. MPC 02 Free Solved Assignment

It was a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The drug was expensive to make, but the druggist was charging ten times what the drug cost him to make.

He paid $200 for the radium and charged $2000 for a small dose of the drug. The sick woman’s husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could only get together about $1000, which was half of what it cost.

He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said, “No, I discovered the drug and I’m going to make money from it.”

So Heinz got desperate and considered breaking into the man’s store to steal the drug for his wife.

Should Heinz steal the radium? Instead of the answer, Kohlberg analysed the reasons children gave for their answers. MPC 02 Free Solved Assignment

He identified three general levels of moral reasoning: preconventional, conventional and postconventional and described two stages at each level.

i) Preconventional Level: Stage-1 Punishment-obedience orientation, Stage-2 Instrumental-exchange orientation.

(ii) Conventional level: Stage-3 Good-boy-nice-girl orientation, Stage-4 System-maintaining orientation.

(iii) Postconventional Level: Stage-5 Social-contract situation, Stage-6 Universal-ethical-principles orientation.

Moral reasoning of preschool children was influenced by a concern for obedience and punishment and for satisfying personal needs.

When children enter the stage of concrete operations, they are able to turn away from their egocentric thinking, growing more concerned about appearing ‘good’

According to Kohlberg this shift in focus is characteristic of conventional level of moral reasoning. Concern with law and order is an important aspect of conventional reasoning.

Rule breaking is considered to be inherently immoral because it creates chaos in a stable social system. Reasoning at this level fits what many societies
consider to be acceptable moral rules. MPC 02 Free Solved Assignment

Q 8. Discuss cognitive changes during late adulthood.

Ans: Cognitive changes during late adulthood:

Cognitive development is a general loss cognitively as people move closer to the end of life.

The study of cognitive changes in the older population is complex. Response speeds (neural and motor) have been reported to decline;

some researchers believe that agerelated decrease in working memory is the crucial factor underlying poorer performance by the elderly on cognitive tasks.

Selective optimisation with compensation is one means of making best use of their cognitive skills. They narrow their goals, select personally valued activities so as to optimise or maximise returns from their energy.

They find means to compensate for losses. Terminal decline is a steady, marked decrease in cognitive functioning prior to death. MPC 02 Free Solved Assignment

  1. Memory: The older adults are taking in information more slowly, and they use strategies less, can’t inhibit irrelevant information and retrieve important information from long-term memory.

So memory failure increases. Slower processing speed means there will be less retained from current activities.

They also forget context, which helps us recall information. Recognition memory does not decline as much as free recall.

(i. Deliberate vs. automatic memory: Implicit memory is memory without conscious awareness. This memory is more intact than deliberate memory, trying to recall information.

(ii. Associative memory: Associative memory deficit is a problem creating and retrieving links between pieces of information. This is more common for elders.

(iii. Remote memory: Remote memory is very long-term recall. It is not any clearer than recent recall for seniors, even though the myth is that seniors remember the past better than recent events. MPC 02 Free Solved Assignment

(2. Language processing: The two aspects of language processing diminish in older age: finding the right words and planning what to say and how to say it.

Their speech will have more pronouns, unclear references, they will speak more slowly, pause more often, and have trouble finding the right words.

(3. Problem solving: The problem solving declines in late adulthood so married people tend to collabourate more in problem-solving. They will be better at solving problems they think are under their control.

They will make more rapid decisions in areas of health, as that is an area they feel they have learned a lot about.

(4. Retirement: Retirement at age 65 is the conventional choice for many people, although some work until much later.

People have been found to be happier in retirement if they are not forced to retire before they are ready and if they have enough income to maintain an adequate living standard.

SECTION -C

Q 9. Phonology and Semantics

Ans:Phonology: Phonology is a branch of linguistics which deals with study of sound by determining the rules of a language. MPC 02 Free Solved Assignment

It analyses the speech patterns in a language. Phonology is more abstract than phonetics, as it deals with the largely unconscious rules related to sound patterns.

Semantics: Semantics is a term which is derived from the Greek word seme meaning sigh. Semantics is another important field related to theoretical linguistics. It is all about studying the meaning of linguistic expressions.

Q 10. New egocentrism

Ans:New egocentrism:

The term egocentric is a concept that originated within Piaget’s theory of childhood development.

Egocentrism refers to someone’s inability to understand that another person’s view or opinion may be different than their own. MPC 02 Free Solved Assignment

It represents a cognitive bias, in that someone would assume that others share the same perspective as they do, unable to imagine that other people would have a perception of their own.

Q 11. Identification of learning disability

Ans: Identification of learning disability:

Many children have trouble reading, writing, or performing other learning-related tasks at some point. Common signs that a person may have learning disabilities include the following:

i. Problems reading and/or writing.

ii. Problems with math.

iii. Poor memory.

iv. Problems paying attention.

v. Trouble following directions.

vi. Clumsiness. MPC 02 Free Solved Assignment

vii. Trouble telling time.

Q 12. Gifted and talented children

Ans: Gifted and talented children:

Gifted children are born with natural abilities well above the average for their age. If your child is gifted, you might notice these natural abilities in the way she’s learning and developing.

Children can be gifted in any area of ability, and they can also be gifted in more than one area.

For example, a child might be gifted creatively and intellectually. Or he might have above-average physical coordination and memory, or more social and emotional maturity than other children his age. MPC 02 Free Solved Assignment

Q 13. Ageism

Ans:Ageism:

Ageism refers to the stereotypes (how we think), prejudice (how we feel) and discrimination (how we act) towards others or oneself based on age.

Ageism affects everyone. Children as young as 4 years old become aware of their culture’s age stereotypes.

From that age onwards they internalize and use these stereotypes to guide their feelings and behavior towards people of different ages.

They also draw on culture’s age stereotypes to perceive and understand themselves, which can result in self-directed ageism at any age. MPC 02 Free Solved Assignment

Ageism intersects and exacerbates other forms of disadvantage including those related to sex, race and disability.

Q 14. Life structure

Ans: Life structure:

Life structure the combination of statuses, roles, activities, goals, values, beliefs, and life circumstances that characterize and individual Life structures can help you maintain a balanced life because, once you’ve put the work into creating a structure around an activity,

it becomes much easier to maintain this activity in the future. This balanced life is also one of less stress. MPC 02 Free Solved Assignment

Q 15. Attachment patterns

Ans: Attachment patterns:

Ainsworth’s research led to the identification of three attachment patterns. In general, she described infant caregiver relationships as either secure or insecure.

Insecure attachment can be further subdivided into either an avoidant or resistant patterns depending on the particular pattern of behaviour displayed by the infant. For each attachment pattern there is a corresponding caregiving style.

Q 16. Mid-life crisis

Ans: Mid-life crisis: MPC 02 Free Solved Assignment

People who are having a midlife crisis are thought to be struggling with their own mortality and, somewhere during midlife, they ditch some of their responsibilities in favor of fun.

That’s why the term “midlife crisis” often causes people to picture mistresses and sports cars. Not everyone experiences a midlife crisis. In fact, studies show a midlife crisis isn’t an issue for people in many parts of the world.

Q 17. Relationships in late adulthood

Ans: Relationships in late adulthood:

It has become increasingly common for grandparents to live with and raise their grandchildren, or also to move back in with adult children in their later years.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, there were 2.7 million grandparents raising their grandchildren in 2009. MPC 02 Free Solved Assignment

The dramatic increase in grandparent-headed households has been attributed to many factors including parental substance abuse.

Q 18. Formal operational stage

Ans: Formal operational stage:

The formal operational stage begins at approximately age twelve and lasts into adulthood.

As adolescents Enter this stage, they gain the ability to think in an abstract manner by manipulating ideas in their head, without any dependence on concrete manipulation.

He/she can do mathematical calculations, think creatively, use abstract reasoning, and imagine the outcome of particular actions. MPC 02 Free Solved Assignment

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