Cognitive Psychology, Learning, and Memory
MPC 01 Free Solved Assignment
MPC 01 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022
SECTION – A
Q 1. Define cognitive psychology and describe the domains of cognitive psychology.
Ans: Cognitive psychology: Cognitive psychology involves the study of internal mental processes-all of the things that go on inside your brain, including perception, thinking, memory, attention, language, problem-solving, and learning.
While it is a relatively young branch of psychology, it has quickly grown to become one of the most popular subfields.
There are numerous practical applications for this cognitive research, such as providing help coping with memory disorders, increasing decision-making accuracy, finding ways to help people recover from brain injury, treating learning disorders, and structuring educational curricula to enhance learning.
Learning more about how people think and process information not only helps researchers gain a deeper understanding of how the human brain works, but it allows psychologists to develop new ways of helping people deal with psychological difficulties.
For example, by recognizing that attention is both a selective and limited resource, psychologists are able to come up with solutions that make it easier for people with attentional difficulties to improve their focus and concentration.
Findings from cognitive psychology have also improved our understanding of how people form, store, and recall memories.MPC 01 Free Solved Assignment
By knowing more about how these processes work, psychologists can develop new ways of helping people improve their memories and combat potential memory problems.
For example, psychologists have found that while your short-term memory is quite short and limited (lasting just 20 to 30 seconds and capable of holding between five and nine items), rehearsal strategies can improve the chances that information will be transferred to long-term memory, which is much more stable and durable.
Domains of Cognitive Psychology:
Modern cognitive psychology freely, draws theories and techniques; from twelve principal areas of research.Each area, in brief, is described below:
i) Cognitive Neuroscience: Only within the past few years have cognitive psychologists and cognitive neuroscientists formed a close working relationship.
Thus far, this union has produced some of the most provocative developments in the study of our mental character.
Cognitive psychologists are seeking neurological explanations for their findings, and neuroscientists are turning to cognitive psychologists to explain observations made in their laboratories.
ii) Perception: The branch of psychology directly involved with the detection and interpretation of sensory stimuli is perception.
From experiments in perception, we have a good understanding of the sensitivity of the human organism to sensory signals and more important to cognitive psychology of the way we interpret sensory signals. MPC 01 Free Solved Assignment
iii) Pattern Recognition: Environmental stimuli rarely are perceived as single sensory events; they usually are perceived as part of a more meaningful pattern.
The things we sense see, hear, feel, taste, or smell are almost always part of a complex pattern of sensory stimuli.
Think about the problem of reading. Reading is a complex effort in which the reader is required to form a meaningful pattern from an otherwise meaningless array of lines and curves.
iv) Attention: Although we are information-gathering creatures, it is evident that under normal circumstances we are also highly selective in the amount and type of information to which we attend.
Our capacity to process information seems to be limited to two levels sensory and cognitive.
v) Consciousness: Consciousness is defined as “the current awareness, of external or internal circumstances.” Rejected as being “unscientific” by the behaviorists, the word consciousness and the concept it represents simply did not fade away.
For most people, consciousness and unconscious thoughts (such as you might have on a first date) are very real. MPC 01 Free Solved Assignment
vi) Memory: Memory and perception work together. The information available to us comes from our perception, short-term memory, and long-term memory.
Most obvious long-term storage is the knowledge of the language. We draw words from LTM and more or less use them correctly.
In a fleeting second, we are able to recall information about an event of years before. Such information does not come from an immediate perceptual experience; it is stored along with a vast number of other facts in the LTM.
vii) Representation of Knowledge: Fundamental of all human cognition is the representation of knowledge how information is symbolised and combined with the things stored in the brain.
This part of cognition has two aspects: the conceptual representation of knowledge in mind and the way the brain stores and process information.
The conceptual representation in different individuals can be considerably different.
In spite of these inherent dissimilarities between representations of knowledge, most humans do experience and depict experience in similar enough ways to get along well in the world.
viii) Cognitive Psychology Imagery: Cognitive psychologists are especially interested in the topic of internal representations of knowledge.
The mental images of the environment are formed in the form of a cognitive map, a type of internal representation of the juxtaposed buildings, streets, street signs,
spotlights, and so on. MPC 01 Free Solved Assignment
ix) Language: One form of knowledge shared by all human societies is the knowledge of language.
Language is the principal means by which we acquire and express knowledge; thus, the study of how language is used is a central concern of cognitive psychology.
x) Developmental Psychology: Developmental psychology is another important area of cognitive psychology that has been intensely studied.
Recent studies and theories in developmental cognitive psychology have greatly expanded our understanding of how cognitive structures develop.
As adults, we have all lived through childhood and adolescence and we share maturational experiences with all members of our
xi) Thinking and Concept Formation: Thinking is the crown jewel of cognition. Thinking is the process by which a new mental representation is formed through the transformation of information.
Advances in cognitive psychology have led to a formidable arsenal of research techniques and theoretical models. An ability to think and form concepts is an important aspect of cognition.
xii) Human and Artificial Intelligence: Human intelligence includes the ability to acquire, recall, and use knowledge to understand concrete and abstract concepts and the relationships among objects and ideas, to understand a language, to follow instructions, to convert verbal descriptions into actions, and to behave according to the rules, and to use knowledge in a meaningful way.
Q 2. Critically discuss Sternberg’s Information processing approach.
Ans: Information Processing approach:
Information Processing is how individuals perceive, analyze, manipulate, use, and remember information. Unlike Piaget’s theory, this approach proposes that cognitive development is ongoing and gradual, not organized into distinct stages.
The areas of basic cognitive changes generally occur in five areas:
i. Attention: Improvements are seen in selective attention(the process by which one focuses on one stimulus while tuning out another), as well as divided attention (the ability to pay attention to two or more stimuli at the same time).
ii. Memory: Improvements are seen in working memory and long-term memory.
iii. Processing Speed: With maturation, children think more quickly. Processing speed improves sharply between age five and middle adolescence, levels off around age 15, and does not appear to change between late adolescence and adulthood.
iv. Organization of Thinking: As children mature, they are more planful, they approach problems with strategy, and are flexible in using different strategies in different situations.
v. Metacognition: Older children can think about thinking itself. This often involves monitoring one’s own cognitive activity during the thinking process.
Metacognition provides the ability to plan ahead, see the future consequences of an action, and provide alternative explanations of events.
Sternberg’s Information processing approach: MPC 01 Free Solved Assignment
Another theorist firmly grounded in the information processing approach is Sternberg (1988).
Sternberg’s theory suggests that development is skills-based and continuous rather than staged and discontinuous as stage theorists believe, and his focus is on intelligence.
This focus on intelligence separates his ideas from stage theorists because it rejects the idea of incremental stages, but rather suggests that development occurs in the same way throughout life differentiated only by the expertise of the learner to process new information.
First, and very importantly, Sternberg’s model does not differentiate between child and adult learning. MPC 01 Free Solved Assignment
Also, he deals solely with information processing aspects of development and does not incorporate any facets of biological development into his theory.
Cognitive development is viewed as a novice to expert progression; as one becomes better at interaction and learning, one is able to learn more and at higher levels. Development changes as a result of feedback, self-monitoring, and automatisation.
In Sternberg’s model, each of these three components works together to facilitate learning and cognitive development.
Meta components are executive in nature. They guide the planning and decision making in reference to problem solving situations; they serve to identify the problem and connect it with experiences from the past.
There is, however, no action directly related to meta components, they simply direct what actions will follow. Performance components are the actions taken in the completion of a problem-solving task.
Performance components go beyond meta components in that they perform the function also of weighing the merit and or consequences of actions in comparison to other options rather than simply identifying options.
Sternberg’s third proposed type of intelligence is the knowledge acquisition component. This type is characterized by the ability to learn new information in order to solve a potential problem.MPC 01 Free Solved Assignment
This three-leveled view of intelligence comprises the componential aspect of Sternberg’s theory, but this is only one of three parts to his larger triarchic theory of intelligence.
Sternberg’s theory adds the components of feedback to theories of cognitive development; this suggests that an individual’s social interaction has some impact on cognitive development.
In fact, one of the three parts of his theory is based on the context in which learning takes place; this subpart of the theory “specifies that intelligent behaviour is defined by the sociocultural context in which it takes place and involves adaptation to the environment, selection of better environments, and shaping of the present environment”.
The addition of social context as a factor in cognitive development links Sternberg to the interactional theories of development of Bruner and Vygotsky.
These theories, and others of this type, are premised on the assumption that learning does not occur in a vacuum.
Therefore, one must discuss the social and cultural contexts of learning. Driscoll says, “Of central importance is viewing education as more than curriculum and instructional strategies. MPC 01 Free Solved Assignment
Rather, one must consider the broader context in how culture shapes the mind and provides the toolkit by which individuals construct worlds and their conceptions of themselves and their powers”.
These theories all work under the assumption that new information can most effectively be learned if the material can be matched to memory structures already in place.
Most theories hold that the mind contains some type of framework into which new information is placed. This structure is multi-leveled and has varying degrees of specificity.
New information can be matched with, compared to, contrasted to, joined with, or modified to fit with existing structures. This in-place structural system allows for differing levels of complexity of information processing.
The formation of and continual building of these structures, then, is critical in order for learners to process information in various ways and at higher levels.
Information processing is the way an individual decides to go about performing a mental task or solve problems.
Sternberg’s work has emphasized the importance of real-world problem-solving and reasoning, and encompasses a broader variety of skills.
Sternberg propagated the following steps which he felt an individual uses while processing information. MPC 01 Free Solved Assignment
Sternberg invented Triarchic theory of intelligence taking into account the way human beings process information in executing a mental task.
Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence describes three kinds of intelligence:
i.Componential: Componential intelligence involves the ability to learn, acquire new knowledge, and use it effectively.
ii. Experimental: Experimental intelligence is illustrated by adjusting well to new tasks, using new information, and responding effectively in new situations.
iii. Contextual: Contextual intelligent people enhance their strengths and overcome their weaknesses, and they work to achieve a good match between their skills and their settings.
Q 3. Explain the concept of IQ. Describe the history of measurement of intelligence.
Ans:Concept of IQ:
The most important development in the area of intelligence testing was adaptation of Stern’s concept of an intelligence quotient in the Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale.
Stern put forth the notion that to derive an intelligence quotient and Terman incorporated this concept into the 1916 version of Stanford Binet Scale. To obtain the IQ a person’s mental age is divided by his/her chronological or real age.
This product is further multiplied by hundred to avoid decimal fractions.
IQ, short for intelligence quotient, is a measure of a person’s reasoning ability.
In short, it is supposed to gauge how well someone can use information and logic to answer questions or make predictions. IQ tests begin to assess this by measuring short- and long-term memory. MPC 01 Free Solved Assignment
They also measure how well people can
solve puzzles and recall information they’ve heard and how quickly.
Every student can learn, no matter how intelligent. But some students struggle in school because of a weakness in one specific area of intelligence.
These students often benefit from special education programs. There, they get extra help in the areas where they’re struggling.
IQ tests can help teachers figure out which students would benefit from such extra help.
History of Measurement of Intelligence:
At the time of early development of discipline psychologists were much more interested in searching of generalised principles of human behaviour and subsequently formulating universal theories.
Measurement of individual differences received attention very late in the nineteenth century
i. Galton and Cattell: The first institutional effort to measure individual differences came from the British biologist Sir Francis Galton who administered simple tests of visual discrimination, determining highest audible pitch and kinesthetic discrimination.
He thought that intelligence could be measured by the tests of sensory discrimination. He believed that the ability to discriminate among heat, cold and pain could discriminate the intelligent persons from the mentally retarded ones.
The term ‘mental test’ was used first time in the psychological literature by the American psychologist James McKeen Cattell in 1890.MPC 01 Free Solved Assignment
He described a number of tests to measure intellectual level of persons which included measures of muscular strength, speed of movement, sensitivity to pain, keenness of vision and of hearing, weight discrimination, reaction time, memory etc.
ii. Contribution of Alfred Binet: Alfred Binet set out to develop a series of tasks designed to measure individual differences on the request of the French government due to the need for a reliable diagnostic system to identify children with mental retardation.
The differences that he intended to delineate included a number of complex mental facilities, such as memory, imagery, imagination, attention, comprehension, aesthetic sentiment, moral sentiment, muscular strength, motor ability, and handeye coordination.
Together with physician Theodore Simon, Binet created the Binet-Simon scale, which was published in 1905. The 1905 Binet-Simon scale differed greatly from the scale that we use today.
The original scale consisted of 30 pass/fail items. The tasks were also different from today’s items and required a combination of mental and physical strategies to complete each task.
The major breakthrough of the Binet-Simon scale was the complexity of the tasks and the breadth of mental abilities measured.
Furthermore, intelligence was finally able to be measured during a clinical interview, as opposed to in laboratories or by using physical measurements.
Although the Binet-Simon scale is quite antiquated with regard to today’s intelligence scale standards, many current day innovations were derived from this scale.
The concepts of strict administration, age-graded norms, and a rank order of items ranging from least to most difficult, are but a few. Furthermore, the inclusion of age-graded norms provided for the first estimate of mental age.
The first revision of the Binet scale was in 1908; however, the majority of the scale was left unchanged. MPC 01 Free Solved Assignment
By 1911, the scale was in its second revision and the age range had been extended through adulthood, as opposed to its previous use for the diagnosis of mental retardation in children With the inclusion of adults,
the scales needed to be rebalanced, which Binet did by including five items for each age level.
The abilities targeted by the 1911 edition were language, auditory processing, visual processing, learning and memory, and problem solving.
By 1912, Lewis M. Terman of Stanford University began revisions on the 1911 Binet scale which was published in 1916 and was entitled the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale.
The advantages that the Stanford-Binet had over other intelligence scales of the time were many. The first, and seemingly most simplistic, was that the 1916 version was the most comprehensive revision of Binet’s original scale.
The second, and perhaps the most important, was that the standardisation procedure used by Terman was the most rigorous of the time.
The third advantage was the inclusion of an extensive manual, both for administration of the test as well as for use as a teaching aide for understanding the test.
iii. World War I and Army Personnel Selection: During World War I in 1917 a committee of American Psychological Association, under leadership of Robert M. Yerkes, prescribed the use of intelligence tests for rapid classification of army personnel.
In view of this, American Army psychologists developed two
tests: MPC 01 Free Solved Assignment
(a) Army Alpha and
(b) Army Beta.
Both the tests were group tests in which the first was a language test, while the second was a non-language performance test.
The Advantages of IQ Testing: Measuring IQ allows one to predict success in a variety of activities and to measure a person’s ability to perform socially and compete economically.
It reveals a person’s strengths and weaknesses and highlights talents people don’t know they have, improving educational and skills development.
This type of testing provides a standardized method of comparing children’s abilities and performance, accurately predicts scholastic achievement and identifies gifted students.
The Disadvantages of IQ Testing: IQ tests have severe limitations because they restrict people’s understanding of intelligence and do not test all situations that show intelligent behavior.
These tests do not consider the multidimensional nature of intelligence and are not always accurate in predicting success.
Typically, IQ tests measure only verbal and mathematical abilities despite the fact that psychologist Howard Gardner identified at least seven types of intelligence.
SECTION – B
Q 4. Describe the principles of information processing.
Ans:Principles of information processing:
Even though there are widely varying views within cognitive psychology, there is general agreement among most cognitive psychologists on some basic principles of the information processing system. MPC 01 Free Solved Assignment
The first is the assumption of a limited capacity of the mental system. This means that the amount of information that can be processed by the system is constrained in some very important ways.
Bottlenecks, or restrictions in the flow and processing of information, occur at very specific points (e.g., Broadbent, 1975; Case, 1978).
A second principle is that a control mechanism is required to oversee the encoding, transformation, processing, storage, retrieval and utilisation of information.
That is, not all of the processing capacity of the system is available; an executive function that oversees this process will use up some of this capability.
When one is learning a new task or is confronted with a new environment, the executive function requires more processing power than when one is doing a routine task or is in a familiar environment.
A third principle is that there is a two-way flow of information as we try to make sense of the world around us.
We constantly use information that we gather through the senses and information we have stored in memory (often called top-down processing) in a dynamic process as we construct meaning about our environment and our relations to it.
This is somewhat analogous to the difference between inductive reasoning (going from specific instances to a general conclusion) and deductive reasoning (going from a general principle to specific examples.) MPC 01 Free Solved Assignment
A similar distinction can be made between using information we derive from the senses and that generated by our imaginations.
A fourth principle generally accepted by cognitive psychologists is that the human organism has been genetically prepared to process and organise information in specific ways.
For example, a human infant is more likely to look at a human face than any other stimulus. Other research has discovered additional biological predispositions to process information.
For example, language development is similar in all human infants regardless of language spoken by adults or the area in which they live (e.g., rural versus urban, Asia versus Europe.)
All human infants with normal hearing babble and coo, generate first words, begin the use of telegraphic speech (example, ball gone), and overgeneralise at approximately the same ages.
Q 5.Explain the cellular bases of learning and memory.
Ans: Cellular bases of learning and memory:
How does the activity of different brain regions change as memories are formed? Most models of the cellular bases of memory hold that it is the result of changes in the strength of synaptic interactions among neurons in neural networks.
How would synaptic strength be altered to enable learning and memory? Neil Carlson (1994) described some basic physiological mechanisms for learning new information.
One basic mechanism is Hebb’s law, named after the man who posited it, Canadian psychologist Donald Hebb, in 1949.MPC 01 Free Solved Assignment
Hebb’s rule states that if a synapse between two neurons is repeatedly activated at about the same time the postsynaptic neuron fires, the structure or the chemistry of neuron changes and the synapse will be strengthened-this is known as Hebbian learning.
A more general, and more complex, mechanism is called long-term potentiation (LTP).
In this process, neural circuits in the hippocampus that are subjected to repeated and intense electrical stimulation develop hippocampal cells that become more sensitive to stimuli.
That an excitatory input and postsynaptic depolarisation are needed to produce LTP is explained by the properties of the doubly gated N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor located on the dendritic spines of postsynaptic neurons that show LTP.
Glutamate is the major excitatory transmitter in the hippocampus, and it can bind with NMDA and non-NMDA receptors.
When 2-amino-5- phosphonopentanoate (AP5) is introduced to neurons, NMDA receptors are chemically blocked and LTP induction is prevented. But the AP5 treatment does not produce any effect on previously established LTP in these cells.
Therefore, NMDA receptors are central to producing LTP but not maintaining it. It turns out that maintenance of LTP may depend on the non-NMDA receptors. Long-Term Potentiation and Memory Performance.
This effect of enhanced response can last for weeks or even longer, suggesting to many that this could be a mechanism for longterm learning and retention.
Disrupting the process of long-term potentiation (say, through different drugs) also disrupts learning and remembering. MPC 01 Free Solved Assignment
Chemically blocking LTP in the hippocampus of normal mice impairs their ability to demonstrate normal place learning; thus, blocking LTP prevents normal spatial memory.
In a similar way, genetic manipulations that block the cascade of molecular triggers for LTP also impair spatial learning.
These experiments provide strong evidence of impairing spatial memory by blocking NMDA receptors and preventing LTP.
Moreover, we are rapidly developing a very clear understanding of the molecular processes that support synaptic plasticity, and thus learning and memory in the brain.
Q 6.Discuss Spearman’s Two-factor theory of intelligence.
Ans: Spearman’s Two-factor theory of intelligence:
Charles Spearman, an English psychologist and the originator of factor analysis was the first to claim that intelligence consists of general ‘g’ factor and specific ‘s’ factors. His theory is known as ‘Two Factor Theory’.
One of his major contributions to the history of psychology is the development and use of ‘factor analysis’. He used the techniques of factor analysis and corelational analysis to find out the ‘g’ and ‘s’ factor. MPC 01 Free Solved Assignment
Factor analysis involves finding out the correlation of related variables, and then grouping the variables to form clusters and derive the underlying factors. Thus a larger number of variables are reduced to a lesser number of factors.
In his book, ‘The Abilities of Man’, Spearman elaborated that all intellectual activities share a single common factor that runs through all the activities a person performs during his life. Spearman called this general factor as ‘mental energy’ which is determined innately.
A person cannot be trained to have a higher ‘g’factor. It is a part of who they are. People possess general intelligence or ‘g’ in varying degrees.
On the basis of this general intelligence, we describe a person as either intelligent or dull.
This ‘g’ is the major determinant of one’s score in any intelligence test. In addition to this general or ‘g’ factor, he recognised the specific factors, each called ‘s’, which are specific to different abilities.
For example, test of arithmetic, spatial relationships, verbal fluency, each of these specific intelligence measure a separate ‘s’. MPC 01 Free Solved Assignment
An individual’s intelligence score reflects the amount of ‘g’ plus the magnitude of various ‘s’ factors possessed by the individual.
For example, one’s performance in spatial intelligence test would be a function of a person’s general intelligence (g) and his spatial ability (s).
Spearman statistically analysed the interrelation among various scores obtained by different individuals on various tests.
A positive correlation between any two test or mental function implies a factor common to both or ‘g’ and two specific factors ‘s’.
Let us assume that, the two tests are M (mechanical) and N (numerical), the common factor in these tests is ‘g’ and the specific factors are sM and sN.
Similarly, let V (verbal) and S (spatial) be two other tests with ‘g’ as the common factor and sV and sS are the specific factors as shown in Figure 4aF below (In the Figure 4aF, g refers to ‘general ability’ and s refers to ‘Specific abilities’).
Spearman’s theory states that the objective of psychological tests should be to measure individual’s ‘g’as it runs through all the abilities and predicts individual’s performance. Individuals differ on the basis of ‘g’ they possess.
Q 7.Define creativity. Discuss the measurement of creativity.
Ans:Creativity: The most advanced thought process, creativity, involves production of uncommon and novel ideas that are highly relevant to the situation.
Creativity is defined as something different from intelligence and as a parallel construct to intelligence, but it differs from intelligence in that it is not restricted to cognitive or intellectual functioning or behaviour.MPC 01 Free Solved Assignment
Instead, it is concerned with a complex mix of motivational conditions, personality factors, environmental conditions, chance factors, and even products.
Measurement of creativity:
Houtz and Krug provide a review of several tests developed for the assessment of creativity. The review reveals that most of the tests of creativity intend to measure divergent thinking.
1) Elaboration: The number of added ideas.
2) Flexibility: Number of categories of the relevant responses.
In 1990 Torrance deleted the flexibility scale, since it correlated highly with fluency and added two measures of creative potential, viz.,
(i) abstractness of titles and
(ii) resistance to premature closure. While
(i) abstractness of title refers to the degree a title moves beyond concrete labelling of pictures drawn, MPC 01 Free Solved Assignment
(ii) resistance to premature closure pertains to measure the degree of psychological openness.
The test can be administered in around 30 minutes, but the process of scoring requires some training and specific country norms.
Q 8.Explain the basic concepts of multilingualism.
Multilingualism is the knowledge of more than one language by a person or within a social group; it assumes the ability to switch from one language to another in speech, in writing, or in reading.
Other terms describing this phenomenon include bilingualism, polylingualism, plurilingualism, diglossia, and languages-in-contact. Multilingualism may be personal, social, or intersubjective.
A generic term for multilingual persons is polyglot. Poly (Greek word) means “many”, glot (Greek) means “language”; and for the monolinguals is monoglot.
Personal multilingualism refers to the knowledge and verbal behaviour of an individual, not necessarily shared by the whole community.
Social multilingualism refers to the communicative practices of a nation, tribe, or other social group that sustains two or more languages. As in India, nearly 200 languages are spoken by its natives. MPC 01 Free Solved Assignment
The Structure of Multilingualism:
For many years, the popular belief was that a multilingual person should have learnt all of his or her languages simultaneously in early childhood and that he or she should have a native – like oral and written competence in all of them. Today, a broader definition is more common.
Accordingly, a person may be called multilingual if s/he uses his or her languages on a regular base and is able to switch from one to another where ever it is necessary, independently from the symmetry of his/her command of the languages, of the modalities of acquisition and of the distance between the varieties.
Thus, an Indian guest worker who learnt enough Swiss German dialect for his struggle for life in Switzerland may be considered bilingual with the same right as an interpreter working at the European Union and having systematically extended his or her ‘native’ French English bilingualism.
Multiligualism in India:
India is said to be a socio-linguistic giant and the nerve system of this giant is multilingualism. MPC 01 Free Solved Assignment
“Indian multilingualism is huge in size, having 1620 mother tongues reduced to 200 languages. With the population of many of minorities larger than European countries”.
This multilingual character of India is represented by its metropolitan cities like Mumbai and New Delhi, where people from all over come and settle down.
For example, in Mumbai every child is exposed to at least four languages right from its infancy.
Government of India has introduced the Three Language Formula in its educational system, which means every child has to study two more languages other than their first language. The two languages are introduced simultaneously at upper primary level.
Q 9. Nature vs. Nurture
Ans:Nature vs. Nurture:
Nature refers to all of the genes and hereditary factors that influence who we are from our physical appearance to our personality characteristics.
Nurture refers to all the environmental variables that impact who we are, including our early childhood experiences, how we were raised, our social relationships, and our surrounding culture. MPC 01 Free Solved Assignment
Q 10. Neuroscience and cognitive psychology
Ans: Neuroscience and cognitive psychology: During the early stages of cognitive psychology, little attention was given to physiological psychology or
Much of the early information on the brain and its functions resulted from head traumas incurred during wars and accidents.
The central issue neurologists struggled with was whether the brain was a holistic organ, with operations distributed throughout its infrastructure, or whether activities were localised and tied to specific regions.MPC 01 Free Solved Assignment
For example, did learning a specific act take place in a localised area of the brain, or was learning distributed throughout many parts of the brain? Among the most prominent of the scientists who wrestled with these issues was Karl Lashley.
Q 11. Miller’s magic number
Ans:Miller’s magic number:
The Magic number 7 (plus or minus two) provides evidence for the capacity of short term memory. Most adults can store between 5 and 9 items in their short-term memory. This idea was put forward by Miller and he called it the magic number 7.
He though that short term memory could hold 7 (plus or minus 2 items) because it only had a certain number of “slots” in which items could be stored.
Q 12. Encoding, Storage and Retrieval
Ans:Encoding, Storage and Retrieval: MPC 01 Free Solved Assignment
Psychologists distinguish between three necessary stages in the learning and memory
process:encoding, storage, and retrieval.
Encoding: Encoding refers to the initial experience of perceiving and learning information.
Psychologists often study recall by having participants study a list of pictures or words. Storage Every experience we have changes our brains.
That may seem like a bold, even strange, claim at first, but it’s true.
Retrieval: Endel Tulving argued that “the key process in memory is retrieval”. Why should retrieval be given more prominence than encoding or storage?
Q 13. Knowledge base in PASS theory
Ans:Knowledge base in PASS theory: MPC 01 Free Solved Assignment
The Planning, Attention-Arousal, Simultaneous and Successive (PASS) theory of intelligence, was developed by Das, Nagliery and Kirby. PASS theory is useful to link PASS processes to the brain.
The linking of PASS processes to brain becomes helpful, for example, in understanding the loss of sequential and planning functions due to aging in a study of individuals with Down’s Syndrome.
The PASS theory provides the theoretical framework for a measurement instrument called the Das-Naglieri.
Q 14. Spatial intelligence
Ans:Spatial intelligence: MPC 01 Free Solved Assignment
Spatial intelligence, or visuo-spatial ability, has been defined “the ability to generate, retain, retrieve, and transform well-structured visual images”. It’s what we do when we visualize shapes in our “mind’s eye.”
It’s the mental feat that architects and engineers perform when they design buildings. The capacity that permits a chemist to contemplate the three-dimensional structure of a molecule, or a surgeon to navigate the human body.
Q 15. Algorithms
Ans:Algorithms: MPC 01 Free Solved Assignment
An algorithm is a finite list of instructions, most often used in solving problems or performing tasks.
You may have heard the term used in some fancy context about a genius using an algorithm to do something highly complex, usually in programming.
Indeed, you’ve most likely heard the term used to explain most things related to computer processes.
However, what would you say if I was to tell you that there is a very good chance that you, yourself, have followed an algorithm? You may have followed some algorithms hundreds or thousands of times!
Q 16. Problem space
Ans:Problem space: MPC 01 Free Solved Assignment
Problem Space refers to the entire range of components that exist in the process of finding a solution to a problem.
This range starts with “defining the problem,” then proceeds to the intermediate stage of “identifying and testing possible solutions” and ends with the final stage of “choosing and implementing a solution”.
Plus, it includes all of the smaller steps that exist between these identified stages.
Q 17. Functional fixedness
Functional fixedness is a type of cognitive bias that involves a tendency to see objects as only working in a particular way.1 For example, you might view a thumbtack as something that can only be used to hold paper to a corkboard.
But what other uses might the item have? MPC 01 Free Solved Assignment
Q 18. Backward search
a problem-solving strategy in which the solver works backward from the end goal of the problem to the beginning.
An example would be finding the path through a maze by working from the end of the maze to the beginning. See also working backward.
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