MPA 18 Free Solved Assignment
MPA 18 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022
1) Define disaster and give an overview of natural disasters in India.
A disaster is a serious problem occurring over a short or long period of time that causes widespread human, material, economic or environmental loss which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources.
A disaster is a sudden, calamitous event that seriously disrupts the functioning of a community or society and causes human, material, and economic or environmental losses that exceed the community’s or society’s ability to cope using its own resources.
Though often caused by nature, disasters can have human origins.
Developing countries suffer the greatest costs when a disaster hits – more than 95% of all deaths caused by hazards occur in developing countries, and losses due to natural hazards are 20 times greater (as a percentage of GDP) in developing countries than in industrialized countries.
No matter what society disasters occur in, they tend to induce change in government and social life.
They may even alter the course of history by broadly affecting entire populations and exposing mismanagement of Corruption regardless of how tightly information is controlled in a society.MPA 18 Free Solved Assignment
Disasters are classified as per origin, into natural and man-made disasters. As per severity, disasters are classified as minor or major (in impact).
However, such classifications are more academic than real as major disasters could simply be events that received relatively more media coverage (Parasuraman and Unnikrishnan, 2005
Natural disasters in India
A) Floods: Seventy-five per cent of rainfall is concentrated over four months of monsoon (June – September) as a result of which almost all the rivers carry heavy discharge during this period.
The problems of sediment deposition, drainage congestion and synchronisation of river floods compound the flood hazard with sea tides in the coastal plains. Brahmaputra and the Gangetic Basin are the most flood-prone areas.
The other flood-prone areas are the northwest region of the west flowing rivers like Narmada and Tapti, Central India and the Deccan region with major east flowing rivers like Mahanadi, Krishna and Cauvery.
While the area liable to floods is 40 million hectares, the average area affected by floods annually is about 8 million hectares
B) Droughts: India has a largely monsoon dependant irrigation network. An erratic pattern, both low (less than 750 mm) and medium (750 – 125 mm) makes 68 per cent of the total area vulnerable to periodic droughts. MPA 18 Free Solved Assignment
A 100-year analysis reveals that the frequency of occurrence of below normal rainfall in arid semi-arid, and sub-humid areas is 54-57 per cent.
Severe and rare droughts occur in arid and semi-arid zones every 8-9 years. The semi-arid and arid climatic zones are subject to about 50 per cent of severe droughts that cover generally 76 percent of the area.
In this region, rare droughts of most severe intensity occurred on an average once in 32 years and almost every third year was a drought year.
C) Cyclones : India has a long coastline. There are two distinct cyclone seasons: premonsoon (MayJune) and post-monsoon (October-November).
The impact of these cyclones is confined to the coastal districts, the maximum destruction being within 100 Km. from the centre of the cyclones and on either side of the storm track.
Most casualties are caused by coastal inundation by tidal waves, storm surges and torrential rains.MPA 18 Free Solved Assignment
D) Earthquakes : The Himalayan mountain ranges are considered to be the world’s youngest fold mountain ranges. The subterranean Himalayas are geologically very active.
In a span of 53 years, four earthquakes exceeding magnitude 8 on the Richter scale have occurred in this region.
The peninsular part of India comprises stable continental crust.
Although these regions were considered seismically least active, an earthquake that occurred in Latur in Maharashtra on September 30, 1993 of magnitude 6.4 on the Richter scale caused substantial loss of life and damage to infrastructure.
E) Landslides and Avalanches : The Himalayan, the northeast hill ranges and the Western Ghats experience considerable landslide activity of varying intensities.
River erosions, seismic movements and heavy rainfalls cause considerable activity. Heavy monsoon rainfall often in association with cyclonic disturbances results in considerable landslide activity on the slopes of the Western Ghats.
2) Briefly discuss various stages in disaster cycle
Ans: Disaster management aims to reduce, or avoid the potential losses from hazards, assure prompt and appropriate assistance to victims of disaster, and achieve rapid and effective recovery.MPA 18 Free Solved Assignment
The disaster management cycle illustrates the ongoing process by which governments, businesses, and civil society plan for and reduce the impact of disasters, react during and immediately following a disaster, and take steps to recover after a disaster has occurred.
Appropriate actions at all points in the cycle lead to greater preparedness, better warnings, reduced vulnerability or the prevention of disasters during the next iteration of the cycle.
The complete disaster management cycle includes the shaping of public policies and plans that either modify the causes of disasters or mitigate their effects on people, property, and infrastructure.
The mitigation and preparedness phases occur as disaster management improvements are made in anticipation of a disaster event.
Developmental considerations play a key role in contributing to the mitigation and preparation of a community to effectively confront a disaster.
As a disaster occurs, disaster management actors, in particular humanitarian organizations become involved in the immediate response and long-term recovery phases.
The four disaster management phases illustrated here do not always, or even generally, occur in isolation or in this precise order. Often phases of the cycle overlap and the length of each phase greatly depends on the severity of the disaster.
a. Mitigation: Minimizing the effects of disaster.MPA 18 Free Solved Assignment
Examples: Building codes and zoning; vulnerability analyses; public education.
b. Preparedness: Planning how to respond.
Examples: Preparedness plans; emergency exercises/training; warning systems.
c. Response: Efforts to minimize the hazards created by a disaster.
Examples: Search and rescue; emergency relief.
d. Recovery: Returning the community to normal.
Examples: Temporary housing; grants; medical care.
Sustainable Development: Developmental considerations contribute to all aspects of the disaster management cycle. One of the main goals of disaster management, and one of its strongest links with development, is the promotion of sustainable livelihoods and their protection and recovery during disasters and emergencies.
Where this goal is achieved, people have a greater capacity to deal with disasters and their recovery is more rapid and long lasting.
In a development oriented disaster management approach, the objectives are to reduce hazards, prevent disasters, and prepare for emergencies.
Therefore, developmental considerations are strongly represented in the mitigation and preparedness phases of the disaster management cycle.
Inappropriate development processes can lead to increased vulnerability to disasters and loss of preparedness for emergency situations..MPA 18 Free Solved Assignment
Mitigation: Mitigation activities actually eliminate or reduce the probability of disaster occurrence, or reduce the effects of unavoidable disasters.
Mitigation measures include building codes; vulnerability analyses updates; zoning and
land use management; building use regulations and safety codes; preventive health care; and public education.
Mitigation will depend on the incorporation of appropriate measures in national and regional development planning.
Its effectiveness will also depend on the availability of information on hazards, emergency risks, and the countermeasures to be taken.
The mitigation phase, and indeed the whole disaster management cycle, includes the shaping of public policies and plans that either modify the causes of disasters or mitigate their effects on people, property, and infrastructure.
Preparedness: The goal of emergency preparedness programs is to achieve a satisfactory level of readiness to respond to any emergency situation through programs that strengthen the technical and managerial capacity of governments, organizations, and communities.
These measures can be described as logistical readiness to deal with disasters and can be enhanced by having response mechanisms and procedures, rehearsals, developing long-term and short-term strategies, public education and building early warning systems.
Preparedness can also take the form of ensuring that strategic reserves of food, equipment, water, medicines and other essentials are maintained in cases of national or local catastrophes. MPA 18 Free Solved Assignment
During the preparedness phase, governments, organizations, and individuals develop plans to save lives, minimize disaster damage, and enhance disaster response operations.
Preparedness measures include preparedness plans; emergency exercises/ training; warning systems; emergency communications systems; evacuations plans and training; resource inventories; emergency personnel/contact lists; mutual aid agreements; and public information/education.
As with mitigations efforts, preparedness actions depend on the incorporation of appropriate measures in national and regional development plans.
In addition, their effectiveness depends on the availability of information on hazards, emergency risks and the countermeasures to be taken, and on the degree to which government agencies, non-governmental organizations and the general public are able to make use of this information. MPA 18 Free Solved Assignment
During a disaster, humanitarian agencies are often called upon to deal with immediate response and recovery.
To be able to respond effectively, these agencies must have experienced leaders, trained personnel, adequate transport and logistic support, appropriate communications, and guidelines for working in emergencies.
If the necessary preparations have not been made, the humanitarian agencies will not be able to meet the immediate needs of the people.
Response: The aim of emergency response is to provide immediate assistance to maintain life, improve health and support the morale of the affected population.
Such assistance may range from providing specific but limited aid, range from providing specific but limited aid, such as assisting refugees with transport, temporary shelter, and food, to establishing semi-permanent settlement in camps and other locations.
It also may involve initial repairs to damaged infrastructure. The focus in the response phase is on meeting the basic needs of the people until more permanent and sustainable solutions can be found.
Humanitarian organizations are often strongly present in this phase of the disaster management cycle. MPA 18 Free Solved Assignment
Recovery: As the emergency is brought under control, the affected population is capable of undertaking a growing number of activities aimed at restoring their lives and the infrastructure thater supports them.
There is no distinct point at which immediate relief changes into recovery and then into long-term sustainable development.
There will be many opportunities during the recovery period to enhance prevention and increase preparedness, thus reducing vulnerability.
Ideally, there should be a smooth transition from recovery to on-going development. Recovery activities continue until all systems return to normal or better.
Recovery measures, both short and long term, include returning vital life-support systems to minimum operating standards; temporary housing; public information; health and safety education; reconstruction; counselling programs; and cconomic impact studies.
Information resources and services include data collection related to rebuilding, and documentation of lessons learned.
5) Write a note on Community based Disaster Management (CBDM).
ANS: All governments are responsible for protecting their citizens and endorsing the 2005 Hyogo Declaration which states that: strengthening community level capacities to reduce disaster risk at the local level is especially needed, considering that appropriate disaster reduction measures at that level enable the communities and individuals to reduce significantly their vulnerability to hazards.”
Members of a community are the immediate victims of adverse effects of a disaster.
They have the best knowledge about their local surrounding in terms of the most disaster-prone areas, the demography of their community and their social and traditional organisation. MPA 18 Free Solved Assignment
It is important that they have the capacity to cope with the impacts of a disaster and are involved in the development of disaster management activities right from the initial planning stages.
Community participation can also make them more confident in their capabilities to act in the event of a disaster leading to a self-reliant community
Moreover, the community based approach to disaster management becomes important due to the following shortcomings of the present system
• The same plan, regardless of the regional characteristics, is implemented or imposed everywhere.
• Local knowledge, experiences, skills, resources and techniques are not given due importance. Rather external resources and techniques are proposed to be utilized.
• Negligence about local cultural instincts and heritage.
• Prioritisation is decided by an outsider and not the stakeholders or the community itself.
• Local community does not have any information about the disaster management plans for their area and the role of different sectors in helping the community during disasters.
Advantages of Community-based Disaster Risk Management :
• Feelings of coordination and self belonging to the society are developed.
• Local geo-climatic and socio-cultural characteristics get attention of the people in development and disaster management MPA 18 Free Solved Assignment
• Local initiatives begin and community provides assistance to the executing agencies involved in disaster management.
• There is exchange of knowledge, information, skills and techniques between the community and the experts involved from outside.
• Community comes forward to put forward its ideas for selection of appropriate programmes suitable to their locality and society.
• Community can monitor the quality of works being done in its locality. It will also generate a sense of responsibility among the community.
• It will lead to capacity building of the community on issues of disaster-safe developmental activities.
Bottom up Participatory Approach : MPA 18 Free Solved Assignment
• Every community has members who can be ignorant of events around them especially when these events do not affect them directly or more frequently.
This type of attitude can also be gradually changed by involving members of the local community in decision-making processes such as planning national national disaster management plans or even designing awareness programmes.
• This bottom-up. participatory approach can make community members more receptive of new knowledge and information presented to them.
Local residents who speak or understand their native language only may be hesitant to accept non-native people conducting education and awareness programmes for them.
Stakeholders in Community Based Disasters Management :
An effective and successful community-based approach in reducing disaster risks is often attributed to the spontaneous participation and involvement of the following stakeholders:
• Non-governments (NGOs) MPA 18 Free Solved Assignment
• Regional and International Organisations/Donor Agencies
• Local governments / Municipalities / Zilla Parishads
• National/Local Organisations (youth groups, schools, etc)
• Community workers
• Disaster Managers (Local and National)
• Policy Makers
• Grass-roots people
• Religious Denominations
There is a need for coordination in the Community-Based Approach among all the stakeholders.
6) Explain various rescue methods.
ANS: Simple Rescue Methods Rescue can be carried out ideally by using rescue equipment but also by ordinary methods when equipment is not available.
For rescuing an affected individual, there are two types of methods: Single Person Methods and Two Person Methods.
A) Single Person Methods MPA 18 Free Solved Assignment
This method is used when the affected person is unconscious and only one rescuer is available for carrying out rescue work. In this method, the rescuer first makes the affected person lie on his or her the abdomen.
Then he uses both his hands to lift the affected person by his armpits. He holds the right hand of the affected person with his left hand and with his free hand he holds the affected person’s right leg.
Now the rescuer lifts the affected person with both his hands and positions him or her in such a manner that his or her waist lies just above the neck of rescuer.
Human Crutch :
This method is used when affected person has an injury in one of his/her leg. In this method, the rescuer first ties the injured leg of the affected person with his opposite leg with a handkerchief.
If the affected person’s left leg is hurt, the rescuer will tie this leg with his own right leg. The rescuer holds the affected person’s waist with his hand and then they both can walk slowly with the rescuer supporting the affected person’s injured leg with his own leg.
Pick a back :
This method is used when the affected person has an injury in his or her leg and is not able to walk long distances, but can support himself or herself with his or her hand.
In this method, the rescuer first gets down on one knee and allows the affected person to His back. MPA 18 Free Solved Assignment
The rescuer then holds the affected person at the thighs and the affected person encircles the rescuer’s neck for support.
Staircase drag :
This method is used when one has to rescue an unconscious person from a floor higher than the ground floor. In this method, the affected person is laid down on his back and his hands and feet are tied with a handkerchief.
The rescuer holds the casualty’s armpits and slowly drags him or her down the stairs head, first.
Firemen’s Crawl :
This method is used when the affected person is trapped inside a smoke filled area and is unconscious. The rescuer first ties the hands of the casualty and then goes astride the casualty.
The rescuer inserts his head in the loop made by the casualty’s hands. Then by pushing his hand and foot against the ground, he can drag the casualty to a safer place.
B) Two Person Methods
Fore and Aft :
This method is used when the affected person is having an abdominal injury. For carrying out this method, two rescuers are required. MPA 18 Free Solved Assignment
In this method, the affected person is laid down flat on his/her back. One of the rescuers holds the casualty from the armpits while the second rescuer holds the legs.
Then they both lift the casualty and in this way they can shift the casualty to a safer place.
Two Hand Seat :
This method is used when the affected person is injured in one leg. For carrying out this method two rescuers face each other on either side of the affected person.
They both bend and place their inside arms under the casualty’s back just below the shoulders, raise him and put their outside arms under his thighs, holding each other’s hands with a hook grip.
The affected person can place his/her hands around rescuers’ necks.
Four Hand Seat Method :
This method is used for an affected person who is heavy and who can support her/his self with his/her hand.
In this case, each of the two rescuers grasps his left wrist with his right hand, grasping the other rescuer’s right wrist with his left hand.
Carry Chair : MPA 18 Free Solved Assignment
This method is useful to lift a handicapped or a very old person. The person
to be lifted is placed on a chair, and then, the chair can be carried to a safer area.
7) Evaluate the guiding principles for shelter provisions.
ANS: Numerous agencies are working in the affected areas for shelter provision.
Different approaches are being adopted in different areas, with varying materials, sizes and processes.
A ten-point guideline on temporary shelter provision prepared in the aftermath of the Kashmir Earthquake of 2005 by Prof. Ian Davis is as follows:
1) Monitor what is going on : Use this disaster to inform the coordination agencies about what goes on in this sector, at micro and macro levels, such as, who is deciding on shelter approaches; where is the expertise; what the popular wisdom on shelter is; what are the dilemmas and conflicts? etc.
2) Tents : The likelihood is that a wide variety of tents, with varied specifications will arrive, some very appropriate, while others are hopelessly unsuited for the climate or cultural conditions.
Who adopts what specifications and, is there any quality control or standardised specification?
If families tear their allocated tent to use the canvas in creative ways this can be highly effective, yet in some contexts, some ‘tidy minded’ officials have been known to banned this adaptive process. MPA 18 Free Solved Assignment
3) Standards : Minimum standards of shelter provision are given under the Sphere Project, and are accepted around the world.
These should be adhered to, and adapted where there is a need for modifications. The basic principles of the standards should be ensured in all temporary shelter programmes.
4) Location of Tents : Where possible, families should be allowed to take a tent and put it near their house rather than on a centralised campsite.
Reasons for this are obvious; it would provide for better care of domestic animals in rural settings, protection of household belongings that may remain within their ruined dwellings and maintenance or recovery of livelihoods that may be linked to the home.
5) Shelter Materials : Probably, one of the best policies is to distribute shelter materials, such as blankets, roofing, sheeting, plastic sheeting, lengths of planed timber, building tools, wire, rope, nails, etc.
Where possible, these can be sold where people have money to avoid dependency, but where people do not have resources, they can be donated.
If the materials for roofing, sheeting, etc., can come with expertise and the support of skilled volunteers to assist in building, this will enhance the process.”
6) Shelter for Families with Damaged Dwellings : Aftershocks can bring down damaged, but standing houses. Therefore, such families need to be advised to sleep outside their homes in tents or improvised shelters even if they spend time in the day in their homes. MPA 18 Free Solved Assignment
The risks are very high when they are lying flat, sleeping and a damaged structure collapses. Rapid damage surveys need to check on this issue as a vital measure to avoid further losses of lives from aftershocks.
7) Local Advice : Centres Repairs begin immediately, regardless of whether or not the government seeks to stop the process until structural safety surveys have been undertaken.
Small teams can be assembled, comprising volunteer engineers/ architects/ builders who can be assigned different areas to offer advice concerning shelters and repair and rebuilding options.
8) Transition Housing : An effective strategy is to seek to help families to create a transitional dwelling that will eventually develop into a permanent dwelling.
This is a preferable approach to providing expensive rehabs that will later be replaced by another permanent home (In effect this a wasteful double reconstruction approach).
The aim is to use the sheltering process to accomplish three things: provide shelter, strengthen local livelihoods and aid the psychosocial recovery process.
9) Debris : In many disaster situations there is often large-scale destruction of building debris during the clearing and recovery process.
Vital timber and masonry debris is destroyed in the process. It is essential to collect useful building debris for recycling purposes. MPA 18 Free Solved Assignment
10) Shelter Units: Each disaster will attract a community of intrepid inventors or commercial opportunists who seek to convince officials to place big orders for their novel creations made of cardboard, plastic, polyurethane, etc.
Such designs are essentially innovative answers seeking a problem.
They often cost far more than tents and shelter materials; they can be culturally and climatically inappropriate and can take ages to deliver. There are better alternatives available as noted above.
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