IGNOU MPA 17 Free Solved Assignment 2022- Helpfirst

MPA 17

E-Governance

MPA 17 Free Solved Assignment

MPA 17 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022

1) Define e-governance and the legal and policy framework of ICT and e-governance in India.

ANS: E-GOVERNANCE

Electronic governance or e-governance is the application of IT for delivering government services, exchange of information, communication transactions, integration of various stand-alone systems between government to citizen, government-to-business, government-to-government,

Government-to employees as well as back-office processes and interactions within the entire government framework.

Through e-governance, government services are made available to citizens in a convenient, efficient, and transparent manner.

The three main target groups that can be distinguished in governance concepts are government, citizens, and businesses/interest groups.

In e-governance, there are no distinct boundaries. finance and support. legal and policy framework of ICT Information Technology Act 2000

The Information Technology Act, 2000 or ITA, 2000 or IT Act, was notified on October 17, 2000. It is the law that deals with cybercrime and electronic commerce in India.

In this article, we will look at the objectives and features of the Information Technology Act, 2000. MPA 17 Free Solved Assignment

In 1996, the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) adopted the model law on electronic commerce (e-commerce) to bring uniformity in the law in different countries.

Further, the General Assembly of the United Nations recommended that all countries must consider this model law before making changes to their own laws.

India became the 12th country to enable cyber law after it passed the Information Technology Act, 2000.

The objectives of the Act are as follows:

Grant legal recognition to all transactions done via electronic exchange of data or other electronic means of communication or e-commerce, in place of the earlier paper-based method of communication.

Give legal recognition to digital signatures for the authentication of any information or matters requiring legal authentication Facilitate the electronic filing of documents with Government agencies and also departments Facilitate the electronic storage of data

Give legal sanction and also facilitate the electronic transfer of funds between banks and financial institutions Grant legal recognition to bankers under the Evidence Act, 1891 and the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934, for keeping the books of accounts in electronic form.

Report of the Working Group on Convergence and E-governance 2002-07

Report of the Working Group on Convergence and E-governance proposed the need for administration to transform itself from a passive information and service provider to a platform/ forum for the active involvement of citizens.

This Report primarily concerned itself with public investments. It could not visualise the extent of private initiative that could be expected to come forth in the convergence area or in e-commerce or allied segments. MPA 17 Free Solved Assignment

It felt the need to set up a central body for taking stock of the total IT picture in the country.

This central body could be a ‘Council for E-governance’ or an adhoc Commission on Reengineering Administrative Procedures for E- governance.

Another alternative it suggested was to set up a National Institute of Smart Governance Common Minimum Programme.

The importance of e-governance has been recognised in the Common Minimum Programme of the UPA Government, which inter-alia states that e-governance will be promoted on a massive scale.

It made a solemn pledge to the people of the country with a government that would be corruption free, transparent and accountable; and an administration that would be responsible and responsive at all times

3 Examine the role of ICT in administration.

ANS: Information Communication Technology (ICT) plays an important role in enhancing the quality of education.MPA 17 Free Solved Assignment

Administration and management applications of ICT are currently popular in schools due to its capabilities in facilitating administration activities from data storage to knowledge management and decision making.

ICT has brought about an electronic transformation in the traditional functioning of administration and has made it accountable, transparent, decentralised and citizen-centric. ICT:

• tends to reduce the inordinate delays in file processing and movement caused by multiple levels in the departments/organisations (Gupta, et.al).

From the lowest level of receipt of application to the highest level of action taking is the involvement of online file movement.

Once the concerned official does noting, it is sent online to the next official. Hence time is not wasted in unnecessary physical movements.

Computerised database is available for ready reference and it becomes possible for the officials to reduce the number of file movements;

• Promotes centralised storage of files and data. This enhances maintenance, reduces unnecessary effort, minimises storage place and lessens security risks.

As the files and data are maintained in the electronic form, location and retrieval becomes easy and time saving. The entire office management system is electronised;

• Establishes efficient communication system between employees of departments thereby reducing wastage of time. MPA 17 Free Solved Assignment

Technology promotes connectivity and closer collaboration between departments and helps them to work in an integrated manner increasing overall productivity and reducing time overheads.

This will not only benefit the employees of the organisation but also the citizens who would experience a much shorter turnaround time and a greater degree of transparency (paraphrasing Gupta, et.al);

• Replaces the manual system of using standard process sheets and similar documents for processing leave applications, transfer orders or General Provident Fund advances of the employees.

These process sheets can be maintained in the electronic form in a computerised environment (Gupta, et.al); and

• Shapes the environment in which the department is operating and enhances the knowledge and skills required by administrators and staff.

It facilitates organisational learning and adaptation to the changing global environment by way of partnership, participation, information sharing and official does noting, it is sent online to the next official.

Hence time is not wasted in unnecessary physical movements. Computerised database is available for ready reference and it becomes possible for the officials to reduce the number of file movements; MPA 17 Free Solved Assignment

• Promotes centralised storage of files and data. This enhances maintenance, reduces unnecessary effort, minimises storage place and lessens security risks.

As the files and data are maintained in the electronic form, location and retrieval becomes easy and time saving. The entire office management system is electronised;

• Establishes efficient communication system between employees of departments thereby reducing wastage of time.

Technology promotes connectivity and closer collaboration between departments and helps them to work in an integrated manner increasing overall productivity and reducing time overheads.

This will not only benefit the employees of the organisation but also the citizens who would experience a much shorter turnaround time and a greater degree of transparency (paraphrasing Gupta,et.al); delegation- a complete shift from administration.
the functional traits of classic

MPA 17 Free Solved Assignment
MPA 17 Free Solved Assignment

7) Write a note on the concept and significance of e-learning. Also highlight virtual learning environment.

ANS: CONCEPT

E-learning is an approach to facilitate and enhance learning through, and based on, both computer and communication technology. MPA 17 Free Solved Assignment

It refers to the use of computer-based electronic technologies of internet, e-mail, websites and CD-ROMS to deliver, facilitate and enhance both formal and informal learning and knowledge sharing from any place at any time.

The communication devices can also include digital television, personal digital assistants ( PDAs) and mobile phones.

E-learning is also called ComputerBased Training (CBT). Generally, CBT and e-learning are treated as synonyms, but CBT is the older term dating from the 1980s.

The term e-learning evolved from CBT along with the maturation of the internet, CDs and DVDs. It includes Internet-based Learning, Web-based Learning and Online Learning

SIGNIFICANCE: E-learning has now knowingly or unknowingly become a part and parcel of today’s day to day life. Wherever you go you will be faced with the electronic media.

For example, go to the shop or Mall you will be introduced with electronic processes. From the preparation of Cash Memo to debiting your amount for procuring the goods are done by electronic process. MPA 17 Free Solved Assignment

If you see one step more, book your air ticket, railway ticket even to your advance booking for your favorite entertainment show are done from your office or home.

If you think little more about e-learning, you will see the ample avenues of its applications. Just, start with electronic typing though your computer, explore the possibility of your desired interest in the various fields from business to scientific works you are connected to the broad network.

Data recording, preparation, graphics simulation to telemedicine and voyage to each nock and corner of this world are linked with electronic media for effective and efficient output.

Therefore, in this today’s world we cannot think a single minute without e-learning.

E-learning can be availed at ant point of time according to your need. Implementation of e-learning in different curriculums of schools and colleges has made the community much aware of it. MPA 17 Free Solved Assignment

Earlier, e learning is limited to educational institutions but now its area has broaden and it is one of the option for the companies to give training to their employees.

By providing these types of education to their employees they can save millions of money. It also helps to get expert employees in the specific areas.

They also offer varieties of services like web designing, creating, student training courses and coaching to increase customers demand.

You can find many websites offering e learning services for their business purposes. Through these websites you will get all the important information’s about the companies and their works.

Thus, e-learning is not only helpful for students but it also helps business employees do their job at their best.

Pros and cons of E-learning : MPA 17 Free Solved Assignment

There are many advantages of e learning for students as well as employees. By this process of learning the students can scheduled their study works and can select the learning materials of their interest.

Thus they will be able to get the highest level of knowledge from their interested topic. It saves their time to go and come from school along with the travel cost.

This learning process allows the learners to learn at their own pace and they can learn by different learning styles which improve their creative power and build self confidence.

These computer based courses develop their skill and encourage the students to take the responsibility for the success of their education.

It also helps the employees to broaden the knowledge in some specific areas. They can do their works perfectly through computer and internet facility provided by their company.

The company offers special training programmes to their employees so that; they can learn more about the advanced technologies and get benefited by them.

Apart from these advantages there are some disadvantages also, like those students having poor study habits will not get satisfactory results because these learners need proper guidance which is not possible through e learning.

In this learning procedure the learner, especially the students may feel isolated as they totally miss the social interaction that adversely affects their learning.

If the internet connection is slow then the students may get frustrated and stop their learning. Besides these, the most important disadvantage is the lack of instructor or teacher in this process. MPA 17 Free Solved Assignment

The instructor is not always available like in traditional schools, which directly affect the learning process, as the student’s finds difficulty in searching and implementing the topics.

virtual learning environment : A Virtual Learning Environment or VLE is a design space for teaching and learning For some, “virtual” conjures up an artificial world that replaces real life.

But virtual learning environments neither replace classrooms nor existing educational practices.

They enhance them. They add value as they extend the space of the physical learning environment. They provide opportunities to stretch the imaginations of teachers and students alike.

Technically speaking, virtual learning environments are designed spaces that resemble architecturally sophisticated buildings.

Think of an ideal place of teaching and learning, one where the messy desk covered in coffee-stained assessments and the equally large pile of lesson plans all moves to your laptop. MPA 17 Free Solved Assignment

Teachers effortlessly move between assessment, feedback, sharing and monitoring without knocking over their coffee in the process. Students have their assessments returned swiftly — unstained.

A virtual learning environment offers not only an elegantly designed space for teaching and learning, but a place where learners, teachers and students feel at ease.

A good VLE allows users to co-construct their learning environments together over time. With all that goes into a physical classroom – the lesson plans, the homework, the conversations – why not make use of virtual learning environment software to organise, share and process it all?

Far from being an anti-social space that replaces real life, the right VLE enhances the social space of a classroom.

It opens possibilities for discussion threads, polls and surveys. It allows students to submit work without having to find their teachers.

It provides hubs for an infinite number of resources in the form of documents, worksheets and Power Points. MPA 17 Free Solved Assignment

Using a VLE, teachers can link students to other online pathways and embed videos from YouTube, articles from newspapers and provide platforms for student-created podcasts.

More than just a virtual repository for learning resources, the most valuable virtual learning environments and virtual learning software offer gateways to limitless pathways of connection, content and learning from which teachers, school leaders, students and parents all benefit.

MPA 17 Free Solved Assignment
MPA 17 Free Solved Assignment

9) Write a note on ICT applications in Indian Railways

ANS: ICTs are playing an important role in this largest public sector of the country in delivery of various services.

IR is one of the first few government departments to introduce computers in the country.

Computerisation on IR started in the late bos with the induction of IBM 1401s in the nine zonal railways, three production units and the Railway Board. Many applications were computerised, such as, Passenger Revenue and Goods Accounting,

Financial Management, Inventory. Operating Statistics etc. While these systems proved to be beneficial to the Railways, they were soon found to be inadequate to cater to the increasing requirements. MPA 17 Free Solved Assignment

It was in the VII th plan period from 1985-90 when these IBM 1401s were replaced with third and fourth generation computer systems.

Computerisation in the production units and the zonal railways were strengthened, and computers were introduced in the divisions, workshops and stores.

Also, many new areas for computerisation such as Passenger Reservation System (PRS), Freight Operations Information System (TOIS) etc. were initiated. These developments are now beginning to show impacts on both the Railway system and its users.

In 1986, the Ministry of Railways established a separate organisation to take up all computer activities on IR.

This organisation came to be known as the Centre for Railway Information Systems (CRIS). In 1986, Ministry of Railways established the Centre for Railway Information Systems (CRIS), New Delhi to be an umbrella for all computer activities on Indian Railways.

The Centre started functioning from July 1987. It is an autonomous organisation headed by a Managing Director. MPA 17 Free Solved Assignment

CRIS is mainly a project-oriented organisation engaged in development of major computer systems on the Railways. It has acquired special knowledge and expertise in the field of informatics.

Passenger Reservation System :

IR has a very vast scope of operation. It is the world’s second-largest railway, annually carrying some 5.50 million passengers and 492 million tons of freight.

Of the 15 million passengers who climb aboard one of 8,520 trains each day, about 550,000 have reserved accommodations.

Their journeys can start in any part of India and end in any other part, with travel times as long as 48 hours and distances up to several thousand kilometres.

The challenge is to provide a reservation system that can support such a huge number regardless of whether it’s measured by kilometres, passenger numbers, routing complexity, or simply the sheer scale of country

National Train Enquiry Systemy : MPA 17 Free Solved Assignment

The National Train Enquiry System (NTES) was implemented as a pilot project in August 1998. NTES is a centralised information system, which provides up-todate and accurate information to the passengers regarding:

• arrival/ departure of passenger trains including expected time of arrival (ETA) of trains;

• platform berthing of passenger trains;

• journey planning;

• facilities available at stations; and

• Railway rules

Alpha Migration :

One of the key technical achievements of CRIS is a sophisticated reservation and ticketing application called Country Wide Network for Enhanced Reservation and Ticketing (CONCERT). MPA 17 Free Solved Assignment

The primary challenge for CRIS is to provide an efficient passenger service by ensuring maximum uptime for its reservation/ticketing and enquiry application.

Railway must prepare charts that map passengers with their seats, and must post these charts outside each coach. CONCERT software enables the preparation of skeleton charts in advance for each train for the next three journey days

Booking of Tickets on Internet :

On 28th February 2000, all the common enquiries like trains between a given pair of stations, reservation availability, PNR status, fare, train schedule and station codes were made available to the common public through the Internet.

It has in a very short span of time become one of the most popular web sites in India, with peak daily hits of the order of 1.7 million hits per day.

The information is also available through SMS service on mobile phones, all over India.

10) Detail out the various services offered through e-seva project.

ANS: Online Filing of Complaints and Grievances

The Project allows citizens to file their grievances in these centres. Every grievance is acknowledged and transferred online for bringing in field level action.

Concerned departments can easily monitor registered grievances by logging with their user id and passwords specifically assigned to them. MPA 17 Free Solved Assignment

The real time summary statistics and performance summary statement of the individual departments can be seen and verified. The citizens can verify and track the status of their grievance disposal online.

Online Application Registration

The citizens avail various development and welfare programmes of the government. This may range from getting a loan under self-employment schemes to applying for an old age pension or asking for subsidised agricultural inputs.

Instead of moving from offices to offices and getting harsh responses, the citizens just need to come to the kiosk and apply online.

They get their acknowledgment number and the rest is taken care of The module provides for online forwarding, transmission, handling and disposal of such requests, which would, therefore, minimise the disposal time and the concomitant (simultaneous/concurrent) citizen effort to get their cases redressed.

Issuance of Certificates

There are many kinds of certificates that the citizens require from the governments, the important among them being the caste and the nativity certificate The citizen now need not go to the Mandal Revenue Office for these works.

He can apply directly at the e seva center from where the request is transmitted online; the certificates are prepared and made available to the applicant at the kiosk itself without any inconvenience and without any drudgery of sifting through offices.

The philosophy behind this intervention is that citizen always loathes approaching a government department for the fear of getting discourteous treatment and being subjugated to corrupt practices. MPA 17 Free Solved Assignment

Issuance of Land Records

The Seventh Five-year Plan document rightly opined, ‘land records form the base for all land reforms and, therefore, regular periodic updating of land records is essential in all states.’ The information relating to land plays a very important role.

The Project has cast this data into the public domain to support development of a citizen centric land records system.

The result is evolution of a transparent and effective land record delivery system that fully addresses the insecurities and concerns of the farmers

Online Mandi (market) Rates :

Ideally, an average household makes a decision on buying or selling goods and products on the basis of information they collect locally.

Every kendra uploads the market rates prevailing in their area, which are then available to everyone.

The rates in other markets elsewhere in the State are also available for the citizens to watch the trends and make the right decision after weighing all options.

Payment of Dues

The kendras offers the facility to the citizens to pay their electricity bills, telephone bills or dues of land revenue. MPA 17 Free Solved Assignment

The departments, too, gain because of expeditious collections. They save on collection costs and time and are able to monitor performance simultaneously.

The women self-help groups through these e-Seva centres have so far collected over 1.4 million bills amounting to Rs.400 million without any difficulty.

MPA 15 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022

MPA 16 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022

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