HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
MPA 14 Free Solved Assignment
MPA 14 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022
1) Define human resource management and analyse its hard and soft versions.
Ans. In hard HRM, managers focus on the profits and treat employees as sources of business, no different from machine and tools.
While in soft HRM, employees are considered as valuable assets and sources of competitive advantage for the organisation (Collings and Wood 2009).
Employers treat employees as individuals and concentrate on the employees’ needs and development accordingly. Hard HRM can contain elements of soft HRM.
Hard HRM: The focus here is to identify workforce needs so you can recruit and manage as you need to (including hiring staff, or making others redundant).
The main features of this approach are:
• Regular changes in employee numbers.
• Little business transparency.
• Lower wages.
• Little to no empowerment of employees.
• Appraisal systems that focus on good and bad performance.
• A more old-fashioned style of leadership. MPA 14 Free Solved Assignment
Soft HRM: This approach treats employees as an essential resource in your business-if not the most important one of all. This makes it a more progressive outlook. One where you treat staff members as individuals.
The soft HRM model focus is for the needs of your staff, including rewards and motivation.
• Focussing on long-term planning for your business and its workforce.
• An open and transparent business model with good communication.
• Competitive pay, relying on salary benchmarking and bonus packages.
• Employee empowerment.
• Appraisal systems that identify training opportunities and professional development.
• A more democratic type of leadership.
Whether you take the HRM hard and soft approach depends on what you want to achieve as a business. Along with your beliefs in terms of leadership. But you can merge various aspects of the two as you see fit.
However, the soft HRM approach is certainly more popular in the modern business world. Especially with employees, who expect to be treated with respect.
The reality is that staff now have a much wider range of businesses available and have more choice on where they can work. So to retain top talent, you should look to offer them a competitive package. MPA 14 Free Solved Assignment
The more relaxed and encouraging you are with your employees, the happier they’ll be. And the more likely they’ll commit to your business in the long-term.
Hard HRM advantages and disadvantages :
One of the main advantages of a hard HRM approach for an employer is you get maximum control in your business. And, depending on your industry, that means you can be more stringent in your approach.
And that means you can take more cost-effective policies, with faster decisions amongst managers. After all, it’s in the name–it’s a “harder” (tougher) approach to business.
The disadvantage of that is it could frustrate employees, as the approach is more in line with micromanagement.
It’s often unpopular with staff. This, in turn, can lead to high turnover rates and that can add to recruitment costs as you have to keep replacing departing employees.
The main advantage of a soft HRM approach is with employee morale. With this approach, your workforce will feel more valued and be appreciative of your efforts as a business.
This can lead to greater levels of motivation and higher productivity for your business. As well as a longterm commitment from staff, who’ll remain eager to continue working for you. So, that cuts costs on recruitment as you’ll have a higher retention rate.
Your business will also receive positive word of mouth, with equal opportunities and rewards for staff hard work. This will encourage a positive company culture and attract like-minded employees.MPA 14 Free Solved Assignment
However, on the downside, there are a few issues with this approach.
2) Describe the requirements and process of manpower planning.
Ans. Stainer defines manpower planning as a “Strategy for the acquisition, utilisation, improvement, and preservation of an enterprise’s human resources.
It relates to establishing job specifications or the quantitative requirements of jobs determining the number of personnel required and developing sources of manpower.”
(a) Forecasting future manpower requirements, either in terms of mathematical projections of trends in the economic environment and development in industry, or in terms of judgmental estimates based upon the specific future plans of a company;
(b) Making an inventory of present manpower resources and assessing the extent to which these resources are employed optimally;
(c) Anticipating manpower problems by projecting present resources into the future and comparing them with the forecast of requirements to determine their adequacy, both quantitatively and qualitatively; and MPA 14 Free Solved Assignment
(d) Planning the necessary programmes of requirement, selection, training, development, utilization, transfer, promotion, motivation and compensation to ensure that future manpower requirements are properly met.
According to Geisler, manpower planning is the process-including forecasting, developing and controlling-by which a firm ensures that it has the right number of people and the right kind of people at the right places at the right time doing work for which they are economically most useful.
Process of Manpower Planning:
The planning process is one of the most crucial, complex and continuing managerial functions which, according to the Tata Electrical Locomotive Company, “embraces organisation development, managerial development, career planning and succession planning.”
The process has gained importance in India with the increase in the size of business enterprises, complex production technology, and the adoption of professional management technique.
The business objectives have been determined; planning of manpower resources has to be fully integrated into the financial planning. It becomes necessary to determine how the human resources can be organised to achieve these objectives.
For this purpose, a detailed organisation chart is drawn and the management of the company tries to determine “how many people, at what level, at what positions and with what kind of experience and training would be required to meet the business objectives during the planning period.” MPA 14 Free Solved Assignment
The management of this company considers a time 5 pan of five years as an optimum period for this purpose.
It stresses the specific and standard occupational nomenclature must be used without which “it would not be nossible to build a firm-cum-industry-wise mannower resources planning ” It suggests the adoption responsibilities.
Thus it becomes necessary to integrate into the manpower planning process a sound system of performance appraisal as well as appraisal of potential of existing employees.
Factors Affecting Manpower Planning:-Manpower planning exercise is not an easy tube because it is imposed by various factors such as:
1) It suffers from inaccuracy because it is very difficult to forecast long-range requirements of personnel.
2) Manpower planning depends basically on organisation planning. Overall planning is itself is a difficult task because of changes in economic conditions, which make long term manpower planning difficult.MPA 14 Free Solved Assignment
3) It is difficult to forecast about the personnel with the organisation at a future date. While vacancies caused by retirements can be predicted accurately other factors like resignation, deaths are difficult to forecast.
4) Lack of top management support also frustrates those in charge of manpower planning because in the absence of top management support, the system does not work properly.
5) The problem of forecast becomes more occur in the context of key personnel because their replacement cannot be arranged in short period of time.
Q 3) Describe the meaning and significance of job enlargement and job enrichment.
Ans. The definition of job enlargement is adding additional activities within the same level to an existing role. This means that a person will do more, different activities in their current job.
For example, an employee who will now also manage her own planning where this was formerly done by her manager.MPA 14 Free Solved Assignment
Job enlargement is a key technique in job redesign, along with job enrichment, job rotation, and job simplification.
Job enlargement is often confused with job enrichment. However, there is a distinct difference. Job enlargement aims at broadening one’s job in order to make the job more motivating.
Job enrichment is the process of adding motivators to existing jobs. This means that job enlargement is a way to do job enrichment but not all job enrichment activities are also considered job enlargement.
We will explain this in more depth later.MPA 14 Free Solved Assignment
One of the key characteristics of enlargement is that it broadens the scope of the job horizontally.
It is for that reason also referred to as horizontal expansion and is the opposite of specialization.
In specialization, a division of labor is created where individuals execute specialized tasks. The thinking here is that the individual will be highly effective in executing these tasks.
Job enlargement does the opposite. This brings us to the benefits and drawbacks of job enlargement.
Job enlargement advantages :–
Job enlargement was popularized in the ’60s and ’70s. During that time there was an increase in attention on factors that made a job motivational as people realized that the traditional mass production assembly lines were boring and deeply dissatisfying to work at.
Enlarging highly specialized jobs leads to a number of advantages.
Creating a wider range of activities. In essence, job enlargement is about adding responsibilities to existing roles. This makes the job more varied, creating a wider range of activities.MPA 14 Free Solved Assignment
Reduces monotony. As a result of the wider range of activities, monotony decreases. People don’t do the same, highly specialized task 30 times an hour for 9 hours straight.
Instead, they are more involved from end-to-end, taking a single product through multiple production phases, or even managing an automated assembly belt.
Teaches a variety of skills and helping career growth. Additional job responsibilities require training and help in building additional experience.
This teaches employees additional skills and is helpful in terms of career growth.
Earn a higher wage. Adding responsibilities to a role often results in better compensation. Higher wages are a specific benefit for the employee.
Gives more autonomy, accountability, and responsibility. The additional responsibilities lead to a number of motivational factors. MPA 14 Free Solved Assignment
Because the person is now responsible for multiple related activities, the person has more freedom over how they do their work leading to more autonomy.
In addition, they are more accountable for mistakes and product quality as they experience more ownership and responsibility as they have more interaction with a single product or service (compared to when they were specialized).
To wrap this up, job enlargement can create more variety for the individual employee, more ownership over their work, and it can make work a more rewarding experience
6) Define ‘Learning and Development and discuss the major elements in the process of learning.
Ans. Learning and development (L&D) is one of the core areas of Human Resource Management. In this article, we will give you a comprehensive guide to learning and development. MPA 14 Free Solved Assignment
We answer what learning and development is, how to create learning and development strategies, how to evaluate L&D effectiveness, and we list the different jobs that make up the L&D field.
Learning and development is a systematic process to enhance an employee’s skills, knowledge, and competency, resulting in better performance in a work setting.
Specifically, learning is concerned with the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Development is the broadening and deepening of knowledge in line with one’s development goals.
The goal of learning and development is to develop or change the behavior of individuals or groups for the better, sharing knowledge and insights that enable them to do their work better, or cultivate attitudes that help them perform better (Lievens, 2011).
According to Dave Ulrich, the most important thing HR can give an employer is a company that wins in the marketplace. The question is, what are the learning and development strategies that help to do this?MPA 14 Free Solved Assignment
A useful model that guides a learning and development strategy is created by van Gelder and colleagues (ENG).
Its original name translates to ‘Pedagogical Analysis’. The model starts with the organizational starting situation and prior knowledge based on which learning goals and objectives are defined.
This information is used as input for the subject matter, teaching methods, and learning methods and activities.
These lead to a certain result, which is monitored and evaluated. Based on this evaluation, the goals and objectives are updated.
Based on this model, we identify four phases required to create an effective learning and development process.
- An analysis of training needs (starting situation)
2) Specification of learning objectives
3) Design of training content and method
4) Monitoring and evaluation MPA 14 Free Solved Assignment
An effective learning and development strategy relies on a process in which one continually moves through these four phases. Let’s examine them one by one.
Phase 1. Analysis of training needs
The first step is an analysis of the starting situations and prior knowledge to identify training needs. We don’t want employees to learn for the sake of learning.
Otherwise, we would be happy to send them on a pottery course. Instead, we want employees to acquire new knowledge, skills, and attitudes that are relevant for their (future) function.
This way learning is a way to create new business capabilities.
Phase 2. Specification of learning objectives
The training needs need to be translated into learning objectives. These objectives serve as the starting point for the design of the training’s content and method.
According to Lievens (2011), a training objective consists of three elements.
The ability to realize specific objectives. MPA 14 Free Solved Assignment
For example, “as an HR business partner, I need to be able to identify a manager’s strategic people needs”.
The conditions required for effective behavior. For example, “during the 30-minute check-in with managers, I need to be able to identify their strategic people needs and be able to summarize these to them to check if I identified these needs correctly”.
A specific and measurable training goal. For example, “after every check-in with a manager I have a double-checked the top 3 of this manager’s strategic priorities”.
Phase 3. Design of the training material and method
In this phase, the teaching material and learning method are determined. This is where the choices about the training material, teaching method, and learning activities are made.
This is often done together with an external trainer or training provider, and ideally also with involvement from the trainee.
Phase 4. Monitoring and evaluation
The last phase of the learning process is monitoring and evaluation. In this phase, the learning objectives are evaluated and learning effectiveness is assessed.
A very useful model for evaluating learning effectiveness is Bloom’s taxonomy, which we will explain later in this article. MPA 14 Free Solved Assignment
In addition, student evaluations are collected and reviewed and improvements are made for future learning interventions.
When the training is seen as effective, it should result in a change in behavior. This means that the starting situation and knowledge in the organization will be changed for the next learning design.
Q 7) ‘There are different ways to approach management development’. Discuss.
Ans. Management development is the process by which managers learn and improve their management skills.
In organisational development, management effectiveness is recognized as a determinant of organisational success.
Therefore, investment in management development can have a direct economic benefit to the organisation.
In 2004, the money spent per year per manager on management and leadership development was £1,035, an average of 6.3 days per manager.
Approaches to management development
• Dysfunction analysis MPA 14 Free Solved Assignment
• Job rotation
• Professional development
• Business workflow analysis
• Upward feedback
• Executive education
• Supervisory training
Purpose of management development :–
Managers are a critical part of the organization’s decision-making process, therefore, management development is a crucial factor in improving their performance.
The purpose of management development lies in a few essential elements to the organizations: motivate managers by guiding them to achieve their professional growth goals, develop the full potential of manager’s talents,
train managers’ capacity to lead and optimize workforce efficiency, support manager’s planning and execution skills, and improve organizational results by developing high-performance professionals.
Action learning :– MPA 14 Free Solved Assignment
Many management qualifications now have an action learning element. Action learning asserts that individuals learn best from hands-on experience.
Coaching is a teaching, training or development process in which an individual is supported while achieving a specific personal or professional result or goal.
Coaching is an effective learning tool that affects the bottom line and productivity, as well as intangible benefits.
It aids in the improvement of individual performance, tackles underperformance, and aids in the identification of personal learning needs.
Management education :–
One of the biggest growth areas in UK education since the early 1980s has been the growth of universitylevel management education. MPA 14 Free Solved Assignment
In addition to weekly part-time attendance at college/university, many students employ distance learning.
The number of UK business schools grew from two in the early 1970s, to over one hundred providers.
Management development programme :–
Management development programmes (MDP) are conducted by big corporates and management institutes in order to enable current and prospective managers to develop an understanding of management concepts, practices, approaches and perspectives.
The participants gain an immersive learning experience and are encouraged to provide insights on situational problems and are exposed to the views of other participants of their group. MPA 14 Free Solved Assignment
Through this process, they gain problem solving skills and analytical thinking ability.
Management development is a planned, systematic and continuous process of learning and growth designed to induce behavioural change in individuals by cultivating their mental abilities and inherent, management concepts, practices, approaches and perspectives.
The participants gain an immersive learning experience and are encouraged to provide insights on situational problems and are exposed to the views of other participants of their group.
Through this process, they gain problem solving skills and analytical thinking ability.
Management development is a planned, systematic and continuous process of learning and growth designed to induce behavioural change in individuals by cultivating their mental abilities and inherent qualities through the acquisition, understanding and use of new knowledge, insights and skills as they are needed for effective management.
Management or executive development is a long-term educational future-oriented process.
Managers are the indispensable resources, the priceless assets of an organization. They generate creative ideas, translate them into concrete action plans and produce results.
The outcomes of managerial actions are going to be deep, profound and decisive.
According to Bennett, “Job rotation is a process of horizontal movement that widens the managers experience horizon beyond limited confines of his own.”
Job rotation is a method in which a person is moved from one job to another on some pre-planned basis. MPA 14 Free Solved Assignment
There is a rotation of jobs until the trainee acquires knowledge about all related jobs.
The purpose of job rotation is to increase knowledge, skills, understanding of trainees about various jobs. It increases their confines.
Job rotation method is usually designed for junior executives and it may take a period of six months to two years for one rotation to complete.
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