IGNOU MPA 13 Free Solved Assignment 2021-22- Helpfirst

MPA 13

PUBLIC SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT

MPA 13 Free Solved Assignment

MPA 13 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022

1) Highlight the differences between bureaucratic system and public systems management.

Ans. Contrast with the bureaucratic system of organisation, public management can contribute in finding practical and sustainable solutions, but the fact is that most government departments and agencies are still applying bureaucratic procedures, not being, thereby, able to shake off its pathogenic characteristics (Esmark, 2016).

Throughout history, both small and large nations have elevated certain types of nonelected workers to positions of relative power within the governmental structure.

Collectively, these essential workers are called the bureaucracy. A bureaucracy is an administrative group of non-elected officials charged with carrying out functions connected to a series of policies and programs.

In the United States, the bureaucracy began as a very small collection of individuals. Over time, however, it grew to be a major force in political affairs.

Indeed, it grew so large that politicians in modern times have ridiculed it to great political advantage.

However, the country’s many bureaucrats or civil servants, the individuals who work in the bureaucracy, fill necessary and even instrumental roles in every area of government: from high-level positions in foreign affairs and intelligence collection agencies to clerks and staff in the smallest regulatory agencies.

They are hired, or sometimes appointed, for their expertise in carrying out the functions and programs of the government.MPA 13 Free Solved Assignment

Modern society relies on the effective functioning of government to provide public goods, enhance quality of life, and stimulate economic growth.

The activities by which government achieves these functions include-but are not limited to-taxation, homeland security, immigration, foreign affairs, and education.

The more society grows and the need for government services expands, the more challenging bureaucratic management and public administration becomes.

Public administration is both the implementation of public policy in government bureaucracies and the academic study that prepares civil servants for work in those organizations.

The classic version of a bureaucracy is hierarchical and can be described by an organizational chart that outlines the separation of tasks and worker specialization while also establishing a clear unity of command by assigning each employee to only one boss.

Moreover, the classic bureaucracy employs a division of labor under which work is separated into smaller tasks assigned to different people or groups.

Given this definition, bureaucracy is not unique to government but is also found in the private and nonprofit sectors. MPA 13 Free Solved Assignment

That is, almost all organizations are bureaucratic regardless of their scope and size; although public and private organizations differ in some important ways.

For example, while private organizations are responsible to a superior authority such as an owner, board of directors, or shareholders, federal governmental organizations answer equally to the president, Congress, the courts, and ultimately the public.

The underlying goals of private and public organizations also differ.

While private organizations seek to survive by controlling costs, increasing market share, and realizing a profit, public organizations find it more difficult to measure the elusive goal of operating with efficiency and effectiveness.

Bureaucracy may seem like a modern invention, but bureaucrats have served in governments for nearly as long as governments have existed.

Archaeologists and historians point to the sometimes elaborate bureaucratic systems of the ancient world, from the Egyptian scribes who recorded inventories to the biblical tax collectors who kept the wheels of government well greased.

In Europe, government bureaucracy and its study emerged before democracies did.

In contrast, in the United States, a democracy and the Constitution came first, followed by the development of national governmental organizations as needed, and then finally the study of U.S. government bureaucracies and public administration emerged.

MPA 13 Free Solved Assignment
MPA 13 Free Solved Assignment

Q 2) Discuss any four Constitutional authorities in India which are playing an important role in public systems management.

Ans. One of the most important questions which engaged the attention of the framers of the Constitution was the nature of the Executive and its relation with the Legislature. Dr. Ambedkar observed in introducing the Constitution:

“A student of constitutional law, if a copy of a Constitution is placed in his hands, is sure to ask two questions. MPA 13 Free Solved Assignment

Firstly, what is the form of Government that is envisaged in the Constitution; and secondly what is the form of the Constitution. For these are the two crucial matters which every Constitution has to deal with.”

The decision of the Constituent Assembly on the form of Government in India was considerably influenced by the political background of India and the practice and traditions evolved during the British rule.

It is, therefore, not surprising that from the initial stages of the discussions on the principles of the new Constitution, opinion appears to have been overwhelmingly in favour of adopting for India an Executive responsible to the Legislature in accordance with the British tradition.

Dr. Ambedkar made an exhaustive and authoritative statement on the general character of the Fxecutive while introducing the Draft Constitution in the Constituent Assembly on November 4, 1948.

He observed, inter-alia: “The Parliamentary system differs from a non-Parliamentary system in as much as the former is more responsible than the latter but they also differ as to the time and agency for assessment of their responsibility.

Under the Non-Parliamentary system, such as the one that exists in the United States of America, the assessment of the responsibility of the executive is periodic.

It takes place once in two years. It is done by the electorate. In England, whre the Parliamentary System prevails, the assessment of responsibility of the executive is both daily and periodic. MPA 13 Free Solved Assignment

The daily assessment is done by members of Parliament, through questions, resolutions, no-confidence motions, adjournment motions and debates on Addresses.

Periodic assessment is done by the electorate at the time of the election-which may take place every five years or earlier.

The daily assessment of responsibility which is not available under the American system is, it is felt far more effective than the periodic assessment and far more necessary in a country like India.

The Draft Constitution in recommending the Parliamentary System of executive has preferred more responsibility to more stability.”.

In furtherance of this, the Constitution of India elaborately defines, the position, powers and the inter-relationships of the various organisations of State and of other institutions.

The Constitution of India provides for a Parliament consisting of an elected President4 and the two Houses the House of the People (Lok Sabha) and the Council of States (Rajya Sabha).MPA 13 Free Solved Assignment

The President appoints the Prime Minister and on his advice the other Ministers of the Council of Ministers. The Council of Ministers is collectively responsible to the House of the People.

The President summons the two Houses of Parliament to meet from time to time. He can prorogue the two Houses and can dissolve the House of the People.

The interval between two sessions must not exceed six Months. Parliament in India usually meets for about seven months in a year in three Sessions: The Budget Session (Feb.-May), the Monsoon Session (July-Aug.), and the Winter Session (Nov.-Dec.).

The first session after the General Elections and the first session each year begins with an Address by the President.

The sweep and scope of the legislative jurisdiction and other powers of Parliament under the Constitution are vast.

The constituent power also vests in Parliament and the sovereign will of the people may be said to find expression only through the collective decisions of their elected representatives in Parliament. Nevertheless, Parliament of India is neither sovereign nor supreme.

SECTION-11

6) Briefly discuss the important approaches to budgeting.

Ans. Some days ago Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee said, “The demand by the Opposition for JPC into the 2G spectrum allocation row was illogical and if they have no faith in parliamentary democracy then they should ‘join the Maoists”.

The total winter session of Parliament was lost. It proves that the opposition has no faith in parliamentary democracy. Such type of sentences read or heard by common people.

They would confuse. We know that Dr. Ambedkar is founder father of parliamentary democracy.MPA 13 Free Solved Assignment

So we need to think his thought is relevance today or not? So in this paper focus & discussed on why Dr.Ambedkar accepted parliamentary democracy? Which conditions are essential for success?etc.

Ø Importance of Parliamentary Democracy:

We know that Dr. Ambedkar’s faith in democracy. Dictatorship may be able to produce results quickly effective in maintaining discipline but cannot be one’s choice as a permanent form of government. Democracy is superior because it enhances liberty.

People have control over the rulers. Among the different forms of democratic government, Ambedkar choice fell on the parliamentary form.

In this case also he was in agreement with many other national leaders. Ambedkar was a strong supporter of democracy. According to him, it was only form of government through which basic social, economical & political changed would be brought about without bloodshed. MPA 13 Free Solved Assignment

Ambedkar Personally favored parliamentary system of government. This system could more appropriate to make unity of the country.

This system makes administration run more effectively & efficiently. So Ambedkar feels that parliamentary form of democracy faced with the problem of adjustment between majority- minority communities.

Ø History of Parliamentary Democracy:

Gandhi while acknowledging our debt to Britain with regard to parliamentary government had observed that the roots of it were present in India in the age-old system of the village panchayats.

Dr Ambedkar explained in the constituent assembly that the Buddhist sanghas were parliamentary type of institutions and that in their functioning modern parliamentary devices like resolutions, divisions, whips, etc. were used.

These elements in our heritage made it possible and easy for India to adopt the parliamentary system of democracy. MPA 13 Free Solved Assignment

Besides, as Dr Ambedkar told the Constituent Assembly, the drafting committeechose this system because they preferred more responsibility to stability which could slip into authoritarian exercise of power.

Distinguish between Parliamentary & Presidential Democracy:

Dr. Ambedkar made an exhaustive and authoritative statement on the general character of the Executive while introducing the Draft Constitution in the Constituent Assembly on November 4, 1948. He observed inter-alia:

“The Parliamentary system differs from a non-Parliamentary system in as much as the former is more responsible than the latter but they also differ as to the time and agency for assessment of their responsibility.MPA 13 Free Solved Assignment

Under the Non-Parliamentary system, such as the one that exists in the United States of America, the assessment of the responsibility of the executive is periodic. It takes place once in two years. It is done by the electorate.

In England, where the Parliamentary System prevails, the assessment of responsibility of the executive is both daily and periodic.

The daily assessment is done by members of Parliament, through questions, resolutions, no-confidence motions, adjournment motions and debates on Addresses.

Periodic assessment is done by the electorate at the time of the election-which may take place every five years or earlier.

The daily assessment of responsibility which is not available under the American system is, it is felt far more effective than the periodic assessment and far more necessary in a country like India.MPA 13 Free Solved Assignment

The Draft Constitution in recommending the Parliamentary System of executive has preferred more responsibility to more stability.”

Ø India Adopted Form of Parliamentary Democracy:

India i.e. Bharat is a Union of States. It is a Sovereign Socialist Democratic Republic with a parliamentary system of government.

The Republic is governed in terms of the Constitution of India which was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 26th November 1949 and came into force on 26th January 1950.

The Constitution provides for a Parliamentary form of government which is federal in structure with certain unitary features.

MPA 13 Free Solved Assignment
MPA 13 Free Solved Assignment

7) Write a note on the principles and techniques of total quality management.

Ans. According to the definitive text, Total Quality: A User’s Guide for Implementation, Total Quality Management (TQM) is a management technique based on the idea that all “employees continuously improve their ability to provide on-demand products and services that customers will find of particular value.”MPA 13 Free Solved Assignment

The concept of Total Quality Management can be found right in its name: The word “total” implies that all employees in the organization, from development to production to fulfillment, are obligated to improve operations.

And “management” insinuates that this methodology should be a focused effort. Leadership should provide funding, training, staffing, and clearly defined goals to actively manage product and service quality on an ongoing basis.

Customer focus::-

The first of the Total Quality Management principles puts the focus back on the people buying your product or service.

Your customers determine the quality of your product. If your product fulfills a need and lasts as long or longer than expected, customers know that they have spent their money on a quality product.

When you understand what your customer wants or needs, you have a better chance of figuring out how to get the right materials, people, and processes in place to meet and exceed their expectations.

To implement this TQM principle:MPA 13 Free Solved Assignment

. Research and understand your customers’ needs and expectations.

. Align your organization’s objectives with customer needs.

. Communicate with customers, measure satisfaction, and use the results to find ways to improve processes.

. Manage customer relationships.

. Find a balance for satisfying customers and other interested parties (such as owners, employees, suppliers, and investors).

The benefits of being customer-focused include:

. More sales, increased revenue, market share, and mindshare

. Strong customer loyalty leading to repeat business

. Increased possibility that satisfied customers will tell others about your products and services MPA 13 Free Solved Assignment

Total employee commitment

You can’t increase productivity, processes, or sales without the total commitment of all employees. They need to understand the vision and goals that have been communicated.

They must be sufficiently trained and given the proper resources to complete tasks in order to be committed to reaching goals on time.

To implement this TQM principle:

. Clearly communicate and acknowledge the importance of each individual contribution to the completed product.

. Stress that each team or individual accepts ownership and give them the responsibility and opportunity to solve problems when they arise.

. Encourage employees to self-evaluate performance against personal goals and objectives, and make modifications as necessary to improve workflow

. Acknowledge successes and optimized performance to build confidence in your employees and your stakeholders.MPA 13 Free Solved Assignment

. Make responsibilities clear, provide adequate training, and make sure your resources are used as efficiently as possible.

. Encourage people to continually seek opportunities to learn and move into other roles to increase their knowledge, competence, and experience.

. Create an environment where employees can openly discuss problems and suggest ways to solve them.

The key benefits of total employee commitment include:

. Increased employee retention because employees are motivated, committed, and actively involved in working toward customer satisfaction

. Individual and team innovation and creativity in problem-solving and process improvement

. Employees who take pride and accountability for their own work

. Enthusiasm for active participation and contribution to continual improvement

Process approach :MPA 13 Free Solved Assignment

. Adhering to processes is critical in quality management. Processes ensure that the proper steps are taken at the right time to ensure consistency and speed up production.

To implement this TQM principle:

. Use Total Quality Management tools such as process flowcharts to define and delineate clear roles and responsibilities so everybody knows who does what at certain times.

. Create a visual action plan so everybody can easily see the specific activities that need to be completed to achieve the desired result.

. Analyze and measure current activities to see where improvements can be made or where steps in the process are creating bottlenecks.

. Evaluate the impact your processes and activities may have on your customers, suppliers, and all stakeholders.

Benefits of a process approach include:MPA 13 Free Solved Assignment

. Faster development and production cycles, lower costs, and increased revenue
. More consistency and predictable outcomes
. Focus on continued improvements and success

8) Trace the evolution of management information system and examine its structure.

Ans. A management information system (MIS) is an information system used for decision-making, and for the coordination, control, analysis, and visualization of information in an organization and marketing.

The study of the management information systems involves people, processes and technology in an organizational context.

In a corporate setting, the ultimate goal of the use of a management information system is to increase the value and profits of the business. MPA 13 Free Solved Assignment

This is done by providing managers with timely and appropriate information allowing them to make effective decisions within a shorter period of time.

History:

While it can be contested that the history of management information systems date as far back as companies using ledgers to keep track of accounting,

the modern history of MIS can be divided into five eras originally identified by Kenneth C. Laudon and Jane Laudon in their seminal textbook Management Information Systems.

First Era – Mainframe and minicomputer computing
Second Era – Personal computers
Third Era – Client/server networks
Fourth Era – Enterprise computing
Fifth Era – Cloud computing

The first era (mainframe and minicomputer computing) was ruled by IBM and their mainframe computers for which they supplied both the hardware and software. These computers would often take up whole rooms and require teams to run them.

As technology advanced, these computers were able to handle greater capacities and therefore reduce their cost.MPA 13 Free Solved Assignment

Smaller, more affordable minicomputers allowed larger businesses to run their own computing centers in-house / on-site / on-premises.

The second era (personal computers) began in 1965 as microprocessors started to compete with mainframes and minicomputers and accelerated the process of decentralizing computing power from large data centers to smaller offices.

In the late 1970s, minicomputer technology gave way to personal us computers and relatively low-cost computers were becoming mass market commodities, allowing businesses to provide their employees access to computing power that ten years before would have cost tens of thousands of dollars.

This proliferation of computers created a ready market for interconnecting networks and the popularization of the Internet.

(The first microprocessor-a four-bit device intended for a programmable calculator-was introduced in 1971, and microprocessor-based systems were not readily available for several years.

The MITS Altair 8800 was the first commonly known microprocessor-based system, followed closely by the Apple I and II. MPA 13 Free Solved Assignment

It is arguable that the microprocessor-based system did not make significant inroads into minicomputer use until 1979, when VisiCalc prompted record sales of the Apple Il on which it ran.

The IBM PC introduced in 1981 was more broadly palatable to business, but its limitations gated its ability to challenge minicomputer systems until perhaps the late 1980s to early 1990s.)

The third era (client/server networks) arose as technological complexity increased, costs decreased, and the end-user (now the ordinary employee) required a system to share information with other employees within an enterprise.

Computers on a common network shared information on a server. This lets thousands and even millions of people access data simultaneously on networks referred to as Intranets.

The fourth era (enterprise computing) enabled by high speed networks, consolidated the original department specific software applications into integrated software platforms referred to as enterprise software. MPA 13 Free Solved Assignment

This new platform tied all aspects of the business enterprise together offering rich information access encompassing the complete management structure.

Technology :

The terms management information system (MIS), Information management system (IMS), information system (IS), enterprise resource planning (ERP), computer science, electrical computer engineering, and information technology management (IT) are often confused. MIS is a hierarchical subset of information systems.

MIS are more organization-focused narrowing in on leveraging information technology to increase business value. Computer science is more software-focused dealing with the applications that may be used in MIS.

Electrical computer engineering is product-focused mainly dealing with the architecture behind computer systems.

ERP software is a subset of MIS and IT management refers to the technical management of an IT department which may include MIS. Principles of Management Information Systems

A career in MIS focuses on understanding and projecting the practical use of management information systems.

It studies the interaction, organization and processes among technology, people and information to solve problems.MPA 13 Free Solved Assignment

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