IGNOU MPA 12 Free Solved Assignment 2022- Helpfirst

MPA 12

ADMINISTRATIVE THEORY

MPA 12 Free Solved Assignment

MPA 12 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022

Q 1) Discuss the meaning, nature and scope of public administration.

Ans. Public Administration is a newly emerged discipline compared to other Social Science disciplines. Public Administration has gained immense importance since the emergence of the Administrative state.

In Ancient Greek, Roman and Indian political system gave more importance to the concept of Administration. Kautilya’s “Arthasathra” contributed large scale in the administrative system; it deals with every aspect of the state and its relation to subjects.

In simple sense, Public Administration is a state mechanism. In every Political System administration have a significant role. MPA 12 Free Solved Assignment

Meaning of Public Administration:-

The word Administration has been derived from the Latin words ‘ad’ and ‘ministiare’ which means to serve. In simple language it means the ‘management of affairs’ or ‘looking after the people’.

In general sense Administration can be defined as the activities of groups co-operating to accomplish common goals.

It is a process of management which is practiced by all kinds of organisations from the household to the most complex system of the government.

According to LD. White, Administration was a process common to all group effort, public or private, civil or military, large scale or small scale’.

Public administration is “centrally concerned with the organization of government policies and programmes as well as the behavior of officials (usually non-elected) formally responsible for their conduct.MPA 12 Free Solved Assignment

Generally Public Administration has been used in two senses. In the wider sense it includes all the activities of the government whether falling in the sphere of legislature, executive or judicial branch of the government, in the narrow sense Public Administration is concerned with the activities of the executive branch only.

Definitions of Public administration :-

ØLD White observes, “Public Administration consist of all those operations having for their purpose the fulfilment or enforcement of public policy

Pliffner defines It would seem that “Public Administration consists of getting the work of government done by co-ordinating the efforts of the people so that they can work together to accomplish their set tasks”MPA 12 Free Solved Assignment

Prof: Woodrow Wilson defined Public Administration as detailed and systematic execution of public law, every particular application of general law is an act of administration

Ø Luther Gullick ‘Public Administration is that part of the science of administration which has to do with Government and thus concerns itself primarily with the executive branch where the work of the government is done. MPA 12 Free Solved Assignment

• Ø Dwight Waldo, defines Public Administration as the art and science of management as applied to the affairs of state’.

Nature of Public Administration:

There are two divergent views regarding the nature of the Public administration. These views are following:

Integral View. According to this view, Public administration is a sum total of all the activities undertaken in pursuit of and in fulfillment of public policy. These activities include not only managerial and technical but also manual and clerical. MPA 12 Free Solved Assignment

Thus the activities of all persons from top to bottom constitute administration although they are of varying significance to the running of administrative machinery.

Prof: LD White adopts this view of Public administration. According to him, Public Administration consists of all those operations having for their purpose the fulfilment or enforcement of public policy.

This definition covers a multitude of particular operations, many in fields. Another scholar Marshal E Dimock also shares the same view. MPA 12 Free Solved Assignment

He holds that administration is concerned with the ‘what’ and ‘how of government. The ‘what’ is the subject matter, the technical knowledge of a field which enables the administrator to perform his tasks.

The ‘how is the technique of management, the principles according to which cooperative programmes are carried to success.

MPA 12 Free Solved Assignment
MPA 12 Free Solved Assignment

Q 2) ‘Modern management techniques are an extension of F.W.Taylor’s Scientific Management approach’. Explain.

Ans. Scientific management concept was developed by F.W.Taylor who implemented the scientific techniques such as observation, logic, analysis and combination to study the working conditions and management at the floor level in the factories and production units.

The concept of scientific management was given to improve the productivity, efficiency and effectiveness in the organization through the application of the proposed scientific principles and techniques.

Frederick Taylor and Scientific Management:

Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915) was an American mechanical engineer and a consultant who proposed the concept of scientific management under the name The Principles of Scientific Management in the year 1911.

He was also known as the ‘Father of Scientific Management

Taylor made observations regarding the inexcusable work methods in the companies like Bethlehem Steel, Simonds Rolling Machine and Midvale Steel

In that era, there was a scarcity of skilled labour in the industries. Taylor found that the organizations and the managers failed to utilize the available human resources effectively, and also, no contribution was made in the direction of enhancing the labour’s efficiency.

During his observation, Taylor identified the various factors leading to low productivity and inefficiency in the organization. Some of these are as follows:

The labour brought their poorly designed personal tools to be used in the workplace.

Unorganized job training was provided to the workers, and they tend to decide the speed of the work and machine by themselves. MPA 12 Free Solved Assignment

Instead of the individual’s skills set, the workers were hired according to the first come, first-hired’ basis.

The managers used to work along with labours leaving aside the essential planning and organizing activities. Thus, these crucial management functions were performed by untrained employees.

Based on his findings, Taylor criticized the ineffective ways of the managers to handle the work situations and also for providing liberty to the employees for deciding their work methods and speed by themselves.

The concept of the rule of thumb was based on the trial and error method. However, Taylor believed that to perform any task efficiently, there is only one best possible method which is developed after an indepth analysis of that job.

Thus, it becomes the standard way of carrying out that particular task each time, throughout the organization.

when science is applied instead of the rule of thumb, to any job, it standardizes that work. Moreover, the workers get a specialized way of performing the task and wastage of a lot of time, cost and resources can be avoided. MPA 12 Free Solved Assignment

Taylor emphasized on maintaining peace and harmony in the workplace, and there should be no conflict.

SECTION-II

6) Examine Frederick Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene theory.

Ans. Frederick Herzberg (1923 – 2000) was a US clinical psychologist who later became Professor of Management at the University of Utah.

His ‘overriding interest in mental health’ stemmed from his belief that ‘mental health is the core issue of our times. This was prompted by his posting to the Dachau concentration camp after its liberation. On his return to America, he worked for the US Public Health Service.

He is best know for his hygiene-motivation theory, which was first published in the motivation to work in 1959.

Herzberg’s work focused on the individual in the workplace, but it has been popular with managers as it also emphasised the importance of management knowledge and expertise.

Key theories:: MPA 12 Free Solved Assignment

The ‘hygiene-motivation’ or ‘two factor’ theory resulted from research with two hundred Pittsburgh engineers and accountants.

Herzberg aimed to dissect employee’s attitudes to their jobs, to discover what prompted these attitudes, and what impact they had on the person and their motivation to work.

Subjects were asked what pleased and displeased them about their jobs. From their responses, Herzberg concluded that man has two sets of needs:

Lower level needs as an animal to avoid pain and deprivation

Higher-level needs as a human being to grow psychologically.

Some factors in the workplace meet the first set of needs but not the second and vice versa. The first group of factors he called ‘hygiene factors’ and the second, ‘motivators’.

Herzberg also coined the term ‘job enrichment’, a technique which grew out of the hygiene-motivation theory.

Job enrichment involved including motivators in the design of jobs. In his famous Harvard Business Review article, One more time: how do you motivate employees? originally published in 1968, MPA 12 Free Solved Assignment

Herzberg also invented the acronym KITA (Kick In The Ass) to explain personnel practices such as wage increases, fringe benefits and job participation which were developed as attempts

The hygiene-motivation theory :

KITA was used by Herzberg to explain why managers don’t motivate employees. He demonstrated that employees are not motivated by being kicked (figuratively speaking), or by being given more money or benefits, a comfortable environment or reducing time spent at work.

These elements were called ‘hygiene factors’ by Herzberg because they concern the context or environment in which a person works.

Hygiene factors also include:

• company policy and administration
• supervision. working relationships,
• status and security.

These factors do not in themselves promote job satisfaction, but serve primarily to prevent job dissatisfaction, just as good hygiene does not in itself produce good health, but lack of it will cause disease. MPA 12 Free Solved Assignment

Herzberg also speaks of them as dissatisfiers or maintenance factors, since it is their absence or inadequacy which causes dissatisfaction at work. Some factors are not true motivators as they need constant reinforcement.

In these cases, intrinsic motivation still lies only with the manager, while the employee is merely being compelled to act to avoid punishment or gain reward.

Additionally, the rewards increasingly come to be regarded as rights to be expected, rather than incentives to greater satisfaction and achievement.

MPA 12 Free Solved Assignment
MPA 12 Free Solved Assignment

Q 7) ‘Chester Barnard added a new dimension to the study of organisations’ Comment.

Ans. Chester Irving Barnard (November 7, 1886 – June 7, 1961) was an American business executive, public administrator, and the author of pioneering work in management theory and organizational studies. MPA 12 Free Solved Assignment

His landmark 1938 book, The Functions of the Executive, sets out a theory of organization and of the functions of executives in organizations.

The book has been widely assigned in university courses in management theory and organizational sociology.

Barnard viewed organizations as systems of cooperation of human activity, and noted that they are typically short-lived.

According to Barnard,organizations are generally not long-lived because they do not meet the two criteria necessary for survival: effectiveness and efficiency.

Biography :

In his youth, Barnard worked on a farm, then studied economics at Harvard University, earning money selling pianos and operating a dance band.

He did not obtain his Harvard BA because he did his four-year work in three years and could not complete a science course, but a number of universities later granted him honorary doctorates. MPA 12 Free Solved Assignment

Barnard joined the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (now AT&T) in 1909. In 1927, he became president of the New Jersey Bell Telephone Company. During the Great Depression, he directed the New Jersey state relief system.

He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1939. He was president of the United Service Organizations (USO), 1942-45.

Upon retiring from business, he served as president of the Rockefeller Foundation, 1948-52, and as chairman of the National Science Foundation, 1952-54.

End 1950s he was among the first members of the Society for General Systems Research.

In contrast, Barnard’s meaning of organizational efficiency differed substantially from the conventional use of the word.

He defined efficiency of an organization as the degree to which that organization is able to satisfy the motives of the individuals.

If an organization satisfies the motives of its members while attaining its explicit goals, cooperation among its members will last. MPA 12 Free Solved Assignment

Barnard was a great admirer of Talcott Parsons (1902-1979) and he and Parsons corresponded persistently.

The two scholars would send manuscripts for commentary to each other and they would write long letters where they engage in a common theoretical discussion.

The first correspondence between Barnard and Parsons began in the end of the 1930s and it persisted essentially to Barnard’s death in 1961.

The Functions of the Executive:

Barnard’s classic 1938 book, The Functions of the Executive discusses, as the title suggests, the functions of the executive, but not from a merely intuitive point of view, but instead deriving them from his conception of cooperative systems.

Barnard summarized the functions of the executive as follows:

• Establishing and maintaining a system of communication;
• Securing essential services from other members;
• Formulating organizational purposes and objectives.
• To manage people and make sure they do their jobs

Q 8) Discuss the characteristics of Public Choice approach

Ans. Public choice, or public choice theory, is “the use of economic tools to deal with traditional problems of political science”. Its content includes the study of political behavior.

In political science, it is the subset of positive political theory that studies self-interested agents (voters, politicians, bureaucrats) and their interactions, which can be represented in a number of ways – using (for example) standard constrained utility maximization, game theory, or decision theory. MPA 12 Free Solved Assignment

It is the origin and intellectual foundation of contemporary work in political economy.

Public choice analysis has roots in positive analysis (“what is”) but is often used for normative purposes (“what ought to be”) in order to identify a problem or to suggest improvements to constitutional rules (i.e., constitutional economics).

Public choice theory is also closely related to social choice theory, a mathematical approach to aggregation of individual interests, welfares, or votes.

Much early work had aspects of both, and both fields use the tools of economics and game theory. Since voter behavior influences the behavior of public officials, public-choice theory often uses results from social-choice theory.

General treatments of public choice may also be classified under public economics.

Public choice, building upon economic theory, has some core tenets that are largely adhered to. MPA 12 Free Solved Assignment

The first is the use of the individual as the common decision unit. Due to this there is no decision made by an acaracate whole Rather decisions are made by the combined choices of the individuals.

The second is the use of markets in the political system, which was argued to be a return to true economics. The final is the self-interested nature of all individuals within the political system.

An early precursor of modern public choice theory was the work of Swedish economist Knut Wicksell (1896), which treated government as political exchange, a quid pro quo, in formulating a benefit principle linking taxes and expenditures.

Some subsequent economic analysis has been described as treating government as though it attempted “to maximize some kind sort of welfare function for society” and as distinct from characterizations of self-interested economic agents, such as those in business.

This is a clear dichotomy, as one cannot be selfinterested in one area, while being altruistic in another.

In contrast, public choice theory modeled government as made up of officials who, besides pursuing the public interest, might act to benefit themselves, for example in the budget-maximizing model of bureaucracy, possibly at the cost of efficiency.

Modern public-choice theory, and especially election theory, has been dated from the work of Duncan Black, sometimes called “the founding father of public choice”.

In a series of papers from 1948, which culminated in The Theory of Committees and Elections (1958), and later, Black outlined a program of unification toward a more general “Theory of Economic and Political Choices” based on common formal methods, developed underlying concepts of what would become median voter theory, and rediscovered earlier works on voting theory. MPA 12 Free Solved Assignment

Black’s work also included the possibility of entirely random outcomes in a voting structure, where the only governance over the outcome is the where a particular motion falls in the sequence presented.

Kenneth J. Arrow’s Social Choice and Individual Values (1951) influenced formulation of the theory of public choice and election theory.

Building on Black’s theory, Arrow concluded that in a non-dictatorial setting, there was no predictable outcome or preference order that can be discerned for a set of possible distributions.

Among other important works are Anthony Downs’s (1957) An Economic Theory of Democracy and Mancur Olson (1965) The Logic of Collective Action. The Logic of Collective Action was fundamental in beginning the study of special interests.

In it, Olson began to open questions about the nature of groups, including their lack of incentive to act with a lack of organization and free-rider problems of these larger groups upon specialized group’s actions. MPA 12 Free Solved Assignment

Due to the incentive for concentrated groups (such as farmers) to act for their own interest, paired with a lack of organization of large groups (such as the public as a whole), legislation implemented as a result benefits a small group rather than the public at large.

MPA 11 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022

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